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  • 1.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domainVolterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 2.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 3.
    Amin, Shoaib Amin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access require the development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-band signals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are required which impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiency and sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronounced in power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance of the RF transmitter. Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristics of a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PA exhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, at low input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achieve linearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is often used to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case of multi-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interact with each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit different nonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPD techniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performance when used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling is essential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs. In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presence of cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmitters have been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes. These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model. A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented. The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally that with partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPD degrades compared to coherent signal generation. In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models and DPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increase in nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to high complexity model identification and implementation. We have designed a DPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducing model complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability when linear least square estimation model identification is used. A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrent dual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but also by cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone test signal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfaces are introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, which can be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 4.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual BandRadio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong NonlinearMemory Effects2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, nr 7, s. 2453-2464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in gallium nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs) give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioral modeling and digital predistortion of single-input single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-band GaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA, the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7-17 dB lower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9-14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 5.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Concurrent Dual-band Power Amplifier Model Modification using Dual Two-Tone Test2016Inngår i: European Microwave Week 2016: "Microwaves Everywhere", EuMW 2016 - Conference Proceedings; 46th European Microwave Conference, EuMC 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 186-189, artikkel-id 7824309Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 6.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Ladin, Per N.
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ATM, University of Gävle.
    2D Extended Envelope Memory Polynomial Model forConcurrent Dual-band RF Transmitters2016Inngår i: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 7.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Behavioral modeling and linearization of crosstalk and memory effects in RF MIMO transmitters2014Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 810-823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2 x 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 x 2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of 30 dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3-4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 8.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Landin, Per N.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters2017Inngår i: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 1619-1627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a two-dimensional (2D) extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital predistortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art 2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error of -51.7/-51.6 dB and adjacent channel error power ratio of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are three times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio of -55.8/-54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and 2-4 dB lower compared with the DB-GMP model.

  • 9.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Characterization of a Concurrent dual-band Power Amplifier using a dual-tone excitation signals2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band Power Amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, nr 99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 11.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Landin, Per
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Dept. Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development,University of Gävle .
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012Inngår i: Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, s. 36-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 12.
    Flattery, Kyle
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Mahamat, Yaya
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA.
    Eroglu, Abdullah
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, USA.
    High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers2015Inngår i: IEEE International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 1036-1039Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications.  The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified with simulation results for various cases and agreement has been observed on all of them. 

  • 13. Rönnow, D.
    et al.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Alizadeh, M.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Zenteno, E.
    Phase noise coherence of two continuous wave radio frequency signals of different frequency2017Inngår i: IET Science, Measurement & Technology, ISSN 1751-8822, E-ISSN 1751-8830, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 77-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for determining the correlated and uncorrelated parts of phase noise spectra (PNS) of two continuous wave radio signals of different frequencies, ω1 and ω2. The PNS of the two signals and of mixed signals are measured. The PNS are modelled as having a correlated part that is the same for both signals, except for a multiplicative factor, and uncorrelated parts, that are different for the two signals. A property of the model that the PNS of some mixing products are linear combinations of the PNS of the signals at ω1, ω2, and ω1 - ω2 is experimentally verified. The difference of the PNS at ω1 + ω2 and ω1 - ω2 is proportional to the correlated part of the PNS and is a part of auxiliary functions that are used for finding the multiplicative factor and the correlated, partly correlated, and uncorrelated phase noise at different offset frequencies. A conventional spectrum analyser was used to characterise two signal generators, a phase-coherent and a non-phase-coherent one. For the phase-coherent generator the phase noise of two signals was found to be correlated for offset frequencies below 10 Hz, partly correlated for 10 Hz-1 kHz and uncorrelated above 1 kHz.

  • 14.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling.
    Combating the Dimensionality of Nonlinear MIMOAmplifier Predistortion by Basis Pursuit2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 44th European Microwave Conference, 2014, s. 833-836Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A general description of nonlinear dynamic MIMOsystems, given by Volterra series, has significantly larger complex-ity than SISO systems. Modeling and predistortion of MIMOamplifiers consequently become unfeasible due to the largenumber of basis functions. We have designed digital predistortersfor a MIMO amplifier using a basis pursuit method for reducingmodel complexity. This method reduces the numerical problemsthat appear in MIMO Volterra predistorters due to the largenumber of basis functions. The number of basis functions wasreduced from 1402 to 220 in a 2x2 MIMO amplifier and from127 to 13 in the corresponding SISO case. Reducing the numberof basis functions caused an increase of approximately 1 dB ofmodel error and adjacent channel power ratio.

  • 15.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Amin, Shoaib
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Univ Gavle, Dept Elect Math & Nat Sci, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Ronnow, Daniel
    Univ Gavle, Dept Elect Math & Nat Sci, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden..
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Signalbehandling. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Combating the Dimensionality of Nonlinear MIMO Amplifier Predistortion by Basis Pursuit2014Inngår i: 2014 44TH EUROPEAN MICROWAVE CONFERENCE (EUMC), IEEE , 2014, s. 833-836Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A general description of nonlinear dynamic MIMO systems, given by Volterra series, has significantly larger complexity than SISO systems. Modeling and predistortion of MIMO amplifiers consequently become unfeasible due to the large number of basis functions. We have designed digital predistorters for a MIMO amplifier using a basis pursuit method for reducing model complexity. This method reduces the numerical problems that appear in MIMO Volterra predistorters due to the large number of basis functions. The number of basis functions was reduced from 1402 to 220 in a 2x2 MIMO amplifier and from 127 to 13 in the corresponding SISO case. Reducing the number of basis functions caused an increase of approximately 1 dB of model error and adjacent channel power ratio.

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