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  • 1.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Low Cost Printed Chipless RFID Humidity Sensor Tag for Intelligent Packaging2015Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3201-3208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fully-printed chipless radio frequency identification sensor tag for short-range item identification and humidity monitoring applications. The tag consists of two planar inductor-capacitor resonators operating wirelessly through inductive coupling. One resonator is used to encode ID data based on frequency spectrum signature, and another one works as a humidity sensor, utilizing a paper substrate as a sensing material. The sensing performances of three paper substrates, including commercial packaging paper, are investigated. The use of paper provides excellent sensitivity and reasonable response time to humidity. The cheap and robust packaging paper, particularly, exhibits the largest sensitivity over the relative humidity range from 20% to 70%, which offers the possibility of directly printing the sensor tag on traditional packages to make the package intelligent at ultralow cost.

  • 2.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mueller, Maik
    Xaar Jet AB.
    Lopez Cabezas, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Mikrosystemteknik (Bytt namn 20121201).
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zapka, Werner
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Fabrication and performance evaluation of ultralow-cost inkjet-printed chipless RFID tags2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the performance of inkjet-printed chipless RFID tags based on planar inductor-capacitor resonant circuits. Besides using double-sided printing, a sandwiching process is introduced to fabricate the tags in order to eliminate the need of through-substrate via and match roll-to-roll processing. Due to lower conductivity (~1.25E+7 S/m) and smaller thickness (~1.7μm) of printed conductors with silver nanoparticle ink, the resonant peaks of inkjet-printed tags exhibit around as twice of half-power bandwidth and 60% of maximum reading distance as the etched tags from bulk copper. Nevertheless, the inkjet-printed tag performance is sufficient for many applications, and it can be adjusted and improved by printing and sintering processes.

  • 3.
    Feng, Yi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mäntysalo, Matti
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Electrical and humidity-sensing characterization of inkjet-printed multi-walled carbon nanotubes for smart packaging2013Ingår i: IEEE SENSORS 2013 - Proceedings, IEEE , 2013, s. 1-4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Printing is considered a cost-effective way to fabricate electronics on unconventional substrates enabling, for example, smart packaging. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) having carboxylic groups on their surfaces possess great potential as flexible resistive humidity sensor. In this paper, we report on the inkjet printing and characterization of f-MWCNTs in terms of sheet resistance and humidity-sensitivity. Stable f-MWCNTs ink is formulated using aqueous ethylene glycol as solvent. Sheet resistance of printed f-MWCNTs films on polyimide foil reduces by increasing the number of printed layers as well as post-printing annealing temperature. Meanwhile, the raised annealing temperature degrades the films' humidity-sensitivity, which could be explained by the loss of the carboxylic groups. The electrical and sensing properties of f-MWCNTs also have a negative temperature coefficient regarding ambient temperature, which should be considered in practical application.

  • 4. Jin, Y.
    et al.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Nejad, M. B.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT). Fudan University, China.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektronik, Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Zheng, L.
    A Power management scheme for wirelessly-powered RFID tags with inkjet-printed display2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Application, RFID-TA 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 180-185Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a new power management scheme for wirelessly-powered UHF RFID tags with flexible inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display for human-to-device interaction. EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tag side to provide an ambient and direct human-to-device display interface. An aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive the EC display under the tag power budget in microwatt level through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles. A single-pixel addressing scheme with minimal pixel size is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The experimental results show that the EC display can be refreshed with the tag sensitivity of -10.5 dBm at 11.7 sec/cm2 update rate.

  • 5.
    Mäntysalo, Matti
    et al.
    TUT.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Cabezas, Ana Lopez
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    System integration of smart packages using printed electronics2012Ingår i: Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2012 IEEE 62nd, IEEE , 2012, s. 997-1002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has shown enormous interest in additive and printed electronics manufacturing technologies, especially in intelligent packaging. Scientists and engineers all over the world are developing printed organic circuits. Despite their effort, the performance and yield of all-printed devices cannot replace silicon-based devices in smart package applications. Therefore, we have developed a hybrid interconnection platform to seamlessly integrate printed electronics with silicon-based electronics, close the gap between the two technologies, and to anticipate adaption of printed electronic technologies. We studied the suitability of a printed interconnection platform by fabricating a printed sensor-box that contains printed nano-Ag-interconnections on low-temperature plastic, a printable humidity sensor based on functionalized MWCNTs, a printed battery, conventional SMDs, and a silicon-based MCU.

