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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Study on the effects of backhual solutions on indoor mobile deployment "macrocell vs. femtocell"2013Ingår i: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 2444-2448Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of low cost and low power base stations has been recognized in recent years as a promising cost-efficient solution and energy-efficient strategy. In this paper the femtocell and macrocell deployment options have been compared in the context of indoor mobile broadband deployment, with focus on the effect of different backhauling solutions in power consumption and the total deployment cost. This study has been based on the deployment of mobile broadband services within an area of one square kilometers in a new densely populated business district where the different user demands, spectrum bandwidths, backhaul technologies and radio access technologies are taken into account. Moreover, various deployment scenarios reflecting the business perspectives of mobile operators have been looked into as well. The main findings reached indicate that backhaul solutions contribute differently to cost and power consumption depending on the employed deployment strategy. However, contributions to the total power consumption and to the CapEx and OpEx elements of the total deployment cost elements turned to be more significant in the case of femtocell deployment scenarios than in the case of macrocell ones. It is worthy of notice that the femtocell deployment is more cost-efficient, especially in high demand situation when new macro sites are needed to be deployed.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Evaluation of Spectrum Access Options for Indoor Mobile Network Deployment2013Ingår i: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC Workshops), IEEE , 2013, s. 138-142Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The investments in indoor mobile networks are highly related to the spectrum availability and its associated authorization options. The aim of this paper is to discuss the differences in the spectrum demand taking into consideration both wide and local area network deployment requirements and the kind of actor that provides the indoor wireless access. The analysis covers different authorizations options namely licensed, unlicensed, licensed shared access (LSA) and secondary access. A quantitative approach is used to analyze the differences between macrocell and femtocell deployments focusing on deployment cost and spectrum demand. This is complemented by a qualitative study to explore and discuss the strategic business decisions of different actors in view of the available spectrum bands and spectrum authorization options. The main conclusions from this study are; spectrum has more value in macrocell deployment scenarios than in femtocell ones. More spectrum in macrocell deployment scenarios means that operators can deploy less number of new sites and exploit previous infrastructure investments. Femtocell networks are often coverage limited which allows for frequency re-use. As a consequence, the value of spectrum is not the same for mobile network operators (MNOs) and for local network operator (LNOs). MNOs are traditionally confined to macrocell deployment strategies which entail the exclusive usage of licensed bands. While, the use of licensed spectrum by LNOs may incur more cost than the cost of infrastructure deployment. This explains why the use of unlicensed bands is lucrative and viable for LNOs. Furthermore, the LSA scheme may or could soon become an enabler for LNO's business due to the prevailing technical, regulation and policies developments.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market: "in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes"2013Ingår i: 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes. Such schemes are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lower the spectrum access barriers. Emerging spectrum authorization schemes such as secondary access (TV White Space) and Licensed Shared Access (LSA) are expected to open doors for new actors rather than traditional MNOs to access licensed spectrum resources at reasonable costs. These schemes will allow actors such as Facility Owners (FO), Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to invest in indoor mobile network infrastructure. These actors can act as Local Network Operators (LNO) and build their business models around provisioning of mobile services in locations where there seems to be a hole or lack of service coverage in a particular area within the mobile network operators (MNOs) service footprint. This paper highlights the differences between indoor deployment and outdoor deployment in the light of the available spectrum bands to be used and the possible business models for MNOs and LNOs. In short, the possible investment strategies for provisioning indoor mobile services vary between MNOs and LNOs cases due to economic and regulatory aspects surrounding them. The main finding in this study indicates that the willingness of MNOs to invest in dedicated indoor solutions is driven by the balance between the potential revenues and the deployment cost. Moreover MNOs have more spectrum and investment options compared to LNOs who must bond their investment strategies to the available spectrum resources (i.e. the regulations of spectrum access).

