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  • 1.
    Barragán-Beaud, Camila
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Aalto, Finland.
    Pizarro-Alonso, A.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Syri, S.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Carbon tax or emissions trading?: An analysis of economic and political feasibility of policy mechanisms for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in the Mexican power sector2018Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 122, s. 287-299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a comparative assessment of carbon-pricing instruments for the Mexican electricity sector, contrasting a carbon tax with an emissions trading scheme (ETS). The assessment is performed in terms of economic impacts and political feasibility. Model-based scenarios considering different price and quantity levels are analyzed on Balmorel-MX, a cost optimization bottom-up model of the Mexican electricity system. The political feasibility is evaluated using an online survey and interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholder groups. The assessment suggests that an ETS is the most appropriate instrument for the Mexican case. We recommend to set the cap as 31% abatement in relation to a baseline, which is suggested to be 102 MtCO2 by 2030, given the business-as-usual baseline used as reference by the Mexican government (202 MtCO2) is found to leave cost-effective abatement potential untapped. An emission trading system with such design has higher cost-efficiency and lower distributional effects than a carbon tax at equivalent ambition level (15 USD/tCO2). The political feasibility analysis confirms the assessment, as it is in line with the priorities of the stakeholder groups, allows earmarking carbon revenue and avoids exempting natural gas from carbon pricing.

  • 2.
    Silveira, Semida
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    De Lange, Michael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Exploring new pathways to promote the transition towards electrification of Public Transport in urban areas: the case of Stockholm.2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities struggle to provide public transport services at competitive costs, they also have a major responsibility to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions, thus often facing a dilemma between multiple objectives, and short-term versus long-term solutions. Still significant efforts and progress are being made in this direction. The city of Stockholm has already achieved broad penetration of renewables in bus fleets and now aims at 20% electrification in 2030. This paper explores ways to overcome infrastructure and cost barriers and facilitate the transition towards fully renewable pathways in the transport sector. The impacts of externalities such as air pollution and noise exposure are observed in the context of property price dynamics, aiming at finding patterns that can justify electrification pathways for public bus transport in Stockholm. An overlay analysis combining public transport hotspots with empirical data on air and noise pollution in Stockholm inner-inner city area is linked to a property price analysis. This allows an evaluation of relationships between property prices and urban externalities resulting from road transport. The analysis shows that the properties with the highest selling prices for the year 2015 generally fall outside the most polluted traffic and noisy avenues with extensive public transport. An optimum location in terms of price premiums can be observed between the 100-meter and 300-meter band. The results indicate that electrification of public transport may have implications for real estate property values. If captured in a broader urban planning context, barriers to the sustainable transition for transport systems can be partly overcome, particularly when it comes to the high investment costs for infrastructure. Thus municipalities need to consider new planning frameworks to actively capture the multiple dividends of electrification of bus transport, motivating the transition not only in terms of emissions reductions but also towards value creation and total improvement of the urban environment. 

  • 3.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Is energy efficiency the forgotten key to successful energy policy?: Investigating the Swedish case2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to become one of the first fossil-free welfare countries in the world. In 2009, specific energy and climate policy targets were announced for 2020, which exceed the ambition of respective EU targets in some areas. The overarching objective of the thesis is to understand the role of energy efficiency in Swedish energy and climate policy frameworks, and identify the gaps that need to be addressed. In this context, energy efficiency is recognized as a challenge to address. Yet, there are reasons to believe that it is not being pursued with the same dedication as other energy and climate-related targets.

    This hypothesis is tested using Mixed Methods research, with cases on different sectors of the Swedish economy, namely energy intensive industry and public bus transport, as well as comparisons with energy efficiency within the EU-28. With the help of abductive reasoning, the observations are inferred to an explanation, and common themes for Swedish energy efficiency policies emerge.

    The evidence indicates that energy efficiency has received lower priority than other energy and climate policies. This is demonstrated by the conflict between energy efficiency, emission reduction and renewable energy targets, for example in the case of public transport. There is generally a mismatch between targets and the instruments in place. Thus more attention should be given to energy efficiency and its potential benefits for the Swedish energy system.

    Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are not being fully realized, but new policy initiatives could provide the necessary support to harness the potential. In-depth evaluation of new policy instruments should be integrated in the policy-making process, in order to provide a clear picture of costs versus benefits. An example is given with a Cost-Benefit Analysis for energy efficiency obligations targeting the Swedish energy intensive industry.

    Simplicity and transparency in the introduction and monitoring of new instruments need to be sought for. Energy efficiency should be given first priority in relation to other energy and climate targets. The basis for future policies should be grounded now in order for energy efficiency to become the key for successful Swedish energy policy. 

  • 4.
    Xylia, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the challenge of road transport electrification using a systems approach for the particular context of Stockholm’s public transport system. The objective is to identify the benefits of large-scale bus electrification on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the cost and planning considerations required for achieving such a shift. Quantitative and qualitative methods are deployed for answering the research questions, including the development and use of an optimisation model, survey research, and interviews. 

    The results of the optimisation model developed for this thesis show that an optimal system configuration is obtained with a combination of electricity and biodiesel. The high energy efficiency of electric buses would lead to a significant reduction of energy consumption in Stockholm, even if not all bus routes in the network are electrified. Although larger battery capacities could support the electrification of more bus routes, this does not necessarily lead to lower environmental impact. In any case, electricity from renewable sources should be used to maximise emission reductions. 

    The results also show that the annual costs necessary to invest in electric buses can be balanced by lower fuel costs. An effective utilisation of the charging infrastructure is of high priority in order to justify the costs of the required investments. The model results confirm the benefits of creating a dense initial network of charging stations in the inner city’s public transport hubs, which would facilitate the electrification of multiple routes and high infrastructure utilisation at lower costs. 

    The survey and interviews with stakeholders indicate that multiple issues affect the choice of charging technology, not just costs. Compatibility, reliability, bus dwell time, as well as weather conditions and visual impact are some of the additional aspects taken into account. The introduction of electricity tax exemption for electric buses, the expansion of the electric bus premium to include private stakeholders, as well as the expansion of infrastructure investment subsidy programmes are among the policy instruments suggested for assisting a faster introduction of electric buses into Stockholm’s public transport system. 

    Although the focus is on Stockholm, the conclusions of this work can be applicable to other cities in Sweden and around the world, which also face the challenge of making public transport a more sustainable option.

  • 5.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Fossil-free Public Transport: Prescriptive Policy Analysis for the Swedish Bus Fleets2016Inngår i: 13th European Energy Market Conference -EEM 2016. IEEE XPlore, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elicitation and processing of the relevant informationis the core of any policy decision-making process. This studypresents a prescriptive policy analysis for the “fossil-free fueldeployment for public transport buses at the national level inSweden”, using a policy-oriented modelling and simulation tool,Sense4us1, that supports systems analysis for policy involving: (i)structuring of policy problems using the labelled causal mappingmethod, (ii) ex-ante impact assessment using scenario-baseddynamic simulation modelling and (iii) ex-ante evaluation of theconsidered policy options based on the simulation results andusing a set of standard criteria for evaluation of EU policyinterventions. The results are most of all useful for designing apolicy pathway for public bus transport that is bothenvironmentally sustainable and economically feasible.Moreover, the process allows involvement of the keystakeholders to reflect various priorities and preferences.

  • 6.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Leduc, S.
    Patrizio, P.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Kraxner, F.
    Developing a dynamic optimization model for electric bus charging infrastructure2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, s. 776-783Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban regions account for 64% of global primary energy use and 70% of carbon emissions. For that reason, options to decarbonize urban environments are receiving increasing attention. In this context, public transport shall play a key role in decarbonizing urban road transport. One efficient way to achieve that is shifting towards clean fuels and modern electric buses, an option that is already under implementation in several cities around the world. In this paper, the basis for developing a dynamic optimization model for establishing charging infrastructure for electric buses is presented, using Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study. The model places constraints depending on the bus stop type (end or middle stop) which affects the time available for charging at each particular location. It also identifies the optimal technology type for the buses: conductive or inductive. In addition, the electric buses compete with buses run on biogas or biodiesel. In this paper, we present the results of a cost minimization scenario with constraints placed on the available charging time and power, differentiated between end stops and major public transport hubs. The mean charging time is 7.33 minutes, with a standard deviation of 4.78 minutes for all bus stops. The inner city bus routes require less charging time, which ranges on average at around 3 minutes. The installation of chargers at the locations proposed in the model would require scheduling adjustments and careful planning for the density of charging occasions.

