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  • 1.
    Brolinson, Hanna
    et al.
    SCB.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    SCB.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer: Underlag för uppföljning av generationsmålet2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Dawkins, Elena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stockholm Environm Inst, Linnegatan 87D, S-11523 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moran, Daniel
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stat Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Bjork, Ida
    Stat Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Swedish footprint: A multi-model comparison2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, p. 1578-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a large per capita carbon footprint, particularly compared to the levels recommended for maintaining a stable climate. Much of that footprint falls outside Sweden's territory; emissions occurring abroad are "embodied" in imported goods consumed in Sweden. In this study we calculate the total amount and geographical hotspots of the Swedish footprint produced by different multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models, and compare these results in order to gain a picture of the present state of knowledge of the Swedish global footprint. We also look for insights for future model development that can be gained from such comparisons. We first compare a time series of the Swedish carbon footprint calculated by the Swedish national statistics agency, Statistics Sweden, using a single-region model, with data from the EXIOBASE, GTAP, OECD, Eora, and WIOD MRIO databases. We then examine the MRIO results to investigate the geographical distribution of four types of Swedish footprint: carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions, water use and materials use. We identify the hotspot countries and regions where environmental pressures linked to Swedish consumption are highest. We also consider why the results may differ between calculation methods and types of environmental pressure. As might be expected, given the complexity and modelling assumptions, the MRIO models and Statistics Sweden data provide different (but similar) results for each footprint. The MRIO models have different strengths that can be used to improve the national calculations. However, constructing and maintaining a new MRIO model would be very demanding for one country. It is also clear that for a single country's calculation, there will be better and more precise data available nationally that would not have priority in the construction of an MRIO model. Thus, combining existing MRIO data with national economic and environmental data seems to be a promising method for integrated footprint analysis. Our findings are relevant not just for Sweden but for other countries seeking to improve national consumption-based accounts. Based on our analysis we offer recommendations to guide future research and policy making to this end.

  • 3.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Dawkins, Elena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Environm Inst, Box 24218, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Stat Sweden, Dept Reg & Environm, SCB, Box 24300, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Persson, Linn
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Box 24218, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schmidt, Sarah
    NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Program Ind Ecol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Environmental pressure from Swedish consumption - The largest contributing producer countries, products and services2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 231, p. 698-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce goods and services that are consumed in Sweden, natural resources are extracted and pollutants are emitted in many other countries. This paper presents an analysis of the goods and services consumed in Sweden that cause the largest environmental pressures in terms of resource use and emissions, identifying in which countries or regions these pressures occur. The results have been calculated using a hybrid model developed in the PRINCE project combining the multi-regional input-output database EXIOBASE with data from the Swedish economic and environmental accounts. The following environmental pressures are analysed: Use of Land, Water and Material resources, Emissions of Greenhouse gases (GHG), Sulphur dioxides (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Particulate Matters (PM 2.5 and 10). The product groups are those goods and services bought for private or public consumption and capital investments, as listed in the Swedish economic accounts. The results show that Sweden is a net importer of all embodied environmental pressures, except for land use and material use. The most important product groups across environmental pressures are construction, food products and direct emissions from households (except for sulphur dioxide emissions and material use for the latter). Other product groups that are found to have environmental pressures across several indicators are wholesale and retail services, architecture and engineering, dwellings, motor vehicles and machinery and equipment. However, for the three natural resource pressures Use of Water, Land and Material resources, agricultural products are a relatively important product group along with products from forestry for the last two indicators. A considerable proportion of the environmental pressure occurs in Sweden, but when comparing those of domestic origin and that occurring internationally, the majority of all pressures for Swedish consumption occur abroad (except for land use). Other countries stand out as particularly important as origins of pressure for Swedish consumption, most notably China, which is among the top five countries for emissions to air, as well as blue water and material use. Other highly relevant countries or regions are Rest of Asia and Pacific (i.e. Asia and Pacific except Indonesia, Taiwan, Australia, India, South Korea, China and Japan), Russia, Germany as well as Denmark and Spain for certain product groups and environmental pressure combinations. This pattern of geographically spread pressures caused by Swedish consumption indicates the need for addressing the pressures at various levels of collaboration: national, within the European Union, bilateral and international.

