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  • 1. Abreu, L. I.
    et al.
    Cavalieri, A. V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Reduced-order models to analyse coherent structures in turbulent pipe flow2019In: 11th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2019, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully resolved direct numerical simulations, performed with a high-order spectral-element method, are used to study coherent structures in turbulent pipe flow at friction Reynolds numbers Reτ = 180 and 550 (El Khoury et al., 2013). The database was analysed using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) so as to identify dominant coherent structures, most of which are of streaky shape. As a reduced-order model for such structures, the linearised flow response to harmonic forcing was computed, and the analysed singular modes of the resolvent operator were analysed. For turbulent flows, this approach amounts to considering the non-linear terms in the Navier–Stokes system as an unknown forcing, treated convenienty as external. Resolvent analysis then allows an identification of the optimal forcing and most amplified flow response; the latter may be related to observed relevant structures obtained by SPOD, especially if the gain between forcing and response is much larger than what is found for suboptimal forcings or if the non-linear forcing is white noise. Results from SPOD and resolvent analysis were extracted for several combinations of frequencies, streamwise and azimuthal wavenumbers. For both Reynolds numbers, good agreement between SPOD and resolvent modes was observed for parameter combinations where the lift-up mechanism is present: optimal forcing from resolvent analysis represents streamwise vortices and the associated response are streaky structures.

  • 2. Abreu, L. I.
    et al.
    Cavalieri, A. V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil2018In: 31st Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2018, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack AoA = 5◦ was analysed using an incompressible direct numerical simulation (DNS) at chord Reynolds number of Rec = 4 · 105. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using the method of Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD) in frequency domain, in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to two-dimensional disturbances, known to be most relevant for aeroacoustics. The leading SPOD modes show coherent structures forming a wavepacket, with significant amplitudes in the trailing-edge boundary layer and in the wake. To model coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer, the optimal harmonic forcing and the associated linear response of the flow were obtained using the singular value decomposition of the linear resolvent operator. The resolvent analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to most amplified, linearised flow responses. Furthermore, coherent structures in the wake are modelled as the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode from linear stability theory (LST). 

  • 3. Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Resolvent modelling of near-wall coherent structures in turbulent channel flow2020In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 85, article id 108662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent channel flow was analysed using direct numerical simulations at friction Reynolds numbers Re-tau = 180 and 550. The databases were studied using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to identify dominant near-wall coherent structures, most of which turn out to be streaks and streamwise vortices. Resolvent analysis was used as a theoretical approach to model such structures, as it allows the identification of the optimal forcing and most amplified flow response; the latter may be related to the observed relevant structures obtained by SPOD, especially if the gain between forcing and response is much larger than what is found for suboptimal forcings or if the non-linear forcing is white noise. Results from SPOD and resolvent analysis were compared for several combinations of frequencies and wavenumbers. For both Reynolds numbers, the best agreement between SPOD and resolvent modes was observed for the cases where the lift-up mechanism from resolvent analysis is present, which are also the cases where the optimal resolvent gain is dominant. These results confirm the outcomes in our previous studies (Abreu et al., 2019; Abreu et al., 2020), where we used a DNS database of a pipe flow for the same Reynolds numbers.

  • 4.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao da Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition and resolvent analysis of near-wall coherent structures in turbulent pipe flows2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 900, article id A11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations, performed with a high-order spectral-element method, are used to study coherent structures in turbulent pipe flow at friction Reynolds numbers Re-tau = 180 and 550. The database was analysed using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) to identify energetically dominant coherent structures, most of which turn out to be streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices. To understand how such structures can be modelled, the linear flow responses to harmonic forcing were computed using the singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator, using the mean field as a base flow. The SPOD and resolvent analysis were calculated for several combinations of frequencies and wavenumbers, allowing the mapping out of similarities between SPOD modes and optimal responses for a wide range of relevant scales in turbulent pipe flows. In order to explore physical reasons behind the agreement between both methods, an indicator of lift-up mechanism in the resolvent analysis was introduced, activated when optimal forcing is dominated by the wall-normal and azimuthal components, and associated response corresponds to streaks of streamwise velocity. Good agreement between leading SPOD and resolvent modes is observed in a large region of parameter space. In this region, a significant gain separation is found in resolvent analysis, which may be attributed to the strong amplification associated with the lift-up mechanism, here understood as nonlinear forcing terms leading to the appearance of streamwise vortices, which in turn form high-amplitude streaks. For both Reynolds numbers, the observed concordances were generally for structures with large energy in the buffer layer. The results highlight resolvent analysis as a pertinent reduced-order model for coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence, particularly for streamwise elongated structures corresponding to near-wall streamwise vortices and streaks.