  • 6.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Majid, Baghaei-Nejad
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik.
    Pang, Zhibo
    KTH.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID tag for mass customization2017Ingår i: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1177-1190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform the traditional mass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with an Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) transmitter and an inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to the conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows the advantage of higher transmission data rate with still low power consumption. The response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios can be reduced to less than 500 ms per 1000 tags by the pipeline of the tag responses in IR-UWB link and the reader acknowledgments in UHF RFID link as well as by reducing the length of empty slots. Second, the tag is integrated with a flexible EC display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. It works as an automatically refreshed paper label that offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer the material variations and make use of the long retention time of the printed EC display, its threshold voltage is utilized and a feedback comparator enabling the display driver by the threshold voltage is designed. A System-on-Chip (SoC) is implemented in UMC 0.18 mu m CMOS process. According to the experimental results: 1) the IR-UWB transmitter achieves 1.02 V pulse amplitude and 900 ps pulse duration with 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver automatically refreshes the display when the image fades out, and consumes 1.98 mu W per 1 cm(2) display size to retain an image. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 7.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A 180 nm-CMOS Asymmetric UWB-RFID Tag with Real-time Remote-monitored ECG-sensing2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, 2015, s. 210-215Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an asymmetric ultra-wideband - radio frequency identification (UWB-RFID) tag with electrocardiogram (ECG)-sensing capability for patients remote-monitoring in hospital environment. A UWB-RFID communication protocol is suggested for real-time transmission of undistorted ECG by interleaving ADC sampling and burst-mode UWB transmission. The proposed system shows a maximum accessing capability of 400 tags/second at 1.5 KHz ECG sampling rate with 10 Mbps UWB pulse rate. The tag consists of UHF-RFID receiver, UWB transmitter, ECG analog front-end, multi-input ADC and baseband circuitry integrated on two silicon dies. It was implemented by 6 mm2 -sized 180 nm CMOS technology. Electrodes for ECG-sensing are manufactured by inkjet-printing on polyimide substrate. Experiment results show that the tag transmits UWB pulses at 1 Mbps rate with 18 µW power. The printed electrodes conduct ECG waveform comparable to commercial electrodes.

  • 8.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Maji
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Passive UHF/UWB RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Polyimide Display for IoT ApplicationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a passive Ultra-High Frequency(UHF) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag withinkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) polyimide display andUltra-Wideband (UWB) transmitter for information display inthe Internet-of-Things (IoT) - both remotely by transmitting information to backend side and locally by displaying at tag side. The UHF part remotely powers-up and controls the tag asconventional passive RFID tag does. To overcome the limitations of uplink capacity and massive-tag information feedback, UWB transmitter replaces UHF-RFID backscattering to achieve Mbps transmission data rate and 2000 tags/sec tag identification rate. To provide an ambient and direct human-to-device displayinterface, EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tagside. Aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive EC display and UWB transmitter under the microwatt level tag power budget through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles; energy for UWB transmission is stored over a load capacitor. Single-pixel addressing scheme with minimized pixelsize is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The circuit prototype has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Experimental results demonstrate that the EC display can be refreshed with tag sensitivity (input RF power) of -10.5 dBm at11.7 sec/cm2 update rate, and the UWB transmitter can bepowered up for 2 Mbps pulse rate and 35% operation duty cycle with tag sensitivity of -18.5 dBm.

  • 9.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Nejad, Majid
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Pang, Zhibo
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Lida
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Interactive UHF/UWB RFID Tag for Mass CustomizationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass customization (MC) under the context ofthe Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to reform traditionalmass manufacturing. To contribute to MC from information communication and user interaction aspects, this work proposes an Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) RFID tag with Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR UWB) transmitter and inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display. First, compared to conventional UHF RFID tags, the proposed tag shows advantages of higher data rate while still keeping low power consumption. A modified communication protocol for such tag is proposed to decrease the response time in multi-tag accessing scenarios to less than 500 ms/1000 tags by the pipeline of IR UWB transmission of tag response and UHF RFID reception of reader acknowledgement and by reducingthe length of empty slots. Secondly, the tag is integrated with a flexible Electro-chromic (EC) display manufactured by inkjet-printing on the polyimide substrate. The tag with the display works as an automatically refreshed paper label which offers an intuitive human-to-device interface to improve the efficiency of the offline workers. To conquer material variation while make use of long retention time of the printed EC display, the threshold voltage of EC display is utilized and a feedback comparator is designed to start refreshing EC display based on the threshold voltage. For functional verification, a Silicon-on-Chip (SoC) is implementedin UMC 180 nm CMOS process. According to experimental results: 1) the IR UWB transmitter shows performances of 1.02 V pulse amplitude, 900 ps pulse duration and 18 pJ/pulse energy consumption; 2) the EC display driver with a feedback comparator automatically starts to refresh display when the image fades out, and reduces the power consumption for retaining image to 1.98 mW per 1 cm2 display size. The UHF/UWB RFID display tag integrated on polyimide substrate is conceptually demonstrated at the end of the paper.

