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  • 1.
    Allertz, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Sulfur and nitrogen in ladle slag2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work deals with some aspects of slags related to secondary metallurgy in the steelmaking process. More specifically the focus is given to sulfur and nitrogen in ladle slags. Even though slags have been fairly well-researched in the past, the available data for these elements in typical ladle slag compositions is rather scarce. In some cases the available data is in discordance. There are also inconsistencies between the literature data and what is commonly observed in the industrial processes.

    Sulfide capacities were measured at steelmaking temperatures, 1823–1873 K, in ladle slags. The data was found to be in reasonable agreement with the industrial process norms. The sulfide capacity was found to increase with the basic oxides CaO and MgO; and decrease with the acidic components Al2O3 and SiO2. The sulfide capacity was also found to increase with temperature.

    The dependence of sulfide capacity on the oxygen partial pressure, for slags containing multivalent elements, was investigated experimentally at 1873 K with a slag containing vanadium oxide. A strong dependence of oxygen partial pressure was observed. The sulfide capacity increase by more than two orders of magnitude when the oxygen partial pressure was increased from 4.6×10-16 atm to 9.7×10-10 atm.

    The nitrogen solubility and the effect of carbon was investigated in typical ladle slags and the CaO–MgO–SiO2 system at 1873 K. Carbon increases the nitrogen solubility substantially. In the absence of carbon, the nitrogen solubility is extremely low. Low concentrations of cyanide was detected in the carbon saturated slag. This was much lower than the total nitrogen content and formation of cyanide cannot explain the large increase.

    The possibility of removing sulfur with oxidation from used ladle slag was investigated experimentally at 1373–1673 K. The sulfur removal of mostly solid slag was found to be a slow process, and would not suitable for industrial practice. At 1673 K the slag was mostly liquid and more than 85% of the sulfur was removed after 60 min of oxidation in pure oxygen atmosphere.

     

  • 2.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Du, Sichen
    Possibility of Sulfur Removal from Ladle Slag by Oxidation in the Temperature Range 1373-1673 K2015Ingår i: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 229-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of removing sulfur from used ladle slag by oxidation. Slag samples (solid, two-phase mixture, and liquid with a small fraction of solid MgO particles) were subjected to an oxygen-rich atmosphere in the temperature range 1373–1673 K. The sulfur removal from the samples of solid and two-phase mixture was found to be a slow process due to the slow diffusion. The sulfur removal was found to have little dependence on temperature in the range 1373–1573 K. When the slag was mostly liquid (at 1673 K), the sulfur removal was significantly increased. More than 85 % of the sulfur could be removed after 60 min of oxidation in pure oxygen. An increase in oxygen partial pressure was found to increase the desulfurization slightly. Increasing the Al2O3 content in the slag decreased the degree of sulfur removal.

  • 3.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    The Effect of Oxygen Potential on the Sulfide Capacity for Slags Containing Multivalent SpeciesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Kojola, Niklas
    Hui, Wang
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    A Study of Nitrogen Pickup from the Slag during Waiting Time of Ladle Treatment2014Ingår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 85, nr 4, s. 689-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of the nitrogen pickup of liquid steel from ladle slag after vacuum degassing was made. Nitride capacities, C-N, of a number of ladle slags were determined at controlled nitrogen and oxygen potentials at 1873K. The nitride capacities in the composition range studied were found to be very low. In accordance with the literature, the nitride capacity was found to increase with increasing SiO2 content. Industrial trials were performed. The nitrogen content of the steel was determined before and after vacuum degassing as well as after the waiting period. Three different trends of the variation of nitrogen content in the steel were observed. Both the laboratory study and the industrial trials revealed that the transfer of nitrogen from slag to steel was not the reason for nitrogen pickup in the steel subsequent to vacuum degassing.

  • 5.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Li, Fan
    White, Jesse F.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Effect of carbon on the solubility of nitrogen in slag2015Ingår i: International Journal of Materials Research - Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 1862-5282, E-ISSN 2195-8556, Vol. 106, nr 8, s. 822-830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of carbon on nitrogen solubility in slag was investigated for the ternary CaO-MgO-SiO2 and the quaternary Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag systems at 1 873 K under controlled oxygen and nitrogen potentials. Gas-slag equilibration experiments were conducted using molybdenum and graphite crucibles. In the absence of carbon, the nitrogen solubility was very low. The presence of carbon greatly increased the nitrogen solubility in slag. The total nitrogen content was found to increase with SiO2 and MgO concentration for the carbon saturated slags. Low levels of cyanide were found by wet chemistry with considerable uncertainty. The results analyzed by different methods ruled out cyanide formation being the main reason for the large increase in nitrogen solubility in the presence of pure carbon.