  • 5.
    Abreu, Leandra, I
    et al.
    Sao Paulo State Univ UNESP, Campus Sao Joao Boa Vista, BR-13876750 Sao Joao Da Boa Vista, SP, Brazil.;Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cavalieri, Andre V. G.
    Inst Tecnol Aeronaut, Div Engn Aeronaut, BR-12228900 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Spanwise-coherent hydrodynamic waves around flat plates and airfoils2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 927, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils, motivated by their connection with trailing-edge noise. We analyse well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of the flow around NACA 0012 and NACA 4412 airfoils, both at a Reynolds number of 400 000 based on the chord length. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition performed on the data reveals that the most energetic coherent structures are hydrodynamic waves, extending over the turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing edge. Resolvent analysis was used to model such structures, using the mean field as a base flow. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such structures on the domain size, to ensure that they are not an artefact of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To this end, we performed incompressible LES of a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer, for three different spanwise sizes, with the momentum-thickness Reynolds number matching those near the airfoils trailing edge. The same coherent hydrodynamic waves were observed for the three domains. Such waves are accurately modelled as the most amplified flow response from resolvent analysis. The signature of such wide structures is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which collapse for the three computational domains. These results suggest that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, indicating thus the presence of very wide structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.

  • 6.
    Abreu, Leandra I.
    et al.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Tanarro, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Cavalieri, André V.G.
    Divisão de Engenharia Aeronáutica, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Wavepackets in turbulent flows around airfoilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the recent analysis by Sano et al. 2019, Phys. Rev. Fluids, vol. 4, p. 094602, of spanwise-coherent structures in the turbulent flow around airfoils and their connection to trailing-edge noise, we carry out a thorough characterisation of such structures in three simulation databases. We analyse two different numerical simulations of incompressible flow in turbulent regime, both at chord Reynolds number of 400,000: a large-eddy simulation for a NACA 0012 profile at zero angle of attack, and a direct numerical simulation for a NACA 4412 airfoil with an angle of attack of 5 degrees. Snapshots of the flow field were analysed using Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD), in order to extract the dominant coherent structures of the flow. Focus is given to  the aforementioned spanwise-coherent fluctuations, which two-dimensional disturbances in the computational domain due to the use of periodic boundary conditions. The leading SPOD modes show that the most energetic coherent structures are wavepackets, extending over the whole turbulent boundary layers around the airfoils with significant amplitudes near the trailing-edge. Higher amplitudes are observed in the region of  stronger adverse pressure gradient at the suction side of the NACA 4412 airfoil. To understand how such structures in the turbulent field can be modelled, the linear response of the flow using the singular value decomposition of the linearised resolvent operator was performed, using the mean field as a base flow and considering a locally parallel approximation. Such analysis shows that the leading SPOD modes can be associated to optimal, linearised flow responses, particularly for stations far from the trailing edge; the latter introduces a discontinuity in boundary conditions, and the locally parallel approximation becomes questionable. We then focus on evaluating the dependence of such wavepackets on the domain size, to ensure that these structures are not an artifact of the use of periodic boundary conditions in small computational boxes. To do so, we performed an incompressible LES of a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (ZPGTBL), for three different spanwise sizes: Lz=32 δ*, Lz=64 δ* and Lz=128 δ*, where δ* is a reference displacement thickness in a region of developed turbulent flow, with Reynolds number matching the values in the airfoil simulations. The signature of such wavepackets is seen in non-premultiplied spanwise wavenumber spectra, which reaches, for the three domain sizes, a plateau for spanwise wavelengths going to infinity (or wavenumbers going to zero); this plateau is representative of the spanwise-coherent structures seen in the airfoil simulations. Similar SPOD and resolvent analyses were carried out for the zero spanwise wavenumber of the ZPGTBL, and the same coherent wavepackets were observed for the three domains, with very similar amplitudes. Such wavepackets were also accurately modelled using the optimal resolvent response. These results confirm that the spanwise-elongated structures are not domain-size dependent for the studied simulations, and are thus a feature of turbulent boundary layers.

  • 7.
    Amo-Navarro, Jesus
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Conejero, J. Alberto
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Two-Dimensional Compact-Finite-Difference Schemes for Solving the bi-Laplacian Operator with Homogeneous Wall-Normal Derivatives2021In: Mathematics, E-ISSN 2227-7390, Vol. 9, no 19, article id 2508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fluid mechanics, the bi-Laplacian operator with Neumann homogeneous boundary conditions emerges when transforming the Navier-Stokes equations to the vorticity-velocity formulation. In the case of problems with a periodic direction, the problem can be transformed into multiple, independent, two-dimensional fourth-order elliptic problems. An efficient method to solve these two-dimensional bi-Laplacian operators with Neumann homogeneus boundary conditions was designed and validated using 2D compact finite difference schemes. The solution is formulated as a linear combination of auxiliary solutions, as many as the number of points on the boundary, a method that was prohibitive some years ago due to the large memory requirements to store all these auxiliary functions. The validation has been made for different field configurations, grid sizes, and stencils of the numerical scheme, showing its potential to tackle high gradient fields as those that can be found in turbulent flows.