  • 4.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB, Department for Regions and environment, Statistics Sweden.
    Persson, Linn
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Schmidt, Sarah
    NTNU, Program for Industrial Ecology, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Program for Industrial Ecology, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Environmental pressure from Swedish consumption: - the largest contributing producer countries, products and servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce goods and services that are consumed in Sweden, natural resources are extracted and pollutants are emitted in many other countries. This paper presents an analysis of which products and services cause the largest environmental pressures in terms of resource use and emissions and in which countries or regions these pressures occur. The results have been calculated using a hybrid model developed in the PRINCE project combining the multi-regional input-output database Exiobase with data from the Swedish economic and environmental accounts. The following environmental pressures are analysed: Use of Land, Water and Material resources, Emissions of Greenhouse gases (GHG), Sulphur dioxides (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Particulate Matters (PM 2.5 and 10). The product groups include a range of goods and services bought for private or public consumption and investments. The results show that Sweden is a net importer of all embodied environmental pressures, except for land use and material use. The most important product groups across environmental pressures are construction, food products and direct emissions from households (except for sulphur dioxide emissions and material use for the latter). Other recurrent product groups across several indicators are wholesale and retail services, architecture and engineering, dwellings, motor vehicles and machinery and equipment. However, for the three natural resource pressures Use of Water, Land and Material resources, agricultural products are a relatively important product group along with products from forestry for the last two indicators. The environmental pressures occur to a large degree in Sweden but also some other countries stand out as particularly important. One significant country is China, which is among the top ten countries for all indicators. Other highly relevant countries or regions are Rest of Asia and Pacific, Russia, Denmark, Germany and Spain. This variation indicates the need to work on policies at various levels: national, EU, bilateral and international.

  • 5.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Debatt: Pröva ekonomiska styrmedel i kemipolitiken.2012In: Miljöaktuellt, ISSN 0345-763X, no 2012-11-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Nordborg, Maria
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Cederberg, Christel
    Some, Louise
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Stamyr, Kristin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Molander, Sverker
    Updated indicators of Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprints using USEtox 2.012017In: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REVIEW, ISSN 0195-9255, Vol. 62, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Sorme et al. (Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 56, 2016), took a first step towards an indicator of a national chemical footprint, and applied it to Sweden. Using USEtox 1.01, they calculated national impact potentials for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results showed that zinc dominated impacts, both for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. We calculated updated indicators of the Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprint using USEtox 2.01. We also compared impact potentials based on USEtox with the mass of chemical emissions. The two model versions produced relatively consistent results. Zinc is still a major contributor to the human toxicity and ecotoxicity impact potentials when-characterized with USEtox 2.01. The mass-based indicator pinpoints somewhat different substances than the impact-based indicators.

  • 7.
    Persson, L.
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Box 24218, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, R.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Div Environm Syst Anal, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Berglund, M.
    Stat Sweden, SCB, Dept Reg & Environm, Box 24300, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cederberg, C.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Div Phys Resource Theory, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sorme, L.
    Stat Sweden, SCB, Dept Reg & Environm, Box 24300, S-10451 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schmidt, Sarah
    NTNU, Program Ind Ecol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Trondheim, Norway..
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Program Ind Ecol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Trondheim, Norway..
    Indicators for national consumption-based accounting of chemicals2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 215, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased chemical use is causing a growing number of environmental problems and chemical products are pervasive in societies within animal and crop-based agriculture, in industrial processes and in households. National environmental targets, as well as the global chemical-related goals in the 2030 Agenda, call for the monitoring of chemical use and emissions. The growing international trade of goods, where use and regulation of chemical inputs vary highly between countries, complicates measurements. This paper addresses these issues by deriving a set of indicators on chemical use and emissions and connect the global impacts to a country's total consumption, here using the case of Sweden. The indicators are based on a hybrid model combining the multi-regional input-output analysis database EXIOBASE with data from the Swedish System of Economic and Environmental Accounts together with a novel set of environmental extensions. A review of databases is conducted and discussed in relation to the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework for indicators. Five indicators are calculated, showing the chemical use and emissions connected to consumption, both within a country and abroad. The indicators are: use of hazardous chemical products, use of pesticides, use of antimicrobial veterinary medicines, emissions of hazardous substances, and of the potential toxicity of these emissions. The results show that the impact of Swedish consumption in terms of use and emissions of hazardous substances is largely taking place outside the Swedish borders. Only 10-24% of the pressure from Swedish consumption is shown to occur within Sweden's borders, depending on the indicator. The use of hazardous chemical products and veterinary medicines related to Swedish consumption primarily takes place in other EU countries, whereas the use of pesticides as well as reported emissions of pollutants occur mainly in countries outside the EU. The results highlight the need for improved international accounting of chemical flows, as well as for strengthened policy frameworks to address cross-border impacts of consumption of hazardous chemical products.

