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  • 1.
    Maleki, Laleh
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Chemical Pathways to Hemicellulose-rich Biomass Hydrogels2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Maleki, Laleh
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Synthesis of AcGGM Polysaccharide Hydrogels2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is believed to serve a prominent role in tomorrow’s sustainable energy and material development. Among the polysaccharide fractions of lignocellulosic biomass, the potential of hemicelluloses as a valuable material resource is increasingly recognized. Thanks to their hydrophilic structure, hemicelluloses are suitable substrates for hydrogel design. The work summarized in this thesis aims to develop feasible strategies for the conversion of O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (AcGGM), an ample hemicellulose in softwood, into hydrogels. Within this framework, four synthetic pathways targeting the formation of crosslinked hydrogel networks from pure or unrefined AcGGM fractions were developed.

     

    Aqueous AcGGM-rich and lignin-containing side-stream process liquors of forest industry, known as softwood hydrolysates (SWHs) were formulated into highly swellable hydrogels by: i) allyl-functionalization of AcGGM chains of crude SWH to obtain a viable precursor for hydrogel synthesis via free-radical crosslinking, ii) directly incorporating unmodified SWH fractions into semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs). SWH hydrogels and semi-IPNs were characterized with appreciable maximum swelling ratios of Qeq = 170 and Qeq = 225, respectively.

     

    Rapid crosslinking of AcGGM through thiol-click chemistry was addressed by first imparting thiol functionality onto pure AcGGM chains in a one-pot procedure. The thiolated AcGGM proved to be a suitable substrate for the synthesis of hemicellulose hydrogels via thiol-ene and thiol Michael addition reactions. Finally, sequential full IPNs were developed by subjecting single network hydrogels of pure AcGGM to a second network formation. IPNs obtained through either free radical crosslinking or thiol-ene crosslinking exhibited higher shear storage moduli than their single network counterparts. 

  • 3.
    Maleki, Laleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Green Semi-IPN Hydrogels by Direct Utilization of Crude Wood Hydrolysates2016In: ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 4370-4377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crude and unmodified acetylated galactoglucomannan containing wood hydrolysate (WH) was directly incorporated into a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) composed of up to 60% renewable polymers. Semi-IPNs were produced by a facile and green synthetic pathway through cross-linking modified carboxymethylcellulose in the presence of at least 30%(w/w) WH, via free radical copolymerization with acrylic acid and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide). FTIR verified the presence of WH interlaced with CMC in the semi-IPN, and the highly porous microscopic structure of the networks was confirmed by SEM. The gelation process of these networks was monitored in situ, and their individual "gel point" (the G'-G '' crossover) was determined by in situ rheological measurements. Semi-IPN hydrogels ratios (Q = 20-225) were obtained within 2.8-20 min of a cross-linking reaction.

  • 4.
    Maleki, Laleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Synthesis of full interpenetrating hemicellulose hydrogel networks2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 170, p. 254-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods with different cross-linking mechanisms for designing hemicellulose-based full interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were developed through the sequential synthesis of full IPNs from O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (AcGGM) utilizing free-radical polymerization and a thiol-ene click reaction. A faster swelling rate was observed for all IPN formulations compared with the single-network gels. The highly porous structure of the IPNs with small interconnected pores was verified using scanning electron microscopy. A rheological analysis revealed that the AcGGM IPNs fabricated by the free-radical polymerization of acrylamide and N-N'-methylenebisacrylamide (cross-linker) had shear storage modulus (G') values approximately 5 and 2.5 times higher than that of the corresponding precursor single networks of AcGGM. IPNs achieved through thiol-ene reactions between thiolated AcGGM and polyethylene glycol diacrylate had G' values 35-40 times higher than the single-network reference hydrogels.

  • 5.
    Maleki, Laleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Thiolated hemicellulose as a versatile platform for one-pot click-type hydrogel synthesis2015In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 667-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-pot synthetic methodology for the thiolation of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (AcGGM) was developed to merge hemicellulose chemistry with "click" chemistry. This was realized by the AcGGM-mediated nucleophilic ring-opening of γ-thiobutyrolactone via the activation of the polysaccharide pendant hydroxyl groups. The incorporation of thiol functionalities onto the hemicellulose backbone was visualized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and was assessed by an Ellman's reagent assay of the thiol groups. The versatility of the thiolated AcGGM was elaborated and demonstrated by conducting several postmodification reactions together with hydrogel formation utilizing thiol-ene and thiol-Michael addition "click" reactions. The one-pot synthesis of thiolated AcGGM is a straightforward approach that can expand the applications of hemicelluloses derived from biomass by employing "click" chemistry.

  • 6.
    Maleki, Laleh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Unrefined wood hydrolysates are viable reactants for the reproducible synthesis of highly swellable hydrogels2014In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A value-adding robust and sequential synthetic pathway was elaborated to produce hydrogel structures with ionic character from crude acetylated galactoglucomannan-rich wood hydrolysate (WH). The WH was first-step liquor originating from a sulphite cracking pulp process for dissolving pulp. The synthetically modified WH fractions were verified at each step by NMR and FTIR, and the hydrogels were characterized with respect to their swelling and mechanical properties. Altering the crosslinking chemistry and the content of ionic moieties resulted in hydrogels with various swelling ratios and mechanical properties. Renewable hydrogel formulations with swelling ratios as high as Qeq = 270 were achieved.

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