  • 8.
    Amor, Christian
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Perez, Jose M.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Modeling the Turbulent Wake Behind a Wall-Mounted Square Cylinder2020In: Logic journal of the IGPL (Print), ISSN 1367-0751, E-ISSN 1368-9894, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces some soft computing methods generally used for data analysis and flow pattern detection in fluid dynamics. These techniques decompose the original flow field as an expansion of modes, which can be either orthogonal in time (variants of dynamic mode decomposition), or in space (variants of proper orthogonal decomposition) or in time and space (spectral proper orthogonal decomposition), or they can simply be selected using some sophisticated statistical techniques (empirical mode decomposition). The performance of these methods is tested in the turbulent wake of a wall-mounted square cylinder. This highly complex flow is suitable to show the ability of the aforementioned methods to reduce the degrees of freedom of the original data by only retaining the large scales in the flow. The main result is a reduced-order model of the original flow case, based on a low number of modes. A deep discussion is carried out about how to choose the most computationally efficient method to obtain suitable reduced-order models of the flow. The techniques introduced in this article are data-driven methods that could be applied to model any type of non-linear dynamical system, including numerical and experimental databases.

  • 9.
    Amor, Christian
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Perez, Jose M.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Soft Computing Techniques to Analyze the Turbulent Wake of a Wall-Mounted Square Cylinder2020In: 14th International Conference on Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, SOCO 2019 / [ed] Alvarez, FM Lora, AT Munoz, JAS Quintian, H Corchado, E, Springer, 2020, Vol. 950, p. 577-586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces several methods, generally used in fluid dynamics, to provide low-rank approximations. The algorithm describing these methods are mainly based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) techniques, and are suitable to analyze turbulent flows. The application of these methods will be illustrated in the analysis of the turbulent wake of a wall-mounted cylinder, a geometry modeling a skyscraper. A brief discussion about the large and small size structures of the flow will provide the key ideas to represent the general dynamics of the flow using low-rank approximations. If the flow physics is understood, then it is possible to adapt these techniques, or some other strategies, to solve general complex problems with reduced computational cost. The main goal is to introduce these methods as machine learning strategies that could be potentially used in the field of fluid dynamics, and that can be extended to any other research field.

  • 10.
    Amor, Christian
    et al.
    Technol Grad Univ, Okinawa Inst Sci, Complex Fluids & Flows Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, ETSI Aeronaut & Espacio, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Higher-order dynamic mode decomposition on-the-fly: A low-order algorithm for complex fluid flows2023In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 475, article id 111849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new method to identify the main patterns describing the flow motion in complex flows. The algorithm is an extension of the higher-order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD), which compresses the snapshots from the analysed database and progressively updates new compressed snapshots on-the-fly, so it is denoted as HODMD on -the-fly (HODMD-of). This algorithm can be applied in parallel to the numerical simulations (or experiments), and it exhibits two main advantages over offline algorithms: (i) it automatically selects on-the-fly the number of necessary snapshots from the database to identify the relevant dynamics; and (ii) it can be used from the beginning of a numerical simulation (or experiment), since it uses a sliding-window to automatically select, also on-the-fly, the suitable interval to perform the data analysis, i.e. it automatically identifies and discards the transient dynamics. The HODMD-of algorithm is suitable to build reduced order models, which have a much lower computational cost than the original simulation. The performance of the method has been tested in three different cases: the axi-symmetric synthetic jet, the three-dimensional wake of a circular cylinder and the turbulent wake behind a wall-mounted square cylinder. The obtained speed-up factors are around 7 with respect to HODMD; this value depends on the simulation and the configuration of the hyperparameters. HODMD-of also provides a significant reduction of the memory requirements, between 40 - 80% amongst the two-and three-dimensional cases studied in this paper.

  • 11.
    Andreolli, Andrea
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Separating large-scale superposition and modulation in turbulent channels2023In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 958, article id A37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of very-large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows is commonly associated with their footprint in the form of the superposition of the large scales at the wall and the additional amplitude modulation of small-scale near-wall turbulence. These two phenomena are currently understood to be interlinked, with the superposed large-scale velocity gradient causing the modulation of small-scale activity in the proximity of the wall. To challenge this idea, we devise a numerical strategy that selectively suppresses either superposition or amplitude modulation, in an effort to isolate and study the remaining phenomenon. Results from our direct numerical simulations indicate that a positive correlation between the amplitude of the small scales in the near-wall region and the large-scale signal in the outer flow persists even when near-wall large-scale motions are suppressed - i.e. in absence of superposition. Clearly, this kind of correlation cannot be caused by the near-wall large-scale velocity or its gradients, as both are absent. Conversely, when modulation is blocked, the near-wall footprints of the large scales seem to disappear. This study has been carried out on channel flows at friction Reynolds number Re-tau = 1000 in both standard simulation domains and minimal streamwise units (MSUs), where the streamwise fluctuation energy is enhanced. The consistency of the results obtained by the two approaches suggests that MSUs can capture correctly this kind of scale interaction at a much reduced cost.