  • 7.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Laurent, Achille
    Maastricht University.
    Patrizio, Piera
    Maastricht University.
    van der Meer, Yvonne
    Maastricht University.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Impact of bus electrification on carbon emissions: the case of StockholmInngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the potential impact of various options for decarbonization of public bus transport in Stockholm, with particular attention to electrification. An optimization model is used for locating electric bus chargers and estimating the associated carbon emissions, using a life cycle perceptive and various implementation scenarios. Emissions associated with fuels and batteries of electric powertrains are considered to be the two main factors affecting carbon emissions. The model is applied to the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that, although higher battery capacities could help electrify more routes of the city’s bus network, this does not necessarily lead to a reduction of the total emissions. The results show the lowest climate change impact occurring when electric buses use batteries with a capacity of 120 kWh. The fuel choices influence significantly the environmental impact of a bus network. For example, the use of electricity is a better choice than first generation biofuels from a carbon emission perspective. However, the use of second generation biofuels, such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), can directly compete with the Nordic electricity mix. Among all fuel options, certified renewable electricity has the lowest impact. The analysis also shows that electrification couldbe beneficial for local pollutant reduction in Stockholm inner city even though the local emissions of publictransport are much lower than emissions from private transport.

  • 8.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria..
    Laurent, Achille-B.
    Maastricht Univ, Biobased Mat Dept, Geleen, Netherlands..
    Patrizio, Piera
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria..
    van der Meer, Yvonne
    Maastricht Univ, Biobased Mat Dept, Geleen, Netherlands..
    Kraxner, Florian
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria..
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Impact of bus electrification on carbon emissions: The case of Stockholm2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 209, s. 74-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the potential impact of various options for decarbonization of public bus transport in Stockholm, with particular attention to electrification. An optimization model is used to locate electric bus chargers and to estimate the associated carbon emissions, using a life cycle perspective and various implementation scenarios. Emissions associated with fuels and batteries of electric powertrains are considered to be the two main factors affecting carbon emissions. The results show that, although higher battery capacities could help electrify more routes of the city's bus network, this does not necessarily lead to a reduction of the total emissions. The results show the lowest life cycle emissions occurring when electric buses use batteries with a capacity of 120 kWh. The fuel choices significantly influence the environmental impact of a bus network. For example, the use of electricity is a better choice than first generation biofuels from a carbon emission perspective. However, the use of second -generation biofuels, such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), can directly compete with the Nordic electricity mix. Among all fuel options, certified renewable electricity has the lowest impact. The analysis also shows that electrification could be beneficial for reduction of local pollutants in the Stockholm inner city; however, the local emissions of public transport are much lower than emissions from private transport.

  • 9.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    A future with electric buses? Placing bus chargers in Stockholm2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Locating charging infrastructure for electric buses in Stockholm2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 78, nr 2017, s. 183-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Charging infrastructure requirements are being largely debated in the context of urban energy planning for transport electrification. As electric vehicles are gaining momentum, the issue of locating and securing the availability, efficiency and effectiveness of charging infrastructure becomes a complex question that needs to be addressed. This paper presents the structure and application of a model developed for optimizing the distribution of charging infrastructure for electric buses in the urban context, and tests the model for the bus network of Stockholm. The major public bus transport hubs connecting to the train and subway system show the highest concentration of locations chosen by the model for charging station installation. The costs estimated are within an expected range when comparing to the annual bus public transport costs in Stockholm. The model could be adapted for various urban contexts to promptly assist in the transition to fossil-free bus transport. The total costs for the operation of a partially electrified bus system in both optimization cases considered (cost and energy) differ only marginally from the costs for a 100% biodiesel system. This indicates that lower fuel costs for electric buses can balance the high investment costs incurred in building charging infrastructure, while achieving a reduction of up to 51% in emissions and up to 34% in energy use in the bus fleet.  

  • 11.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the regional bus fleets. As a result of the efforts made in the last few years, renewables respond for 60% of the fuels used in bus transport in Sweden compared to approximately 10% in 2009.  

