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  • 1.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A state-of-the-art survey on vehicular mechatronics focusing on by-wire systems2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a survey of the current state of the art/ practice in vehicular mechatronics. It summarizes a large quantity of scientific papers and theses, as well as white papers and field trips to manufacturers.

    Mechatronics is a multi-domain discipline which is the result of the evolution of the single-domain engineering disciplines mechanics, electronics, information processing and control. Mechatronics is central for most new innovations in automotive products; “according to manufacturers statements, about 90% of all innovations for automobiles are due to electronics and mechatronics” [42]. The consequence of this is that vehicular mechatronics has become an important field of research.

    Since this is an incredibly broad field of research, the focus of this report has mainly been on brake and steering systems but the report also covers a wider more general scope of systems. The report covers a wide range of subjects within vehicular mechatronics, e.g. everything from legislative requirements to actual prototypes.

    One of the conclusion drawn in this report is that there is a lack of research with a more holistic approach to the systems. Most research only treat individual systems and omit the level of integration and interplay between subsystems and engineering domains which is typical for modern vehicles. There is also a lack of result validation in real conditions; most research are only evaluated through software simulations or in best case with hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Another problem is that most research focus on single aspects like e.g. fuel consumption when there is a lot more properties which need to be taken into account.

  • 2.
    Frede, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Malmquist, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A survey on safety-critical vehicular mechatronics2011In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, ICM 2011 - Proceedings:  , 2011, p. 176-181Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a recapitalized version of a state of the art/practice report on vehicular mechatronics conducted by the authors. The report itself summarizes a large quantity of scientific papers, theses, white papers, and field trips to manufacturers. Since vehicular mechatronics is a wide field of research, this paper focuses mainly on braking and steering systems as specific product examples but also covers general system architecture, design methodologies as well as current legislation and standards. In the last section of the paper some conclusions regarding current research are drawn.

  • 3.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improving Fuel Efficiency of Commercial Vehicles through Optimal Control of Energy Buffers2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption reduction is one of the main challenges in the automotiveindustry due to its economical and environmental impacts as well as legalregulations. While fuel consumption reduction is important for all vehicles,it has larger benefits for commercial ones due to their long operational timesand much higher fuel consumption.

    Optimal control of multiple energy buffers within the vehicle proves aneffective approach for reducing energy consumption. Energy is temporarilystored in a buffer when its cost is small and released when it is relativelyexpensive. An example of an energy buffer is the vehicle body. Before goingup a hill, the vehicle can accelerate to increase its kinetic energy, which canthen be consumed on the uphill stretch to reduce the engine load. The simplestrategy proves effective for reducing fuel consumption.

    The thesis generalizes the energy buffer concept to various vehicular componentswith distinct physical disciplines so that they share the same modelstructure reflecting energy flow. The thesis furthermore improves widely appliedcontrol methods and apply them to new applications.

    The contribution of the thesis can be summarized as follows:

    • Developing a new function to make the equivalent consumption minimizationstrategy (ECMS) controller (which is one of the well-knownoptimal energy management methods in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs))more robust.

    • Developing an integrated controller to optimize torque split and gearnumber simultaneously for both reducing fuel consumption and improvingdrivability of HEVs.

    • Developing a one-step prediction control method for improving the gearchanging decision.

    • Studying the potential fuel efficiency improvement of using electromechanicalbrake (EMB) on a hybrid electric city bus.

    • Evaluating the potential improvement of fuel economy of the electricallyactuated engine cooling system through the off-line global optimizationmethod.

    • Developing a linear time variant model predictive controller (LTV-MPC)for the real-time control of the electric engine cooling system of heavytrucks and implementing it on a real truck.