  • 12. Atzori, M.
    et al.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Control effects on coherent structures in a non-uniform adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer2022In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 97, article id 109036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effects of three basic but effective control strategies, namely uniform blowing, uniform suction, and body-force damping, on the intense Reynolds-stress events in the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developing on the suction side of a NACA4412 airfoil. This flow is subjected to a non-uniform adverse pressure gradient (APG), which substantially modifies its turbulence statistics with respect to a zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) boundary layer, and it also changes how control strategies affect the flow. The strong APG results in intense events that are shorter and more often detached from the wall than in ZPG TBLs. In a quadrant analysis, ejections remain the most relevant structures, but sweeps become more important than in ZPG TBLs, a fact that results in a lower contribution to the wall-normal velocity from intense Reynolds-stress events. Control effects are relatively less important on intense events than on the turbulent statistics. Uniform blowing has an impact similar to that of an even more intense APG, while uniform suction has more complex effects, most likely due to the particular behavior of the wall-normal velocity component near the wall. Body-force damping also reduces the probability of occurrence of very-large attached structures and that of intense events in the proximity of the actuation region. Our results show that intense Reynolds-stress events are robust features of the flow. If control strategies do not target directly these structures, their effects on the strong events is less pronounced than the effects on the mean flow. 

  • 13.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Köpp, Wiebke
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Chien, Wei Der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Massaro, Daniele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Mallor, Fermin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Rezaei, Mohamad
    PDC Center for High Performance Computing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Weinkauf, Tino
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    In-situ visualization of large-scale turbulence simulations in Nek5000 with ParaView Catalyst2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-situ visualization on HPC systems allows us to analyze simulation results that would otherwise be impossible, given the size of the simulation data sets and offline post-processing execution time. We design and develop in-situ visualization with Paraview Catalyst in Nek5000, a massively parallel Fortran and C code for computational fluid dynamics applications. We perform strong scalability tests up to 2,048 cores on KTH's Beskow Cray XC40 supercomputer and assess in-situ visualization's impact on the Nek5000 performance. In our study case, a high-fidelity simulation of turbulent flow, we observe that in-situ operations significantly limit the strong scalability of the code, reducing the relative parallel efficiency to only ~21\% on 2,048 cores (the relative efficiency of Nek5000 without in-situ operations is ~99\%). Through profiling with Arm MAP, we identified a bottleneck in the image composition step (that uses Radix-kr algorithm) where a majority of the time is spent on MPI communication. We also identified an imbalance of in-situ processing time between rank 0 and all other ranks. Better scaling and load-balancing in the parallel image composition would considerably improve the performance and scalability of Nek5000 with in-situ capabilities in large-scale simulation.

  • 14.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Köpp, Wiebke
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Chien, Wei Der
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Massaro, Daniele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Mallor, Fermin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Peplinski, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rezaei, Mohammadtaghi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    Jansson, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Laure, E.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Weinkauf, Tino
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    In situ visualization of large-scale turbulence simulations in Nek5000 with ParaView Catalyst2022In: Journal of Supercomputing, ISSN 0920-8542, E-ISSN 1573-0484, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 3605-3620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ visualization on high-performance computing systems allows us to analyze simulation results that would otherwise be impossible, given the size of the simulation data sets and offline post-processing execution time. We develop an in situ adaptor for Paraview Catalyst and Nek5000, a massively parallel Fortran and C code for computational fluid dynamics. We perform a strong scalability test up to 2048 cores on KTH’s Beskow Cray XC40 supercomputer and assess in situ visualization’s impact on the Nek5000 performance. In our study case, a high-fidelity simulation of turbulent flow, we observe that in situ operations significantly limit the strong scalability of the code, reducing the relative parallel efficiency to only ≈ 21 % on 2048 cores (the relative efficiency of Nek5000 without in situ operations is ≈ 99 %). Through profiling with Arm MAP, we identified a bottleneck in the image composition step (that uses the Radix-kr algorithm) where a majority of the time is spent on MPI communication. We also identified an imbalance of in situ processing time between rank 0 and all other ranks. In our case, better scaling and load-balancing in the parallel image composition would considerably improve the performance of Nek5000 with in situ capabilities. In general, the result of this study highlights the technical challenges posed by the integration of high-performance simulation codes and data-analysis libraries and their practical use in complex cases, even when efficient algorithms already exist for a certain application scenario.