    Political will to promote decarbonization of public transport has speeded up the shift towards renewables in bus fleets, while fuel tax exemptions have made deployment feasible. Environmental aspects, such as emission reduction potential and energy efficiency, are a priority when choosing fuels, together with infrastructure needs and fuel availability. 

    Biodiesel has been the preferred fuel while increasing deployment of renewable fuels in buses, especially in scarcely populated regions. In addition, the compatibility with traditional diesel engines has favored this option among service providers. The use ofbiogas is increasing in line with incentives at local and national level. The deployment of electricity in buses is only found in city traffic, while the major choice for regional routes is usually biodiesel. 

  • 12.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Leading or lagging in the EU? Sweden’s progress towards energy efficiency targets for 20202016Inngår i: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims at becoming one of the first fossil-free welfare countries in the world. In line with that goal, ambitious energy and climate targets were announced in 2009. The focus of this paper is energy efficiency, since its progress towards the 2020 target lags in relation to the other energy and climate policy targets. Statistical methods for time series analysis are applied in order to compare the country’s performance in comparison to the EU-28 average and explore the potential development of energy use at national and sectoral level in the years up to 2020. The results show that Swedish progress with energy efficiency does not stand out within the EU-28, in contrast with other energy and climate targets. The trend analysis also shows that it is uncertain whether the targets for 2020 will be achieved. Energy intensity may not be the most appropriate indicator for monitoring energy efficiency improvement, and absolute final energy savings should be used instead. The analysis for the three main Swedish end-use sectors shows decreasing final energy use trends in the past ten years.  However, none of the sectors is expected to show strongly decreasing trends in the upcoming years. In order to enhance the role of energy efficiency in energy and climate policy, its contribution in reducing emissions should be clarified and promoted. Finally, increased simplicity and transparency should be established when setting targets for energy efficiency and monitoring progress.

  • 13.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    On the road: fossil-free bus fleets in Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    On the road: non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investigated through a survey among environmental managers and transport planners at regional public transport authorities. The analysis highlights the challenges implied in the rapid shift that regional bus fleets are undergoing to adopt renewable fuels and reduce emissions. Political will and procurement have been strong success factors in facing these challenges. The survey indicates the stakeholders’ interest to switch to electricity for city routes, while biodiesel and HVO are preferred for longer routes. When it comes to how fuel choices are made, environmental factors seem to be prioritized, while the barriers identified are mainly economic and political.

  • 15.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    On the road to fossil-free public transport: The case of Swedish bus fleets2016Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 100, s. 397-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey and interviews with experts working with strategic planning at Public Transport Authorities. Almost 60% of the bus transport volume ran on renewables in 2014 compared to 8% in 2007, but regional variations are significant, partly due to factors such as driving conditions, bus and fuel types, typical trip lengths, and climatic conditions. However, there is no strong correlation between population densities or bus transport volume and the share of renewables achieved. This places political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as key factors affecting renewable fuel deployment. Environmental factors are a priority when choosing fuels, while barriers to renewable fuels are mainly economic and political. Meanwhile, despite the overall progress, achievements in energy efficiency improvement are falling short in comparison to emissions reduction and adoption of renewable fuels, thus requiring further attention.

  • 16.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Potential energy efficiency improvements in Swedish energy intensive industries using an Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes (EEOS) as suggested in the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) could help remove barriers to energy efficiency. However, despite the fact that such schemes have been successfully implemented and proven cost-effective in several Member States, not all countries are convinced of their potential benefits. In this paper, we investigate the policy instruments that Sweden has introduced or is planning to introduce for achieving increased industrial efficiency under the EED’s requirements. Our preliminary results show that these instruments are not exploiting the full potential of energy savings, especially in energy intensive industries. We present the design of an EEOS as an alternative policy instrument to alleviate some of the barriers to energy efficiency that the industries face today. The implications of the EED for industries in Sweden are evaluated together with the insights from EEOSs carried out in other Member States and the practices of industrial energy efficiency policies in Sweden. Finally, we identify possible pathways that could engage the industries in energy saving measures including the EEOS for removing non-economic and regulatory barriers to energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  • 17.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The role of charging technologies in upscaling the use of electric buses in public transport: experiences from demonstration projectsInngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is crucial for the functionality of urban systems. Electrification of public bus transport services is currently explored in various demonstration projects around the world. The aim of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics and differences between conductive and inductive charging technologies, and evaluate how charging infrastructure strategies could affect future upscaling of electric bus deployment in public transport. The focus is on the Nordic region. A survey with stakeholders involved with electric bus demonstration projects is performed for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each solution, and identifying the main themes emerging from project implementation and upscaling. Advantages of the conductive charging include the maturity of the technology and its higher maximum charging power compared to currently available inductive alternatives. On the other hand, inductive technology entails other benefits, such as the lack of moving parts which could reduce the maintenance costs for infrastructure, as well as minimal visibility of the equipment. The main issues likely to impact the upscaling of electric bus use are related to the maturity, cost-effectiveness, compatibility, and charging efficiency of the available technologies.