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    The Incentives and Challenges of Delivering Linear Broadcasting Services over Cellular Network in Developing Countries: Sudan as Case study2014Ingår i: The 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society,Brussels, Belgium, 22nd - 25th June 2014, Brussels: nternational Telecommunications Society , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Broadcasting sector has been evolved in terms of service production, transmission platform and reception devices in the last few decades. In contrast to cable and satellite platform, which are suitable for fixed reception only, the terrestrial digital platform can support portable, mobile and fixed reception scenarios. In general, there are two options of mobile multimedia service; one is based on a mobile communication network with IP cast known as MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services), while the other is based on broadcast technology. In the context of convergence, the players in the mobile sector argues that unlike traditional mobile  network systems, where the use was restricted to a given application, emerging  mobile networks will be able to carry a variety of services and accordingly separate broadcasting networks will no longer be required. In line with argument, it is not economically viable to roll out dedicated wireless broadband networks by the broadcasters to meet the increasing demand for interactive broadcasting services. That is why the broadcasters may look for innovative mechanism to deliver the broadcast services over mobile broadband network owned by the telecommunication operators.

    The focus on this paper is to investigate the incentives and challenges for such trend in developing countries; taking Sudan as case study. The main conclusion in this paper indicate that a potential economic incentive for delivering the broadcasting service over cellular network in Sudan subject to the deployment of high efficient mobile network. Moreover, the mobile operators may consider support such approach considering the increase demand for additional frequency resource.  However, the key challenges remain in how to develop a suitable regulations landscape to assure fair and competitive business practices on hand while guaranteeing the continuation of the public broadcasting service. In this regard, a new regulation framework needs to be developed to separate the three key functions in digital terrestrial broadcasting value chain (namely the content production and distribution). Further on, the necessary interconnection regulations need to put on place in order to pave the way for rollout of common platform that are necessary for interactive and nonlinear services. 

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Toward capacity-efficient, cost-efficient and power-efficient deployment strategy for indoor mobile broadband2013Ingår i: 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and smallcells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing subscriber demand for coverage and capacity. The main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use low-power radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and a more environment-friendly operation. The use of low-power radio base stations leads to reduction of energy consumption in mobile communication networks power. The aim of this study is to conduct a comparative study between homogenous macrocell deployment and indoor smallcell deployments as alternative solutions for provision of the required indoor coverage and capacity. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of backhaul solutions being critical components in the smallcell network deployment. Furthermore, the scope of the study is extended to cover the investigation of the value of the heterogeneous (i.e. hybrid marcocell-femtocell) deployment scenario as a cost and power-efficient solution versus the homogenous marcocell deployment scenario in view of the variations in the mobile network traffic during the day. The main findings indicate that the CapEx and OpEx of the backhaul solution represent the major part of the total deployment cost in the indoor smallcell deployment scenario (i.e. femtocell case) compared to those of the macrocell deployment scenario. Nonetheless, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from the use of indoor smallcell (i.e. femtocell) remains a satisfactory and convenient motivation considering the traffic variation across the day, traffic distribution between indoor and outdoor locations and the keenness to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

  • 6.
    Alvarez Alvarez, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the potential opportunities that can be attained with the use of smart devices in order to gather data or automate processes. This type of communications between devices with minimal human intervention is referred to as Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications that can be applied to optimize resources and improve service delivery applications. Smart Grid is one of the M2M communications applications that is attaining more attention during recent years, because of its potential to change the complete energy ecosystem; going from a unidirectional system to a bidirectional one where customers will have an important role in the ecosystem.Depending on the country and its characteristics and situation, Smart Grid development can be very different. This article identifies commonalities and differences in Smart Grid communication development considering the current status in developed and developing countries. The process is done by evaluating the following techno-economic aspects: Technology development, Public initiatives, Regulator policies and Economic situation/Business perspective of the country. The article is concluded by showing that regulator policies regarding the level of liberalization in the energy market are a key element when defining business strategies and different stages of Smart Grid communications development has a critical influence in the definition of business models, as it defines the key activities, partners and value proposition for the business.

