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  • 1.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Erixon Aalto, Hanna
    et al.
    Marcus, Lars
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Towards A Social-Ecological Urbanism: Co-producing knowledge through design in the Albano Resilient Campus project in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If we are to promote urban sustainability and resilience, social-ecological knowledge must be better integrated in urban planning and design projects. Due to gaps in the two cultures of thinking associated with the disciplines of ecology and design, such integration has, however, proven challenging. In mainstream practice, ecologists often act as sub-consultants; they are seldom engaged in the creative and conceptual phases of the process. Conversely, research aiming to bridgethe gap between design and ecology has tended to be dominated by arelatively static and linear outlook on what the design process is, and what it could be. Further, few concrete examples of the co-production of ecological and design knowledge exist. In this paper, we give an account of a transdisciplinary design proposal for Albano Resilient Campus in Stockholm, discussing how design – seen as a process and an assemblage of artifacts – can act as a framework for co-producing knowledge and operationalizing concepts of resilience and ecosystem services. Througha design-based and action-oriented approach, we discuss how such a collaborative design process may integrate ecological knowledge into urban design through three concrete practices: a) iterative prototyping and generative matrix models; b) designerly mediators or “touchstones”; and c) legible, open-ended, comprehensive narratives. In the conclusion, we sketch the contours of a social-ecological urbanism, speculatingon possible broader and changed roles for ecologists, designers, and associated actors within this framework.

  • 3.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Balancing quantitative analysis and social concern2012In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rereading Julienne Hanson’s ‘Urban transformations: A history of design ideas’, published in Urban Design International in 2000, one is immediately reminded of Hanson’s versatile research work that apart from extensive studies on urban issues, also includes major contributions to the research on buildings, architectural history and design methodology, which all are distinctly present in ‘Urban transformations’. As a matter of fact, this article can to equal degrees be characterised as a piece of original architectural history, a contribution to analytical methodology, a broad and thorough empirical study of the social implications of housing estates in the UK, or as a critical reflection in design methodology. This is a pattern recognisable in many articles by Hanson, why one is also reminded of the unfortunate fact that there are several such broad and well-investigated themes of hers that so far have not been realised in full-length books.

  • 4.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    A sustainable urban fabric: The development and application of analytical urban design theory2013In: Sustainable Stockholm: Exploring sustainability in Europe's greenest city / [ed] Metzger, J., and Rader Olsson, A., Routledge , 2013, p. 71-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Nordström, T.
    Stockholm central station: Creating spatial capital through urban design2012In: The Future of Cities and Regions: Simulation, Scenario and Visioning, Governance and Scale, Springer Netherlands , 2012, p. 297-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project concerns the most centrally located and spatially complex area in central Stockholm. It is located directly to the west of the internationally well-known Stockholm City area developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Presently significant reconstruction of the central station and its track areas is under way which will also open up a large new development area in one of the most attractive locations in Stockholm. For this project Spacescape, an architectural office specializing in analysis of urban space and urban development projects in relation to urban life qualities such as, attractiveness, public safety and retail support formed an integrated consultancy group together with architects and landscape architects, delivering evaluation and design support to the project. This concerned both an analysis of the current status of the area, including the spatially complex interior of the central station, as well as support and evaluation of the different stages in the proposal. The themes analysed included spatial capital (accessibility to the rest of the city, especially for people working and living in the city), pedestrian flows, wayfinding, recreational qualities and public safety. Through continuous analyses during the design process Spacescape were able to support the project in a direction providing greater benefits in these areas and telling images show how the new proposal could create a much better outcome than the current one. 

  • 6.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Westin, Sara
    University of Uppsala.
    Suonperä Liebst, Lasse
    University of Copenhagen.
    Network buzz: conception and geometry of networks in geography, architecture and sociology2013In: Proceeding - 9th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kim, Y., Park, H. and Seo,K., Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of networks has in the recent decade rapidly risen to a top position in a long series of disciplines. Given that network is a key concept in space syntax theory and methodology, this paper investigates the origins and later development of network analysis in the adjacent fields of sociologyand geography, not least since networks often are seen as a language that can connect and translate between systems and phenomena addressed in different disciplines. The overarching aim in the paper is to contribute to a more precise understanding of what network concept actually is in use in space syntax and, in extension, what this particular version has to offer the larger and more established disciplines of sociology and geography.