  • 18.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    The role of charging technologies in upscaling the use of electric buses in public transport: Experiences from demonstration projects2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 118, s. 399-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification of public bus transport services is currently being explored in various demonstration projects around the world. The objective of this paper is to (i) gather insights from electric bus demonstration projects with a focus on charging technologies (conductive, inductive) and strategies (slow, fast); and explore the role these factors may play as upscaling of electric bus deployment is considered. The focus is on the Nordic region. A survey with stakeholders involved with electric bus demonstration projects is performed for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each solution, and identifying the main themes emerging from project implementation and upscaling. Advantages of the conductive charging include the maturity of the technology and its higher maximum charging power compared to currently available inductive alternatives. On the other hand, inductive technology entails other benefits, such as the lack of moving parts which could reduce the maintenance costs for infrastructure, as well as minimal visibility of the equipment. The main issues likely to impact the upscaling of electric bus use are related to the maturity, cost-effectiveness, compatibility, and charging efficiency of the available technologies.

  • 19.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Duerinck, J.
    Meinke-Hubeny, F.
    Worldwide resource eficient steel production2016Inngår i: Eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 2016, s. 321-333Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel production processes are energy and emission intensive, but there are variations due to different choices of production routes, product mixes and processes. This study analyses future steel production globally, with focus on the rising availability of steel scrap, and implications for steel production capacity planning. We evaluate the development of steel demand, using the Steel Optimization Model, which provides a regiondetailed representation of technologies, energy and material flows and trade activities. We link it to the Scrap Availability Assessment Model, which estimates the theoretical steel scrap availability. The modelling horizon stretches until 2100, with 2050 serving as a benchmark for the analysis. The scenarios require a range of inputs to estimate regional pathways for steel demand including demographic development and economic growth, and these affect scrap availability. The results show that aggregated crude steel production will evolve into an almost balanced split between the primary production route using iron ore and secondary production from steel scrap by 2050 and the share of EAF will exceed by 2060 the production in BOF globally. The results also show a global increase in scrap use from 611 Mtonnes in 2015 to 1.5 Gtonnes in 2050, with highest growth being for post-consumer scrap. In 2050, almost 50 % of post-consumer scrap is expected to be traded, with the main exporter being China and major importing regions being Africa, India and other developing Asian countries. Surprisingly, the increase in scrap use does not depend much on the introduction of a global carbon price until 2050. The results are important for producers contemplating new investments, since regional availability, quality and trade patterns of scrap will influence production route choices, possibly in favor of secondary routes. Also policy instruments such as carbon taxation may affect investment choices, and favor more energy eficient and less carbon-intensive emerging technologies.

  • 20.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Duerinck, Jan
    VITO Flemish Inst Technol Res, Mol, Belgium..
    Meinke-Hubeny, Frank
    VITO Flemish Inst Technol Res, Mol, Belgium..
    Weighing regional scrap availability in global pathways for steel production processes2018Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1135-1159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the impact of the rising availability of steel scrap on the future steel production up to the year 2100 and implications for steel production capacity planning. Steel production processes are energy, resource, and emission intensive, but there are significant variations due to different production routes, product mixes, and processes. This analysis is based on the development of steel demand, using the Steel Optimization Model, which provides a region-detailed representation of technologies, energy and material flows, and trade activities. It is linked to the Scrap Availability Assessment Model which estimates the theoretical steel scrap availability. Aggregated crude steel production is estimated to evolve into an almost balanced split by 2050 between the primary production route using iron ore in the blast oven furnace and the secondary route using mostly steel scrap in the electric arc furnace. By 2060, the share of secondary steel production will exceed the share of primary steel production globally. The results also estimate a global increase in scrap use from 611 Mtonnes in 2015 to 1500 Mtonnes in 2050, with the highest growth being for post-consumer scrap. In 2050, almost 50% of post-consumer scrap is expected to be traded, with the main exporter being China and major importing regions being Africa, India, and other developing Asian countries. The results provide valuable insights on scrap availability and capacity development at the regional level for producers contemplating new investments. Regional availability, quality, and trade patterns of scrap will influence production route choices, possibly in favor of secondary routes. Also, policy instruments such as carbon taxation may affect investment choices and favor more energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive emerging technologies.