  • 7.
    Alvarez Alvarez, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Smart Energy: Competitive Landscape and Collaborative Business Models2015Ingår i: 2015 18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks, ICIN 2015, IEEE Communications Society, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent years several technologies and services based in Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine communications (M2M) have appeared in many different sectors, like healthcare, transport, logistics, media or utilities. When new technologies (like Smart Grid or Smart Energy) appear two types of challenges can be defined: technical and business challenges, therefore innovation has to be applied in both of them. Too often innovation is focus on the technical evolution and underestimated on the business field, however it is a key aspect for new technologies and services to reach commercial success. Traditional business models in the energy sector will suffer big changes in the next years, as the Smart Grid concept is developed.By the advent of new services and applications, horizontal and vertical partnerships with competitors and other actors will take place. In this context collaboration between actors, partnerships and agreements will be of key importance. This paper investigates the different actors involved in a Smart Energy ecosystem, its possible activities and suitable business models for the different Smart Grid building blocks or milestones.

  • 8.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Coopetition for Mobile Service Provisioning: Is it about infrastructures, services or both?2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means of enhancing our everyday lives, ICT industry has caused and experienced significant transformations during past two decades. This transformation relates to technological advances within ICT, and beyond the ICT ecosystem. Wireless ICT is also not an exception in this regard. Accordingly, if we consider Internet of Things (IoT) as the main enabler for transformation, M2M is then the technological enabler of IoT that represent the Wireless ICT in the process of transformation.

    In this thesis we benefit from the concept of Smart City as a place where Wireless ICT participates for digitalizing other industries. We investigate how smartification is taking place, where our findings show that wireless ICT mainly empowers other industries to provide M2M-enabled services. Consequently, this participation imposes major changes on the wireless ICT ecosystem itself. Therefore, we study the changes that are forming the “future wireless ICT”. We have studied cases from smart cities, and expanded our data collection by performing semi-structured interviews with experts and decision makers, as well as participating in multiple projects and workshops. Accordingly, we have benefited from two major theories for analyzing the collected data; namely ARA model and Five Forces framework.

    Finally, we argue that traditional actors (i.e. MNOs & Vendors), first have to adopt value co-creation in new businesses. This means cooperation among these actors, which changes the Seller-Buyer relationship to Supplier-Customer, in which they co-create the value. Accordingly, we argue that the linear processes of creating value are inefficient in these new markets and value networks must be adopted instead. As a result, we introduce “vertical coopetition” as a dominant business relationship among traditional actors, and new entrants in future wireless ICT. As the main contribution of this thesis, we discuss the logic behind vertical coopetition while comparing it with horizontal coopetition.

  • 9.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Alvarez Alvarez, Oscar
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Coopetition in M2M Ecosystem - The Case of Smart Cities2015Ingår i: 2015 12TH ANNUAL IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SENSING, COMMUNICATION, AND NETWORKING - WORKSHOPS (SECON WORKSHOPS), IEEE , 2015, s. 13-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the potential opportunities that can be attained with promoting Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC); a concept that can be reached based on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The SSC concept is then considered achievable by horizontal integration of participating industries in its ecosystem in order to empower sustainability. This approach requires cooperation and sharing resources among co-existing multiple industrial verticals as well as collaboration among competitors (Coopetition). As a result, Machine to Machine (M2M) communications, as the most relevant subcategory of ICT in this context, requires proper coopetition patterns in its ecosystem. In this paper we identify the major roles (activities) in the M2M ecosystem in the context of Smart Cities. Next we define the actors who are capable of performing these roles and present a diagram showing plausible business relations among them. Eventually we discuss the complexity of resources in this context and present different forms of sharing resources among participating actors that is based on coopetition.