  • 15.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Mallor, Fermin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Pozuelo, Ramon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Fukagata, Koji
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 223-8522 Yokohama, Japan.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    A new perspective on skin-friction contributions in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, the study of integral skin-friction contributions still poses significant challenges. Beyond questions related to the integration boundaries and the derivation procedure, which have been thoroughly investigated in the literature, an important issue is how different terms should be aggregated. The nature of these flows, which exhibit significant in-homogeneity in the streamwise direction, usually results in cancellation between several contributions with high absolute values. We propose a formulation of the identity derived by Fukagata, Iwamoto \& Kasagi (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14, 2002, pp. 73--76), which we obtained from the convective form of the governing equations. A new skin-friction contribution is defined, considering wall-tangential convection and pressure gradient together. This contribution is related to the evolution of the dynamic pressure in the mean flow. The results of the decomposition are examined for a broad range of pressure-gradient conditions and different flow-control strategies. We found that the new formulation of the identity allows to readily identify the different regimes of near-equilibrium conditions and approaching separation. It also provides a more effective description of control effects. A similar aggregation between convection and pressure-gradient terms is also possible for any other decomposition where in-homogeneity contributions are considered explicitly. 

  • 16.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Dept Particulate Flow Modelling, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Mallor, Fermin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Pozuelo, Ramon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fukagata, Koji
    Keio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Yokohama 2238522, Japan..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    A new perspective on skin-friction contributions in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2023In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 101, article id 109117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, the study of integral skin-friction contributions still poses significant challenges. Beyond questions related to the integration boundaries and the derivation procedure, which have been thoroughly investigated in the literature, an important issue is how different terms should be aggregated. The nature of these flows, which exhibit significant in-homogeneity in the streamwise direction, usually results in cancellation between several contributions with high absolute values. We propose a formulation of the identity derived by Fukagata et al. (2002), which we obtained from the convective form of the governing equations. A new skin-friction contribution is defined, considering wall-tangential convection and pressure gradient together. This contribution is related to the evolution of the dynamic pressure in the mean flow. The results of the decomposition are examined for a broad range of pressure-gradient conditions and different flow-control strategies. We found that the new formulation of the identity allows to readily identify the different regimes of near-equilibrium conditions and approaching separation. It also provides a more effective description of control effects. A similar aggregation between convection and pressure-gradient terms is also possible for any other decomposition where in-homogeneity contributions are considered explicitly.

  • 17.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    Department of Particulate Flow Modelling Johannes Kepler University 4040 Linz, Austria.
    Stroh, Alexander
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics (ISTM) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Gatti, Davide
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics (ISTM) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Fukagata, Koji
    Department of Mechanical Engineering Keio University 223-8522 Yokohama, Japan.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    A New Point of View On Skin-Friction Contributions ni Adverse-Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers2022In: 12th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2022, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin-friction decompositions such as the so-called FIK identity (Fukagata et al., 2002) are useful tools in identifying relevant contributions to the friction, but may also lead to results difficult to interpret when the total friction is recovered from cancellation of multiple terms with large values. We propose a new formulation of the FIK contributions related to streamwise inhomogeneity, which is derived from the convective form of the momentum equation and using the concept of dynamic pressure. We examine turbulent boundary layers subjected to various pressure-gradient conditions, including cases with drag-reducing control. The new formulation distinguishes more precisely the roles of the free-stream pressure distribution, wall-normal convection, and turbulent fluctuations. Our results allow to identify different regimes in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, corresponding to different proportions of the various contributions, and suggest a possible direction towards studying the onset of mean separation.

  • 18.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Dept Particulate Flow Modelling, A-4040 Linz, Austria..
    Torres, Pablo
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Vidal, Alvaro
    Parallel Works, Chicago, IL 60654 USA..
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    High-resolution simulations of a turbulent boundary layer impacting two obstacles in tandem2023In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 063801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-fidelity large-eddy simulations of the flow around two rectangular obstacles are carried out at a Reynolds number of 10 000 based on the freestream velocity and the obstacle height. The incoming flow is a developed turbulent boundary layer. Mean-velocity components, turbulence fluctuations, and the terms of the turbulent-kinetic-energy budget are analyzed for three flow regimes: skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness. Three regions are identified where the flow undergoes the most significant changes: the first obstacle's wake, the region in front of the second obstacle, and the region around the second obstacle. In the skimming-flow case, turbulence activity in the cavity between the obstacles is limited and mainly occurs in a small region in front of the second obstacle. In the wake-interference case, there is a strong interaction between the freestream flow that penetrates the cavity and the wake of the first obstacle. This interaction results in more intense turbulent fluctuations between the obstacles. In the isolated-roughness case, the wake of the first obstacle is in good agreement with that of an isolated obstacle. Separation bubbles with strong turbulent fluctuations appear around the second obstacle.

  • 19.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Fahland, G.
    Stroh, A.
    Gatti, D.
    Frohnapfel, B.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Aerodynamic Effects of Uniform Blowing and Suction on a NACA4412 Airfoil2020In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We carried out high-fidelity large-eddy simulations to investigate the effects of uniform blowing and uniform suction on the aerodynamic efficiency of a NACA4412 airfoil at the moderate Reynolds number based on chord length and incoming velocity of Rec= 200 , 000. We found that uniform blowing applied at the suction side reduces the aerodynamics efficiency, while uniform suction increases it. This result is due to the combined impact of blowing and suction on skin friction, pressure drag and lift. When applied to the pressure side, uniform blowing improves aerodynamic efficiency. The Reynolds-number dependence of the relative contributions of pressure and friction to the total drag for the reference case is analysed via Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations up to Rec= 10 , 000 , 000. The results suggest that our conclusions on the control effect can tentatively be extended to a broader range of Reynolds numbers. 