  • 10.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Intelligent Packaging with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display –A Passive Display Infotag2012Ingår i: NIP28 : 28th international conference on digital printing technologies : technical program and proceedings : Digital fabrication 2012 : September 9-13, 2012, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada., The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012, s. 164-167Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the electronic performance of the inkjet-printed electrochromic (EC) display which uses Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as the active material, and extract its equivalent RC model. Results show that by charging PEDOT:PSS with 1.8V for averagely 10s, it can be switched from transparent (oxidation state) to blue (reduced state) and keeps the color for an average of 300s in the absence of energy supply, consuming much lower power than other flexible display technologies. However, it suffers from significant crosstalk effects in passive-matrix addressing and from performance variation as sample changes or time goes on. Based on the results, we design a programmable digital display driver with two different operation modes, and analyze the feasibility to integrate such display function in passive intelligent packaging systems. System simulation results prove it as a promising solution from evaluation of power budget and driving ability with printed interconnections and offchip conductors.

  • 11.
    Shen, Jue
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Inkjet-Printed Electrochromic Paper Display2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 118-123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an inkjet-printed electrochromic(EC) paper display integrated with passive UHF-RFID tag is introduced as a solution for passive electronic shelf labels (ESL). To address the system challenges of the limited power budget of passive UHF-RFID tags and the material aging of EC display, a feedback comparator integrated digital displaydriver is proposed based on the study of electrochromic, bi-stable and aging features of the EC display. Modularized baseband with different enableconditions and clock domains is implemented in the system design level. Moreover, to maintain the system functions when the input power is lower than the display refresh power, a duty-cycled power management unit (PMU) is activated to reduce the load current during energy scavenging and drive the display in short intervals, enabling the fast charging of the voltage rectifier and the correct output of the regulated supply for the core circuit. The design is fabricated in a 0.18-um CMOS process with an area of 2.25 mm2. Fed with EPC C1G2 protocol write command, experiments demonstrate correct refresh of EC display with 4 cm2 effective area. System sensitivity at the antenna reference point is basically immune to the display load. Further improvements can be achieved after careful chip-to-antenna impedance matching and PMU efficiency optimization.

  • 12.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Heterogeneous Integration of Silicon and Printed Electronics for Intelligente Sensing Devices2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the exploding popularity of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), the demand for thin, flexible, lightweight intelligent sensingdevices is growing rapidly. Two attractive examples are intelligent packaging and wearable healthcare monitoring devices, which help to connect and track / monitor everything / everybody at any time and in any place. The remarkably swift development of flexible and printed electronics is promoting new possibilities for cost-effective manufacturing of such devices. However, compared with silicon-based circuits, state-of-the-art all-printed circuits are encountering low integration density, long switching time and corresponding high cost per function. Therefore, a heterogeneous platform is in great demand, which employs a cost-effective, large-area manufacturing technique while keeping the same complex functionality and processing capability as silicon-based systems. Due to temperature and mechanical reasons, traditional silicon integration methods, such as solder bonding and wire bonding, are not suitable for flexible printed electronics. This thesis aims to develop a generally applicable hetero-geneous integration platform for the realization of intelligent sensing devices on flexible substrates.

    First, inkjet printing technique is introduced and studied. As the basic and key element, inkjet printing technology is employed to fabricate interconnections as well as electrodes of the printed sensors. Novel flexible media, plastic and paper, are evaluated as the substrates of printed electronic systems from two aspects: the electrical characteristics and performance reliability. In addition to widely used inkjet/photo paper, packaging paper is presented as a promising candidate for intelligent packaging applications due to the advantages in terms of lower price, higher temperature endurance and better reliability against 85◦/85% RH aging.