  • 4.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Lindgärde, Olof
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Reducing Auxiliary Energy Consumption of Heavy Trucks by Onboard Prediction and Real-time Optimization2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 188, p. 652-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric engine cooling system, where the coolant pump and the radiator fan are driven by electric motors, admits advanced control methods to decrease auxiliary energy consumption. Recent publications show the fuel saving potential of optimal control strategies for the electric cooling system through offline simulations. These strategies often assume full knowledge of the drive cycle and compute the optimal control sequence by expensive global optimization methods. In reality, the full drive cycle is unknown during driving and global optimization not directly applicable on resource-constrained truck electronic control units. This paper reports state-of-the-art engineering achievements of exploiting vehicular onboard prediction for a limited time horizon and minimizing the auxiliary energy consumption of the electric cooling system through real-time optimization. The prediction and optimization are integrated into a model predictive controller (MPC), which is implemented on a dSPACE MicroAutoBox and tested on a truck on a public road. Systematic simulations show that the new method reduces fuel consumption of a 40-tonne truck by 0.36% and a 60-tonne truck by 0.69% in a real drive cycle compared to a base-line controller. The reductions on auxiliary fuel consumption for the 40-tonne and 60-tonne trucks are about 26% and 38%, respectively. Truck experiments validate the consistency between simulations and experiments and confirm the real-time feasibility of the MPC controller. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 5.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fuel Saving Potential of Optimal Engine Cooling System2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engine cooling system in trucks is one of the main sources of parasite load. Thus optimal control of the engine thermal management system with the objective of minimizing energy consumption can substantially improve fuel efficiency. Existing methods on the engine thermal control system concentrate mainly on regulating the engine coolant temperature within a safety range. This paper explicitly calculates the energy consumption of the cooling system using the optimal control methods to decide the trajectories of the control values of the cooling system. During the optimal operation, the engine cooling system serves as another energy buffer to balance the engine workload in conventional trucks. To expose the maximal fuel saving potential of the optimal engine thermal control system, we apply dynamic programming in the investigation and the results are compared with a simple state feedback controller.

  • 6.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improvement of fuel efficiency and drivability using simple prediction for gear changing2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, no PART 1, p. 518-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles has been an active research topic in recent years. A promising technology is the hybridization of powertrain. The main focus in this area is usually on the development of optimal power management control methods. For parallel HEVs (hybrid electric vehicle), the primary control variable is the torque split between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor but gear number can also be considered as a control parameter. ECMS (equivalent consumption minimization strategy) is one of the well-known real time power management strategies and has been used extensively in different works; however, using ECMS for controlling gearbox cannot always lead to optimal fuel consumption and drivability. The slow dynamics of gearbox might introduce unnecessary gear changing, which leads to suboptimal fuel efficiency and degraded drivability. In this paper, a simple prediction strategy is implemented to improve fuel efficiency and drivability. The presented prediction method does not use any information from the environment and does not need any extra sensor. The strategy is not computationally heavy compared to other predictive methods. The simplicity of the method makes it suitable for implementations.

  • 7.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Improving Fuel Economy and Robustness of an Improved ECMS Method2013In: 2013 10th IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation  (ICCA), IEEE , 2013, p. 598-603Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown significant improvement for both fuel efficiency and emission reduction, and attracted many researchers. Paramount for the fuel efficiency of HEVs is the energy management control strategies. ECMS (equivalent consumption minimization strategy) is one of the well-known real time power management strategies and has been used extensively in different works; however, its intrinsic difficulty is to find the optimal equivalent factor, which in theory is determined by the a priori knowledge of the complete driving cycle. Different methods have been proposed to solve this issue, but each one has its own pros. and cons. Especially, the applicability of each method for different cycles as well as the computation overhead are two main concerns in the methods presented so far. In this paper, a new method is presented for calculating equivalent factor in the ECMS method. The method does not rely on any prediction nor the a priori knowledge of driving cycles. Its robustness is demonstrated through different driving cycles with distinct characteristics. Our new method will improve the effectiveness and robustness of the ECMS method.