  • 20.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Gatti, D.
    Stroh, A.
    Frohnapfel, B.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Effects of Different Friction Control Techniques on Turbulence Developing Around Wings2020In: ERCOFTAC Workshop Direct and Large Eddy Simulation: Direct and Large Eddy Simulation XII, Springer, 2020, p. 305-311Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient flow control techniques remain a challenging task due to the complexity of turbulent flows in industrial applications, a relevant example of which are turbulent boundary layers (TBL) subjected to pressure gradients. In the present study, we employ high-fidelity numerical simulations to assess the impact of different control strategies on the flow around a NACA4412 airfoil at a Reynolds number Rec=200,000 based on the chord length c and the inflow velocity U∞. The choice of this specific study case is motivated by the relatively weak dependence of the pressure distribution around the airfoil on the Reynolds number [6], which allows distinguishing the effects of increasing Reynolds number and those of the non-uniform adverse pressure gradient (APG).

  • 21.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Lozano-Durán, A.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Characterization of turbulent coherent structures in square duct flow2018In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 1001, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is aimed at a first characterization of coherent structures in turbulent square duct flows. Coherent structures are defined as connected components in the domain identified as places where a quantity of interest (such as Reynolds stress or vorticity) is larger than a prescribed non-uniform threshold. Firstly, we qualitatively discuss how a percolation analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the threshold function, and how it can be affected by statistical uncertainty. Secondly, various physical quantities that are expected to play an important role in the dynamics of the secondary flow of Prandtl's second kind are studied. Furthermore, a characterization of intense Reynolds-stress events in square duct flow, together with a comparison of their shape for analogous events in channel flow at the same Reynolds number, is presented.

  • 22.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Lozano-Durán, A.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Contribution of Reynolds-stress structures to the secondary flow in turbulent ducts2019In: 11th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2019, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the contribution to the secondary flow in duct flow with square and rectangular cross section from three-dimensional coherent structures, defined as intense Reynolds-stress events. The contribution to a certain mean quantity is defined as the ensemble average over the detected coherent structures, weighted with their own occupied volume fraction. Our analysis unveils that the contribution to the cross-stream components of the mean velocity is either very similar to the same contribution in channel flow, or almost negligible in respect to the contribution from the portion of the domain not occupied by coherent structures. These results suggest that the most intense events are not directly responsible for the secondary flow.

  • 23.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Lozano-Durán, Adrián
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Coherent structures in turbulent boundary layers over an airfoil2020In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, Vol. 1522, article id 012020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study is concerned with the identification of three-dimensional coherent structures, defined as intense Reynolds-stress events, in the turbulent boundary layer developing over the suction side of a NACA4412 airfoil at a Reynolds number based on the chord length and the incoming velocity of $Re_c=200,000$. The scientific interest for such flows originates from the non-uniform adverse pressure gradient that affects the boundary-layer development. Firstly, we assess different methods to identify the turbulent-non-turbulent interface, in order to exclude the irrotational region from the analysis. Secondly, we evaluate the contribution of the considered coherent structures to the enhanced wall-normal velocity, characteristic of adverse pressure gradients. Our results show that it is necessary to limit the detection of coherent structures to the turbulent region of the domain, and that the structures reveal qualitative differences between the contributions of intense events to the wall-normal velocity in adverse-pressure-gradient and zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers.

  • 24.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Lozano-Durán, Adrián
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Intense Reynolds-stress events in turbulent ducts2021In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 89, article id 108802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the role of intense Reynolds shear-stress events in the generation of the secondary flow in turbulent ducts. We consider the connected regions of flow where the product of the instantaneous fluctuations of two velocity components is higher than a threshold based on the long-time turbulence statistics, in the spirit of the three-dimensional quadrant analysis proposed by Lozano-Dur\'an \textit{et al.} (\textit{J.~Fluid Mech.}, vol. 694, 2012, pp. 100--130). We examine both the geometrical properties of these structures and their contribution to the mean in-plane velocity components, and we perform a comparison with turbulent channel flow at similar Reynolds number. The contribution to a certain mean quantity is defined as the ensemble average over the detected coherent structures, weighted with their own occupied volume fraction. In the core region of the duct, the contribution of intense events to the wall-normal component of the mean velocity is in very good agreement with that in the channel, despite the presence of the secondary flow in the former. Additionally, the shapes of the three-dimensional objects do not differ significantly in both flows. In the corner region of the duct, the proximity of the walls affects both the geometrical properties of the coherent structures and the contribution to the mean component of the vertical velocity. However, such contribution is less relevant than that of the complementary portion of the flow not included in such objects. Our results show that strong Reynolds shear-stress events are affected by the presence of a corner but, despite the important role of these structures in the dynamics of wall-bounded turbulent flows, their contribution to the secondary flow is relatively low, both in the core and in the corner.