    Second, the heterogeneous integration platform enabled byinkjet printing is presented. Benefiting from the non-contact, accurate alignment and fine resolution features, this integration technique has the advantages of simplified fabrication process and multi-substrate compatibility. The design rules have been studied and the integration process is optimized for silicon chips with/without packaging.

    Finally, to verify the suitability, the heterogeneous integration platform is applied to two representative applications, each with unique emphasis and requirements.

    For intelligent packaging, low-cost is one crucial requirement. Paper substrate is selected because it is cost-effective, recyclableand a commonly-used packaging material in industry. In order to fit into non-regular shape pack-ages, the intelligent packaging needs to be bent or folded, which brings about reliability concern for paper electronics. Therefore, bending and folding tests are applied to reveal the capability and the limitation of paper electronics in terms of flexibility. For applications such as fresh food tracking, humidity is an important physical quantity to monitor during transportation and storage. Therefore, a resistive humidity sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes is fabricated and integrated. A commercial packaged microcontroller is used to sense and store the resistance of the sensor and control the LEDs to indicate the ambient humidity level. By integratingthe microcon-troller, LEDs and a switch with the printed sensor and battery, a prototype of a paper-based humidity sensor card is implemented.

    For the healthcare application, user comfort is an essential element. Future long-term healthcare devices require a bio-sensing system which is small, thin, lightweight and wearable, has a long-battery life, and is easy to customize. The heterogeneous platform offers a promising solution for such systems from three aspects. 1) A fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) is embedded to detect and process the bio-signal. The SoC solution features tiny size and low-power consumption, which contribute to system miniaturization and long battery lifetime. 2) Inkjet printing offers a cost-effective approach to fabricate personalized electrodes. 3) Inkjet printed interconnections enable the direct integration of the bare die instead of the packaged chip. This significantly reduces the physical size of the system, simplifies the manufacture process and lowers the cost. The concept is demonstrated by aminiaturized wearable Bio-Patch with the size of 4.5 cm×2.5 cm.

  • 13.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Integration of f-MWCNT Sensor and Printed Circuits on Paper Substrate2013Ingår i: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, nr 10, s. 3948-3956Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of sensors endows the packages with intelligence and interactivity. This paper is considered the most suitable substrate of smart packages because it is cost-effective, light, flexible, and recyclable. However, common concern exists regarding the reliability of paper-based system against bending and folding. In this paper, inkjet-printing of silver nanoparticles is used to form circuit pattern as well as interconnections for system integration on paper substrate. A humidity sensor made by functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes is fabricated on the same substrate. We evaluate the electrical performance of paper electronics and the reliability against bending and folding. The results reveal the capability and the limitation of paper electronics in terms of flexibility. The concept of a paper-based smart electronic system and the manufacture process are demonstrated by an interactive humidity sensor card prototype.

  • 14.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Industriell och Medicinsk Elektronik. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    RF Interconnections for Paper Electronics2015Ingår i: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, ISSN 1531-1309, E-ISSN 1558-1764, Vol. 25, nr 10, s. 684-686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature and the fragility features of paper substrate require novel approach for the heterogeneous integration of silicon chip and printed components. In this letter, RF interconnection via capacitive coupling is proposed for printed paper electronics. Capacitive coupling combined with the printed transmission line is used as the signal channel and realizes chip-to-chip communication. Modulation such as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is used for multiple chips to share the same transmission channel and increase the data rate. The channel response of the RF interconnection is studied and the feasibility is evaluated.

  • 15.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    TUT.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Lopez, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Inkjet Printing in System Integration: Printed Humidity Sensor-Box2012Ingår i: 2012 Flexible Electronics & Displays Conference, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mäntysalo, Matti
    TUT.
    Lopez, Ana
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Feng, Yi
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Electrical performance and reliability evaluation of inkjet-printed Ag interconnections on paper substrates2012Ingår i: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 88, s. 68-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Printing technology, especially inkjet printing, enables mass manufacturing of electronics on various substrate materials. Paper is one potential carrier for printed electronics to realize low-cost, flexible, recyclable smart packages. However, concerns exist regarding commonly used photo paper substrate, in terms of price and reliability against environmental variation. In this work, for the first time, ordinary low-cost and high-moisture-resistance package paper is investigated as an alternative to be the substrate of printed electronics. The surface morphology and electrical performance of inkjet printed interconnections on six different paper substrates from two categories (inkjet paper and package paper) are examined and compared. The printed interconnections on inkjet papers show smaller sheet resistance and better repeatability than those on package papers. However, low-cost package paper stands higher temperature and exhibits better reliability during 85°C/85 RH aging test. Package paper is suitable for smart package applications that have relaxed requirements of conductivity and high requests of moisture resistance.