  • 8.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    One-step prediction for improving gear changing control of HEVs2014In: Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, ISSN 0915-3942, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 799-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles continues to be an active research problem. A promising technology is powertrain hybridization. Study in this area usually focuses on the development of optimal power management control methods. The equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is a widely used real-time control method used for determining the optimal trajectory of the power split between the engine and motor. Reports also cover applying ECMS to find an optimal gear changing strategy, but results are not always satisfactory in fuel economy and drivability. One possible reason for this is that gearbox dynamics are slow, but ECMS is based on instant optimization and neglects this time delay. This paper proposes a simple prediction strategy for improving ECMS performance used with gear changing control. The proposed controller improves fuel efficiency and drivability without the need of adding extra sensors to the automobile. The proposed method’s simplicity makes it suitable for implementation.

  • 9.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Optimization of gear shifting and torque split for improved fuel efficiency and drivability of HEVs2013In: SAE Technical Papers: Volume 2, 2013, S A E Inc , 2013, Vol. 2, p. 2013-01-1461-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing fuel consumption and emissions in automobiles has been an active research topic in recent years. Vehicles with alternative powertrain systems, especially hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), have shown significant reduction in fuel consumption and emissions, and therefore have attracted many researchers to this field. The focus is usually on the development of optimal power management control methods. For parallel HEVs, the primary control variable is the torque split between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor. More advanced approaches also simultaneously search for the optimal gear number and engine on/off state, which can further reduce the fuel consumption but also complicate the problem. In the literature on HEVs, the emphasis is typically only on fuel efficiency and sometimes the emissions. The drivability of the vehicle is usually not considered during the optimization process. Furthermore, gearbox models do not usually reflect the real behavior of vehicle due to over simplification in vehicle models. This paper studies the energy management problem of parallel HEVs. Fuel consumption and drivability are optimized through an integrated optimization process by searching optimal torque split and gear number simultaneously. Intelligent filters are designed to stabilize the values of gear number to avoid frequent oscillation. The method is suitable for real-time implementation and has been tested in the simulation software Autonomie.

  • 10.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Predictive control of the engine cooling system for fuel efficiency improvement2014In: Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engine cooling system in trucks is one of the main sources of parasite load. Thus fuel efficiency can be improved by optimal control of engine thermal management system considering fuel consumption minimization as the objective. Although several optimal control methods have been proposed for the engine cooling system, their main emphasize is on regulating engine and coolant temperature in an acceptable range rather than minimizing fuel consumption. In contrast, this paper investigates the fuel saving potential of predictive optimal control methods for the engine cooling system of conventional trucks. Our method exploits the idea of energy buffers in the automotive system, where the engine cooling system and the battery serve as energy buffers. The advantages of this approach are the recovery of brake energy and the balance of energy sources so that the total energy loss is minimized. A model predictive controller is used as the real time controller, and the results are compared with a simple state feedback controller and a global optimal solution obtained by dynamic programming. The results show limited but notable improvement in fuel efficiency. The results also construct a base for ongoing research on energy buffer control in conventional heavy trucks.

  • 11.
    Khodabakhshian, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wikander, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Fuel efficiency improvement in HEVs using electromechanical brake system2013In: 2013 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), IEEE , 2013, p. 322-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, two of the main concerns in transportation industry are reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and tough regulations are put on the vehicle manufacturers in these regards. One of the main approaches towards reducing CO2 emissions is hybridization of the powertrain system. Substantial R&D in this area over the last couple of years has resulted in rather optimal components and control strategies, and hence that further substantial improvements are difficult. This motivates research on other energy consuming vehicle subsystems, e.g. pneumatic and hydraulic systems. In this paper, the brake system of a hybrid city bus is studied. A complete electrification of the primary brake system would eliminate the use of low efficiency pneumatics for braking. It is therefore interesting to investigate how much energy can be saved by using electrically actuated and controlled primary brakes. The study is based on simulations in Autonomie which is a MATLAB/SIMULINK based vehicle simulation software package. Different representative driving cycles are studied. It is shown that fuel consumption can be reduced in the range of 0.5 to 1.5% by substituting the pneumatic brake system with a mechatronic one. This may seem limited, but can, combined with substitution of also other less efficient subsystems with their mechatronic counterparts, result in a substantial environmental and economic improvement.

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