    In sociology we find an initial discourse on networks already in Georg Simmel that to a certain degreechallenged the conception of sociology strongly promoted by the more powerful Émile Durkheim, but was later lost. The concept of networks, however, remerged, not least in the work of John Scott that made direct references to the emergence of network analysis in geography. In geography we find networks to be an intrinsic part of the quantitative revolution in the 1950s and 60s, heralded by Peter Haggett and others, where networks were promoted as an alternative to the regional approach in geography. This opens for an exciting vista of geometric foundations of geography, with pertinent repercussions also for architecture.

    However, this is clearly to move between distinctly different conceptions of networks; between what we can call social, physical, and cognitive networks. With this distinction in mind, there is a possibility to more precisely position networks as conceptualised in space syntax. Socially, networks in space syntax are representations of, what Durkheim referred to as, social morphology, which distinctly can never reach beyond the threshold of sociology but deals with “material substratum of society”, which thereby offers a distinct identity and limit to the field of space syntax. Geographically, space syntax thus represents a peculiar form of network analysis demarcated by the physical fact of the city. Such ontology of ‘regional networks’ (cf. Jessop) is not unusual in geography, but fundamentally alien to the contemporary concept of networks found within sociology, emphasizing networks as an ontological alternative to such region-thinking (Latour, Scott). Finally, and possibly most originally, representations of networks in space syntax seem to develop a particular strand of advanced cognitive geometry that extends and complements the aims of behavioural and cognitive geography.

  • 7.
    Sardari Sayyar, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Designing difference: Interpreting and testing jane Jacobs criteria for diversity in space syntax terms2013In: Proceedings - 9th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young, K., Park, H. and Seo, H., Sejong Unviersity Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most influential contribution to the discussion about the relation between the urban fabric and the generation of diversity, was put forth fifty years ago by Jane Jacobs (Jacobs 1961). More specifically, she pointed out four major criteria that, according to her, were necessary for the development of diverse urban public spaces: small blocks, mix of primary uses, aged buildings and concentration of people. All these variables have since then been ubiquitous in debates on urban planning and design and have also been applied in design of concrete projects. At the same time, it is quite obvious how they all are quite vague and lack rigorous definitions, why, even though they have become popular truths, we know very little about their actual effects.

    In this paper we therefore redefine Jacobs' criteria in the analytically more rigorous concepts and measures developed in space syntax research and its extensions. We interpret Jacobs’ criterion ‘small blocks’ into measures of relative distance in the street network more particularly the measurements integration and choice, applied at different radii, argued to represent analysis at different scales. The criterion ‘concentration of people’ is interpreted as urban density. More precisely, this is measured using attraction accessibility analysis of night and day populations developed in the Place Syntax Tool (Ståhle, Marcus, and Karlström 2005), once again at different radii. ‘Mix of primary functions’ is partly covered by analysis of day and night populations but here we have also added accessibility to commercial activities, furthermore, an important difference is that we focus, the degree of mix and balance between these activities and not only their size. The final criterion ‘aged buildings’ is analysed as degree of land-division into discreet plots and parcels, which in earlier studies has proven to correlate well with diversity in urban uses (Marcus 2010).

    These measures are applied in an extensive empirical investigation of retail distribution in Stockholm comparing the intensity (amount of shops) and diversity (variation of shops) in both local suburban centres and between the inner city and the outer city, as a substantial test of Jacobs’ criteria in this form of space syntax interpretation. The results in general clearly support Jacobs’ argument but also give rise to further discussion. In extension, this study also contributes empirical support to the principally vital question, not least for space syntax research, about how spatial form not only play an important part in generating variations in size of co-presence throughout urban space, but also how it is part in generating variations of the constitution of co-presence, that is, the diversity of co-presence.

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