  • 17.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem.
    Co-design of flip chip interconnection with anisotropic conductive adhesives and inkjet-printed circuits for paper-based RFID tags2011Ingår i: 2011 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2011, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 1752-1757Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the radio frequency performance of interconnect using anisotropic conductive film (ACF). A series of experiments are conducted in order to measure and model the electrical characteristics of inkjet-printed circuits on paper substrate as well as the impedance parameters of ACF interconnect at high frequency. Four-point measurement structure, time domain reflectometry (TDR), vector network analyzer (VNA) and de-embedded technology are used to ensure the accuracy of experiments. Equivalent circuit models are built based on the experimental results. Finally, these models are considered as parts of the matching network and circuit design for the RFID receiver, which can be co-designed for developing paper-based electronic systems. It is found that since the difference between RFID tags with and without ACF interconnects is negligible, the influence of ACF interconnects can be ignored for paper-based UHF RFID tag. ACF is a feasible interconnect material for paper-based RFID tags.

  • 18.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    TUT.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A system-on-chip and paper-based inkjet printed electrodes for a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system2012Ingår i: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE , 2012, s. 5026-5029Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a hybrid wearable bio-sensing system, which combines traditional small-area low-power and high-performance System-on-Chip (SoC), flexible paper substrate and cost-effective Printed Electronics. Differential bio-signals are measured, digitized, stored and transmitted by the SoC. The total area of the chip is 1.5 × 3.0 mm2. This enables the miniaturization of the wearable system. The electrodes and interconnects are inkjet printed on paper substrate and the performance is verified in in-vivo tests. The quality of electrocardiogram signal sensed by printed electrodes is comparable with commercial electrodes, with noise level slightly increased. The paper-based inkjet printed system is flexible, light and thin, which makes the final system comfortable for end-users. The hybrid bio-sensing system offers a potential solution to the next generation wearable healthcare technology.

  • 19.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mäntysalo, Matti
    Xu, Lin-Lin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Heterogeneous integration of bio-sensing system-on-chip and printed electronics2012Ingår i: IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, ISSN 2156-3357, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 672-682Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a heterogeneous integration platform for bio-sensing applications, which seamlessly integrates low-power silicon-based circuits with cost-effective printed electronics. A prototype of wearable Bio-Sensing Node is fabricated to investigate the suitability of this integration approach. A customized mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC) with the size of 1.5× 3.0 mm2 is utilized to amplify, digitize, buffer, and transmit the sensed bio-signals. Inkjet printing technology is employed to print nano-particle silver ink on a flexible substrate to fabricate chip-on-flex, electrodes as well as interconnections. This additive and digital fabrication technology enables fast prototype of the customized electrode pattern. Its high accuracy and fine resolution features allow the direct integration of the bare die (the pad size of 65 μ m and pitch size of 90 μ m) on the flexible substrate, which significantly miniaturizes the wearable system. The optimal size and layout of printed electrodes are investigated through the in vivo test for electrocardiogram recording applications. The total size of the implemented Bio-Sensing Node is 4.5× 2.5 cm2, which is comparable with a commercial electrode. This inkjet printed heterogeneous integration approach offers a promising solution for the next-generation cost-effective personalized wearable healthcare monitoring devices.

  • 20.
    Xie, Li
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Yang, Geng
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xu, Linlin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinska sensorer, signaler och system.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. State Key Laboratory of ASICs and Systems, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai, China .
    Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS, 2013, s. 1478-1481Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the increased interest in wearable long-term healthcare monitoring systems, varieties of dry electrodes are proposed based on different materials with different patterns and structures. Most of the studies reported in the literature focus on proposing new electrodes and comparing its performance with commercial electrodes. Few papers are about detailed comparison among different dry electrodes. In this paper, printed metal-plate electrodes, textile based electrodes, and spiked electrodes are for the first time evaluated and compared under the same experimental setup. The contact impedance and noise characterization are measured. The in-vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is applied to evaluate the overall performance of different electrodes. Textile electrodes and printed electrodes gain comparable high-quality ECG signals. The ECG signal obtained by spiked electrodes is noisier. However, a clear ECG envelope can be observed and the signal quality can be easily improved by backend signal processing. The features of each type of electrodes are analyzed and the suitable application scenario is addressed.