  • 10.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Laya, Andres
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Alonso-Zarate, J.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Business Development in the Internet of Things: A Matter of Vertical Cooperation2017Ingår i: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 135-141, artikel-id 7842424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart and connected devices can improve industrial processes, and generate new and better services. While this premise is well understood within the ICT industry, there is a challenge in extending this knowledge to vertical industries. The potential of the Internet of Things lies in the interaction among industries working together toward value co-creation. Firms need to look beyond their internal business models and explore cooperative perspectives to define new business opportunities. In this article, we look into the relevance of vertical cooperation in the area of IoT and highlight the need to develop new value networks that leverage this cooperation and enable the creation of new business models. To lead our discussions, we use the examples of two major building blocks of smart cities: intelligent transport systems and health and well being services based on connected devices and solutions.

  • 11.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Laya, Andrés
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Value Creation and Coopetition in M2M Ecosystem: - The Case of Smart City2016Ingår i: 2016 IEEE 27TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR, AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), IEEE , 2016, s. 330-335Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless ICT as a subcategory of the ICT industry has long been serving end users as its direct customers. The value for end users, i.e. connectivity as the end product of this industry, has been created in a linear chain where two major group of actors have been cooperating with each other: Telecom Equipment Vendors (TEV) and Mobile Network Operators (MNO). By the demand of other industries for connecting devices/machines in order to enable various services, Machine to Machine (M2M) communications and Internet of Things have emerged as new concepts where Wireless ICT could serve other industries. As a result “connectivity” became an enabler (service) and not the final product.

    In this paper we argue that linear telecom value chains are incapable of serving this new demand, since wireless ICT requires to co-create value with other industries. This causes the formation of telecom value networks in which traditional telecom actors have to form new (different) business relationships with each other; Cooperation with competitors and Competition with cooperators.

  • 12.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Awadelakrim Widaa, Ashraf
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Cooperation patterns in Smallcell networks: Risks and opportunities to distinguish the win-win model2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation and collaboration with either competitors and/or other actors in the ecosystem seems to become a relevant method for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in order to decrease costs and boost revenues at the same time. But, there are always risks and imperfections in front of such models such as losing control over network, empowering existing or potential competitors and unwillingness to contribute evenly in different cases with other actors. In this paper we discuss possible cooperation patterns for indoor smallcell networks, adopted from successful cooperation patterns in macro cellular networks. This is done by analyzing three main areas: Deployment of smallcells, sharing strategies and outsourcing. Based on the works done in this field, an intersection of these three areas is missing that is studying possible cooperation patterns with all possible actors (operators, third parties and Facility owners) of shared smallcell networks.

    The aim of this paper is to see how it is possible to enable cases where all involved actors benefit from the cooperation pattern, by looking into existing solutions as well as proposing new patterns that a multitude of actors may be willing to adopt. Since there is no distinct answer for such a question, the proposed Wholesale model or Comprehensive system helps mobile operators to rethink about smallcell specific business models. This investigation enables distinguishing between revenue-efficient and cost-efficient smallcell network deployments for both operators and other investors.

  • 13.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Awadelakrim Widaa, Ashraf
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Regulations for and against Cooperation in smallcells: How could regulations stimulate co-opetition by supporting sharing?2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperation between Mobile Network Operators (MNO), as competing entities, has become a solution to overcome lack of revenue by reducing expenditures during recent years; where theses cooperation patterns consist of horizontal and vertical models. As much as all these models apply in macrocell networks, they are all applicable in smallcell networks as well, but it is observed that smallcells are still deployed in single operator patterns.

    On the other hand, telecom regulatory authorities are always concerned about cooperation between operators since they prefer fare distribution of market power among competing operators. The idea to stimulate competition, in order to bring maximum profit for end users, is an ultimate goal for regulators. At the same time, regulators are worried if a high level of collaboration between operators introduces new dilemmas such as creating “closed clubs” with significant market power.

    In this paper we first discuss interpretations of national European telecom regulators from the European electronic communications regulatory framework, which is considered as a reference for all countries. Surprisingly, we see that European countries have different interpretations of the same European framework while transposing it into their regulations. Next, the effect of these regulations that are either pro or against cooperation in smallcell networks is investigated. We conclude by presenting the idea that European regulators may need to revise their legislations by considering regulation for promoting smallcell wholesale network sharing as the proper solution.