  • 25.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Control effects on coherent structures in a non-uniform adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present report, we examine the effects of three control strategies, namely uniform blowing, uniform suction, and body-force damping, on the intense Reynolds-stress events in the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developing on the suction side of a NACA4412 airfoil. This flow is subjected to a non-uniform adverse pressure gradient (APG), which substantially modifies its turbulence statistics with respect to a zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) boundary layer, and it also changes how control strategies affect the flow. We found that the strong APG results in intense events that are shorter and more often detached from the wall than in ZPG TBLs, and it also modified the contributions of different quadrants. Ejections remain the most relevant structures, but sweeps become more important than in ZPG TBLs, a fact that results in a lower contribution to the wall-normal vertical velocity from intense events. We found that control effects are relatively less important on intense events than on the turbulent statistics. Uniform blowing has an impact similar to that of an even more intense APG, while uniform suction has more complex effects, most likely due to the particular behavior of the wall-normal velocity component near the wall. Body-force damping also reduces the probability of occurrence of very-large attached structures and, not surprisingly, that of intense events in the proximity of the actuation region. 

  • 26.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Stroh, Alexander
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Gatti, Davide
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Frohnapfel, Bettina
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Blowing and suction applied to non-uniform adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive parametric study of turbulent boundary layer control on airfoils via uniform blowing or suction is presented. The control is applied on either suction or pressure side of several 4-digit NACA-series airfoils. The considered parameter variations include angle of attack, Reynolds number, control intensity, airfoil camber and airfoil thickness. Two comprehensive metrics, designed to account for the additional energy required by the control, are introduced to evaluate the net aerodynamic performance enhancements. The study confirms previous findings for suction side boundary layer control and demonstrates the interesting potential of blowing on the pressure side under various conditions, which achieves a maximum total net drag saving of 14% within the considered parameter space. The broad parameter space covered by the presented Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations allows for more general conclusions than previous studies and can thus provide guidelines for the design of future detailed experimental or numerical studies on similar boundary layer control schemes.

  • 27.
    Atzori, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Stroh, Alexander
    Karlsruhe Techonol, Inst Fluid Mech, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Techonol, Inst Fluid Mech, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Frohnapfel, Bettina
    Karlsruhe Techonol, Inst Fluid Mech, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Uniform blowing and suction applied to nonuniform adverse-pressure-gradient wing boundary layers2021In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 113904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed analysis of the effects of uniform blowing, uniform suction, and body-force damping on the turbulent boundary layer developing around a NACA4412 airfoil at moderate Reynolds number is presented. The flow over the suction and the pressure sides of the airfoil is subjected to a nonuniform adverse pressure gradient and a moderate favorable pressure gradient, respectively. We find that the changes in total skin friction due to blowing and suction are not very sensitive to different pressure-gradient conditions or the Reynolds number. However, when blowing and suction are applied to an adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) boundary layer, their impact on properties such as the boundary-layer thickness, the intensity of the wall-normal convection, and turbulent fluctuations are more pronounced. We employ the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi decomposition [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, 73 (2002)] and spectral analysis to study the interaction between intense adverse pressure gradient and these control strategies. We find that the control modifies skin-friction contributions differently in adverse-pressure-gradient and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers. In particular, the control strategies modify considerably both the streamwisedevelopment and the pressure-gradient contributions, which have high magnitude when a strong adverse pressure gradient is present. Blowing and suction also impact the convection of structures in the wall-normal direction. Overall, our results suggest that it is not possible to simply separate pressure-gradient and control effects, a fact to take into account in future studies on control design in practical applications.