  • 21.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Hybrid Low Power Biopatch for Body Surface Potential Measurement2013Ingår i: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 591-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a wearable biopatch prototype for body surface potential measurement. It combines three key technologies, including mixed-signal system on chip (SoC) technology, inkjet printing technology, and anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) bonding technology. An integral part of the biopatch is a low-power low-noise SoC. The SoC contains a tunable analog front end, a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter, and a reconfigurable digital controller. The electrodes, interconnections, and interposer are implemented by inkjet-printing the silver ink precisely on a flexible substrate. The reliability of printed traces is evaluated by static bending tests. ACA is used to attach the SoC to the printed structures and form the flexible hybrid system. The biopatch prototype is light and thin with a physical size of 16 cm x 16 cm. Measurement results show that low-noise concurrent electrocardiogram signals from eight chest points have been successfully recorded using the implemented biopatch.

  • 22.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mantysalo, Matti
    Zhou, Xiaolin
    Pang, Zhibo
    Xu, Li Da
    Kao-Walter, Sharon
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    A Health-IoT Platform Based on the Integration of Intelligent Packaging, Unobtrusive Bio-Sensor, and Intelligent Medicine Box2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 2180-2191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In-home healthcare services based on the Internet-of-Things (IoT) have great business potential; however, a comprehensive platform is still missing. In this paper, an intelligent home-based platform, the iHome Health-IoT, is proposed and implemented. In particular, the platform involves an open-platform-based intelligent medicine box (iMedBox) with enhanced connectivity and interchangeability for the integration of devices and services; intelligent pharmaceutical packaging (iMedPack) with communication capability enabled by passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) and actuation capability enabled by functional materials; and a flexible and wearable bio-medical sensor device (Bio-Patch) enabled by the state-of-the-art inkjet printing technology and system-on-chip. The proposed platform seamlessly fuses IoT devices (e. g., wearable sensors and intelligent medicine packages) with in-home healthcare services (e. g., telemedicine) for an improved user experience and service efficiency. The feasibility of the implemented iHome Health-IoT platform has been proven in field trials.

  • 23.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mäntysalo, Matti
    Department of Electronics, Tampere University of Technology.
    Chen, Jian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Bio-Patch Design and Implementation Based on a Low-Power System-on-Chip and Paper-Based Inkjet Printing Technology2012Ingår i: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 1043-1050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the prototype implementation of a Bio-Patch using fully integrated low-power System-on-Chip (SoC) sensor and paper-based inkjet printing technology. The SoC sensor is featured with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate a variety of bio-signals. It is fabricated in a 0.18-µm standard CMOS technology, with a total power consumption of 20 µW from a 1.2 V supply. Both the electrodes and interconnections are implemented by printing conductive nano-particle inks on a flexible photo paper substrate using inkjet printing technology. A Bio-Patch prototype is developed by integrating the SoC sensor, a soft battery, printed electrodes and interconnections on a photo paper substrate. The Bio-Patch can work alone or operate along with other patches to establish a wired network for synchronous multiple-channel bio-signals recording. The measurement results show that electrocardiogram and electromyogram are successfully measured in in-vivo tests using the implemented Bio-Patch prototype.

  • 24.
    Yang, Geng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Elektroniksystem. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Evaluation of non-contact flexible electrodes connected with a customized IC-steps towards a fully integrated ECG sensor2013Ingår i: NORCHIP, 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 6702023-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the performance of a noncontact capacitive bioelectric sensor for electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement. A straightforward comparison is made on the measured ECG signals using conventional pre-gelled electrodes and the developed non-contact electrodes on a hairy chest, with the same bio-sensing readout circuits. The measurement results show that pre-gelled electrodes have difficulties in the measurement of ECG signal from a hairy chest. A pair of non-contact electrodes are designed and implemented on flexible copper foil. With the help of high performance readout circuits, ECG signal is successfully measured via implemented non-contact electrodes from a hairy chest. Discussions are made based on the preliminary in-vivo measurement results. It is believed that this non-contact ECG measurement approach brings a promising solution for the future fully integrated wearable ECG sensors.

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