  • 6.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    The Effect of Oxygen Potential on the Sulfide Capacity for Slags Containing Multivalent Species2016Ingår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 3039-3045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of sulfide capacity on the oxygen partial pressure for slags containing multivalent species was investigated experimentally using a slag containing vanadium oxide. Copper-slag equilibration experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 A degrees C) in the approximate oxygen partial pressure range 10(-15.4) to 10(-9) atm. The sulfide capacity was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen potential in this slag system, increasing with the oxygen partial pressure. The sulfide capacity changed by more than two orders of magnitude over the oxygen partial pressure range. The effect of changing oxygen partial pressure was found to be much greater than the effect of changing slag composition at a fixed oxygen partial pressure.

  • 7.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Sulfide Capacity in Ladle Slag at Steelmaking Temperatures2015Ingår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 2609-2615Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide capacity measurements were conducted at 1823 K and 1873 K (1550 degrees C and 1600 degrees C) for the quaternary Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 system, for typical compositions used in the ladle in steelmaking. A copper-slag equilibrium was used under controlled oxygen and sulfur potentials. The sulfide capacity is strongly dependent on the composition and it was found to increase with the basic oxides, while it decreases with increase of the acidic components. It was found that CaO is more effective in holding sulfur in the slag compared to MgO when replacing SiO2. For the present slag compositions, Al2O3 and SiO2 behaved similar with respect to sulfur, and no considerable effect could be recorded when replacing one for the other. The sulfide capacity was also found to be strongly dependent on the temperature, increasing with temperature. The present results were compared with industrial data from the ladle, after vacuum treatment, and they were in good agreement.

  • 8.
    Allertz, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    White, J. F.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Nitrogen solubility and the effect of carbon in ladle slag at 1873 K2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, ICS 2015, Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, s. 316-319Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of nitrogen in ladle slag was determined at 1873K under controlled nitrogen and oxygen potentials. Gas- slag equilibrium experiments were conducted using molybdenum and graphite crucibles. In the absence of carbon, the nitrogen solubility was very low. The presence of carbon greatly increased the nitrogen solubility in the slag. Low levels of cyanide was detected by wet chemistry, with considerable uncertainty. Cyanide was ruled out as the main reason for the large increase of nitrogen in the presence of pure carbon. The nitrogen solubility was found to increase with increasing SiO2 content both in the absence and presence of carbon.

  • 9.
    Condo, Adolfo Firmino Timoteo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Allertz, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Sichen, Du
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Experimental Determination of Sulphide Capacities of Blast Furnace Slags with Higher MgO Contents.2017Ingår i: IRONMAKING & STEELMAKINGArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide capacity measurements of slag with MgO content up to 18 mass% were carried out at 1713, 1743 and 1773 K to obtain reliable data for the blast furnace process.  In the measurement, slag is equilibrated with copper at controlled oxygen partial pressure for 24h. The sulfide capacities are calculated based on the sulfur analyses for both slag and copper. 

  • 10. White, Jesse F.
    et al.
    Allertz, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Boron partitioning between SiO2-CaO-MgO slags and liquid silicon at controlled nitrogen potential2013Ingår i: International Journal of Materials Research - Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 1862-5282, E-ISSN 2195-8556, Vol. 104, nr 7, s. 650-656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During refining of silicon using slag treatment, boron dissolved in the silicon is extracted to a liquid oxide (slag) phase. In this investigation the partitioning of boron between SiO2-CaO-MgO slags and liquid silicon was examined at 1873 K over a range of slag compositions and CO-N-2 gas mixtures. It was found that the distribution of boron is strongly dependent on the nitrogen partial pressure as well as the slag composition. The greatest partition ratios were achieved at 0.6 atm CO/0.4 atm N-2 with low silica content in the slag. The concentration of MgO in the slag seems to have little or no impact on the boron partition ratio.

  • 11. White, Jesse F.
    et al.
    Allertz, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    Du, Sichen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Mikro-modellering.
    The thermodynamics of boron extraction from liquid silicon using SiO2-CaO-MgO stag treatment2013Ingår i: International Journal of Materials Research - Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 1862-5282, E-ISSN 2195-8556, Vol. 104, nr 3, s. 229-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the refining of solar-grade silicon using slag treatment, boron dissolved in the silicon is oxidized and rejected to a liquid oxide (slag) phase. In this study the partitioning of boron between liquid silicon and SiO2-CaO-MgO slags was examined at 1 873 K over a range of slag compositions and oxygen partial pressures. It was found that the distribution of boron is indeed dependent on both the slag composition and the oxygen partial pressure. The concentration of MgO seems to have little impact on the partition ratio.

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