  • 21.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Comparative analysis of charging technologies for electric buses: a meta-synthesis of international experiences2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport is crucial for the functionality of urban systems. Globally, much attention is being given lately to reducing transport’s environmental impacts by shifting towards fossil-free fuels, while also improving service availability. In this context, electrification of bus transport is gaining popularity because of the high energy efficiency improvements that can be accrued, together with low emissions and noise reduction compared to conventional buses.

    Although several studies focus on engine performance and powertrain characteristics of electric buses for individual demonstration projects, there are few studies that analyze the role of bus charging technologies and charging strategies. Gathering and systematically analyzing existing experiences from electric bus demonstration projects around the world is necessary for understanding the benefits and drawbacks of emerging solutions. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap and offer a comparative analysis of various alternatives for electric bus charging. What are the characteristics of each technology and what are the main themes emerging when it comes to implementation? 

    The analysis draws from experiences around the world, which are systematically evaluated under guidelines of meta-synthesis, reviewing existing literature and complementing it with expert knowledge gathered from an electronic survey. The respondents belong to stakeholder groups involved with electric bus demonstration projects, such as public transport authorities, transport service operators, charging technology providers, municipalities, regional authorities, and academia. Particular attention is given to the Nordic region, where several successful initiatives are already in place.

    The preliminary results show a variety of choices among charging technologies, and it is not uncommon to have different strategies combined in the demonstration projects. The survey responses indicate that stakeholders participate in such projects primarily in order to gain knowledge about the technologies tested, as well as due to the potential environmental benefits from bus transport electrification. Common unexpected issues faced during project implementation include increased costs for infrastructure installation, difficulties in communication between the stakeholders involved, as well as unexpected technology compatibility issues.

    The decisive factors when choosing charging technologies are related to market-readiness, cost-effectiveness, replicability and operation costs of available technologies, but also the institutional set up that allow for the development of certain options over time. The analysis of the survey results links charging technologies and strategies to their advantages and disadvantages as acquired from experience, and explain the factors behind the choices made.

    The results are useful in helping to enrich the knowledge basis on transport electrification, shifting from individual empirical findings to a generalized framework for evaluation of technology choices when it comes to charging infrastructure. In this way, we extract knowledge that facilitates choosing the most appropriate charging technology, designing implementation strategies and avoiding pitfalls that have already been encountered elsewhere. 

  • 22.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Kuder, Ralf
    University of Stuttgart – Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER).
    Blesl, Markus
    University of Stuttgart – Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER).
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    University of Stuttgart – Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER).
    Low-CO2 steel production: European perspective on the steel market and the role of scrap2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Xylia, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Implications of an energy efficiency obligation scheme for the Swedish energy-intensive industries: an evaluation of costs and benefits2016Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) aims at improving energy efficiency by implementing actions in all sectors of the economy in the EU. Article 7 of the EED sets the target of 1.5 % cumulative annual energy end-use savings. An energy efficiency obligation scheme (EEO) is one of the policy mechanisms proposed to reach this target. This paper assesses the impact of implementing a Swedish EEO and the implications that such a scheme may have for Swedish energy-intensive industries. The assessment was based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) methodology. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) ranges from 1.56 to 2.17 and the break-even cost ranges from 83.3 to 86.9 €/MWh with sensitivity analyses performed for the emission allowance prices and eventual costs of the EEO. The annual energy savings potential is estimated to be 1.25 TWh/year. A Swedish EEO could motivate investments in energy efficiency measures and thus help Sweden reach the energy efficiency targets set in the EED.

1 - 23 of 23
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