  • 8.
    Schmidt, Sarah
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Ind Ecol Programme, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Sodersten, Carl-Johan
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Ind Ecol Programme, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Wiebe, Kirsten
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Ind Ecol Programme, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Simas, Moana
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Ind Ecol Programme, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Wood, Richard
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Ind Ecol Programme, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Understanding GHG emissions from Swedish consumption - Current challenges in reaching the generational goal2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 212, p. 428-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish generational goal is a unique initiative governing all Swedish environmental policy, aiming at solving all major domestic environmental problems for the next generation without increasing environmental damage abroad. Without a good understanding of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Swedish consumption, the formulation of efficient and well targeted policy initiatives to reach the generational goal is difficult. We have analysed the impacts of Swedish consumption in detail, investigating the impacts of different final consumers and different consumption clusters as well as the geographical location of where GHGs are emitted to satisfy Swedish demand. We use environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (EEMRIO) analysis and the database EXIOBASE3 to compute Swedish consumption-based (CB) GHG emissions over a time period of 20 years. Our study shows that total CB GHG emissions fluctuated but remained rather stable over the years. However, the origin of the emissions changed from within Sweden to outside Sweden's borders. CB emissions within Sweden have decreased substantially through a reduction of direct emissions associated with domestic heating and mobility, whereas GHG emissions outside Sweden have increased, especially in China and in the rest of Asia. We show that manufactured products are responsible for a large share of this development, displaying a strong trend toward future increases. This calls for policy measures targeting consumption, especially of manufactured products such as textiles, clothing and furniture that cause large impacts in other countries.

  • 9. Steinbach, Nancy
    et al.
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Persson, Linn
    Persson, Martin
    Berglund, Mårten
    Björk, Ida
    Fauré, Eléonore
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Trimmer, Caspar
    Miljöpåverkan från svensk konsumtion - nya indikatorer för uppföljning.: Slutrapport från forskningsprojektet PRINCE2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10. Sörme, L.
    et al.
    Palm, Viveka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Using E-PRTR data on point source emissions to air and water-First steps towards a national chemical footprint2016In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 56, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need for indicators to monitor the use and potential impacts of hazardous chemicals. Today there is a huge lack of data, methods and results and method development and studies should be given urgent priority. The aim of this paper was to develop and test an approach to calculate the potential environmental impacts of chemicals for awhole country using the E-PRTR (European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register) as a database and Sweden as an example. Swedish data from 2008 on emissions to air and water for 54 substances from point sources were retrieved from an open database. The data were transformed and aggregated using USEtox, a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method for calculating potential human toxicity and ecotoxicity, both from industrial emissions directly and after input-output analysis (IO analysis) to reallocate emissions to product categories. Zinc to air and water contributed most to human toxicity followed by mercury to air. The largest contribution by industry to potential human toxicity came from the metal industry, followed by the paper and paper product industry. For potential ecotoxicity, zinc, fluoranthene and copper contributed themost. The largest contributions by industry came from the paper and paper products manufacturing sector, followed by the basic metals manufacturing sector. The approach used here can be seen as the first step towards a chemical footprint for nations. By adding data from other countries and other sources, a more complete picture can be gained in line with other footprint calculations. Furthermore, diffuse emissions from, for example, transport or emissions of pesticides could also be added for a more holistic assessment. Since the area of chemicals is complicated, it is probably necessary to develop and use several indicators that complement each other. It is suggested that the approach outlined here could be useful in developing a method for establishing a national chemical footprint.

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