  • 14.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Álvarez, Óscar
    KTH.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    MTC Value Network for Smart City Ecosystems2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking for new markets and revenue streams, the future Smart Cities comprise a good opportunity for traditional actors of the telecommunication industry. This opportunity requires a new mindset among these actors that corresponds to re-positioning in the Smart City value chain. This means that, in order to play a role that can not be overlooked, Telecom actors should perform rather different blocks of the Smart City value chain compared to their traditional activity blocks in Mobile Telephony value chain. The Fifth Generation of mobile telecommunications technology (5G), by some actors, is then considered as the major ICT enabler for this new paradigm.

    This paper intends to highlight the role of Machine Type Communications (MTC) for enabling Smart Cities. In order to do so, we introduce the building blocks of Smart City followed by four use cases from Intelligent Transport Systems and Digital Built Environment. We use these cases as the proof of concept for defining the generic MTC activities in the context of Smart City. Eventually the paper introduces the MTC value network in the context of Smart City, based on the resources associated with the activities.

  • 15.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Álvarez, Óscar
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Repositioning in Value Chain for Smart City Ecosystems: -a Viable Strategy for Historical Telecom Actors2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a historical business model, Mobile Network operators (MNO) design their own network, own their infrastructure, operate the network and offer services on top of it; a voice-revenue dependent business. Now with the data provisioning, since the revenues associated with data do not comply with the pattern of increasing data usage in mobile networks, MNOs need new revenue streams. As a result, MNOs have started changing their business models by offering services besides their usual competences. This complicated approach has then forced them to think of possible cooperation patterns in order to benefit from horizontal collaboration with others, instead of being vertically integrated. On the Other hand, Telecom Equipment Vendors (TEV) used to design their business models in a vertical manner as well. TEVs would build and manufacture equipment and sell them to their customers in a Business-to-Business (B2B) fashion while in some cases operate the networks on behalf of their customers.

    Looking for new markets and revenue streams, the future Smart Cities comprise a good opportunity for MNOs and TEVs. This opportunity then requires a new mindset among these actors. In the new mindset, these actors should accept to reposition themselves in the new value chain. This means that, in order to play a role that can not be overlooked, MNOs and TEVs should perform rather different blocks of the Smart City value chain. This paper intends to provide an analysis of how the traditional telecom actors (MNOs and TEVs) have changed their business strategy and repositioned in the context of the Smart City service provision. In order to do that, we will introduce the traditional telecom actors and the existing value chain, later on, smart city concept and use cases will be introduced, finalizing with an analysis of how the future smart city value chain and the repositioning of these actors.

  • 16.
    Laya, Andres
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Tele-economics in MTC: what numbers would not show2015Ingår i: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things, ISSN 2414-1399, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates on the relevance of Tele-Economic research to understand the effect that Machine-Type Commu- nications (MTC) has on different markets and also the market forces affecting the adoption of services based on MTC. The paper is presented in a tutorial form, offering concept and definitions of economic terms that are gaining relevance in the technical community in the MTC context. The concept of services is further analysed in as a change in the tele- communication industry mind-set in order to tap into the economic value of MTC in the realization of the Internet-of- Things. Finally, insights are presented looking forward into the relevance of Tele-Economic research for 5G.

  • 17.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Shared smallcell networks: Multi-operator or third party solutions - Or both?2013Ingår i: 2013 11th International Symposium and Workshops on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2013, New York: IEEE , 2013, s. 41-48Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Network sharing is a commonly used solution for macro cellular networks when mobile operators want to exploit benefits of sharing infrastructure, typically to save network costs. For local area and indoor networks infrastructure sharing using distributed antenna systems (DAS) and repeaters are commonly used solutions to improve indoor coverage. For these applications multi-operator solutions are well known and supported by both standardization bodies and by collaboration practices. However, when local networks are discussed in terms of femtocell solutions, offloading or heterogeneous networks, the multi-operator context seems to be forgotten. Small cells are often presented in a single-operator context. This does not comply with market demand and practices, since facility owners neither want one single mobile operator to dominate the capacity provision nor accept multiple indoor infrastructures provided by multiple mobile operators. In this paper we will discuss the business model implications of different multi-operator solutions for indoor deployment. The key findings are in the areas of: i) how multi-operator small cell solutions can fit into existing market practices when it comes to operator business, ii) how local network operators (3rd parties) and outsourcing can play a role in the business landscape, and iii) how different (novel) spectrum allocation and access strategies can play a role for indoor network deployment.

  • 18.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Mölleryd, Bengt G.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Network cooperation between mobile operators: why and how competitors cooperate?2013Ingår i: IMP Conference 2103, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    After year 2000 with the introduction of third generation (3G) mobile networks a new type ofcooperation between competitors emerged, network sharing. Cost reduction is often mentionedas the main driver for network sharing. However, cost aspects are only part of the story “why”operators cooperate. In this paper we discuss multiple aspects of “why” operators cooperate andalso “how” competing mobile operators cooperate.Besides cost the “why” aspect is discussed in terms of market position, market entry andexploitation of the resources and skills of the sharing partner but also drawbacks of sharing. Thepatterns of cooperation are illustrated by analyzing how roles, responsibilities and resources canbe distributed among the mobile operators. The findings are based on case studies where wemake comparison in three different domains. In the time domain we compare network sharing inSweden the years 2000 and 2010. From a cost perspective the drivers to share networks havedecrease since many base station sites can be re-used. Anyway, new network sharing companiesare formed in order to make the network operation more efficient.We also compare cooperation between operators at the Swedish and Indian mobile markets. Inboth countries the competition is very strong. Network sharing is used but in India thecooperation is organized through tower companies, hence the operator cooperation is weak.Finally we look into network sharing principles for indoor network deployment in Sweden. Thecooperation between operators is strong but not as strong as for the network sharing jointventures. The tie between two operators can be said to be weaker since several mobile operators,the facility owner and also enterprises may be included in cooperation. In addition theinvestment risk is lower.

  • 19.
    Popescu, Razvan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Complementing macrocell deficits with either smallcells or Wi-Fi: willingness to choose based on the cost-capacity analysis2013Ingår i: 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013 88530, International Telecommunications Society (ITS), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the increasing mobile data traffic adds extra pressure on the almost congested mobile networks. In order to meet the new demand, mobile operators have to improve their networks but as revenues are not expected to rise, they have to add extra capacity in a cost-efficient way. The solution might come from shifting the mobile data traffic towards indoor alternative networks, an approach known as mobile data offloading.Among indoor solutions two technologies stepped forward, Wi-Fi and smallcells. This paper analyses the two technologies as complementing solutions for macrocell layer in the mobile data offloading context. The main discussed questions are whether the two solutions are interchangeable and what are the risks and pitfalls when choosing one of the two technologies. In order to answer the research questions, based on a proposed real life deployment scenario, a capacity-cost calculation has been driven. Thus, a newly built office building lacking indoor mobile coverage has been considered. Based on the calculated offered capacity, the deployment costs for a comprehensive solution using either of the two technologies have been estimated. The cost of provisioning for different solutions is based on the fact that either of these solutions needs to be built from scratch and no former type of coverage exists.Regarding the interchangeability question, based on the conducted analysis, we claim that the answer is both “Yes” and “No”. “Yes” since the total cost of ownership for each technology is one order of magnitude lower compared to the traditional macrocell deployment. “No”, since deploying a smallcell network is four times more expensive than the Wi-Fi case when the same capacity is required. Thus, we can conclude that Wi-Fi and smallcells are two complementary rather than competing technologies. The goal is to offer a solution where the end-customer cannot tell whether he is connected on Wi-Fi or cellular. Integrating the two technologies into one single offered solution comes as the next normal step, more an evolution rather than a revolution.

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