  • 28.
    Baum, Kevin
    et al.
    Deutsch Forschungszentrum Julich Kunstl Intelligen, Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Bryson, Joanna
    Hertie Sch, Berlin, Germany..
    Dignum, Frank
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden..
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden..
    Grobelnik, Marko
    OECD, Paris, France..
    Hoos, Holger
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen, Germany..
    Irgens, Morten
    Oslo Metropolitan Univ, CLAIRE AIorg, Oslo, Norway..
    Lukowicz, Paul
    Deutsch Forschungszentrum Julich Kunstl Intelligen, Kaiserslautern, Germany..
    Muller, Catelijne
    ALLAI, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Rossi, Francesca
    IBM Corp, Yorktown Hts, NY USA..
    Shawe-Taylor, John
    Int Res Inst AI, IRCAI, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Theodorou, Andreas
    VerAI, Umeå, Sweden..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    From fear to action: AI governance and opportunities for all2023In: Frontiers in Computer Science, E-ISSN 2624-9898, Vol. 5, article id 1210421Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Baxerres, Victor
    et al.
    Illinois Tech IIT, Chicago, IL 60616 USA..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nagib, Hassan
    Illinois Tech IIT, Chicago, IL 60616 USA..
    Evidence of quasiequilibrium in pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2024In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 987, article id R8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two sets of measurements utilizing hot-wire anemometry and oil-film interferometry for flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, exposed to various controlled adverse and favourable pressure gradients, are used to evaluate history effects of the imposed and varying free-stream gradients. The results are from the NDF wind tunnel at Illinois Tech (IIT) and the MTL wind tunnel at KTH, over the range 800 < Re-tau <22000 (where Re-tau is the friction Reynolds number). The streamwise pressure-gradient parameter beta equivalent to (-& ell;/tau(w))& sdot;(partial derivative P-e/partial derivative x) varied between -2 < beta < 7, where & ell; is an outer length scale for boundary layers equivalent to the half-height of channel flow and the radius of pipe flow, and is estimated for each boundary-layer profile; note that tau(w) is the wall-shear stress and P-e is the free-stream static pressure. Extracting from each profile the three parameters of the overlap region, following the recent work of Monkewitz & Nagib (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 967, 2023, p. A15) that led to an overlap region of combined logarithmic and linear parts, we find minimum history effects in the overlap region. Thus, the overlap region in this range of pressure-gradient boundary layers appears to be in 'quasiequilibrium'.

  • 30.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    History effects and near equilibrium in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 820, p. 667-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent boundary layers under adverse pressure gradients are studied using well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) with the goal of assessing the influence of the streamwise pressure-gradient development. Near-equilibrium boundary layers were characterized through the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β. In order to fulfil the near-equilibrium conditions, the free stream velocity was prescribed such that it followed a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining to cases with a constant value of β (extending up to approximately 40 boundary-layer thicknesses) were compared with cases with non-constant β distributions at matched values of β and friction Reynolds number Reδ∗. An additional case at matched Reynolds number based on displacement thickness Reδ∗ was also considered. It was noticed that non-constant β cases appear to approach the conditions of equivalent constant β cases after long streamwise distances (approximately 7 boundary-layer thicknesses). The relevance of the constant β cases lies in the fact that they define a 'canonical' state of the boundary layer, uniquely characterized by β and Re. The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section overlapping in terms of β and Re. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases at matched values of β and Re revealed that the different development history of the turbulent boundary layer on the wing section leads to a less pronounced wake in the mean velocity as well as a weaker second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This is due to the weaker accumulated effect of the β history. Furthermore, a scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 61, 2016, pp. 129-136), proposing the edge velocity and the displacement thickness as scaling parameters, was tested on two constant-pressure-gradient parameter cases. The mean velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development. The present work is the first step towards assessing history effects in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers and highlights the fact that the values of the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter and the Reynolds number are not sufficient to characterize the state of the boundary layer.

  • 31.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers2016In: 2nd Multiflow Summer School on Turbulence, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016, article id 012012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics of turbulent boundary layers with two different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets show, that more energy is transported from the near-wall region to farther away from the wall.

  • 32.
    Borrelli, Giuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Forlì, Italy.
    Guastoni, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Predicting the temporal dynamics of turbulent channels through deep learning2022In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 96, article id 109010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) has been demonstrated in many applications related to turbulence, including flow control, optimization, turbulent features reproduction as well as turbulence prediction and modeling. With this study we aim to assess the capability of these networks to reproduce the temporal evolution of a minimal turbulent channel flow. We first obtain a data-driven model based on a modal decom-position in the Fourier domain (which we denote as FFT-POD) of the time series sampled from the flow. This particular case of turbulent flow allows us to accurately simulate the most relevant coherent structures close to the wall. Long-short-term-memory (LSTM) networks and a Koopman-based framework (KNF) are trained to predict the temporal dynamics of the minimal-channel-flow modes. Tests with different configurations highlight the limits of the KNF method compared to the LSTM, given the complexity of the flow under study. Long-term prediction for LSTM show excellent agreement from the statistical point of view, with errors below 2% for the best models with respect to the reference. Furthermore, the analysis of the chaotic behaviour through the use of the Lyapunov exponents and of the dynamic behaviour through Poincare' maps emphasizes the ability of the LSTM to reproduce the temporal dynamics of turbulence. Alternative reduced-order models (ROMs), based on the identification of different turbulent structures, are explored and they continue to show a good potential in predicting the temporal dynamics of the minimal channel.

  • 33.
    Camps-Valls, Gustau
    et al.
    Universitat de València, València, Spain.
    Gerhardus, Andreas
    German Aerospace Center, Jena, Germany.
    Ninad, Urmi
    German Aerospace Center, Jena, Germany; Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Varando, Gherardo
    Universitat de València, València, Spain.
    Martius, Georg
    University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Tübingen, Germany.
    Balaguer-Ballester, Emili
    Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK; Medical Faculty Mannheim and Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Diaz, Emiliano
    Universitat de València, València, Spain.
    Zanna, Laure
    New York University, New York, USA.
    Runge, Jakob
    German Aerospace Center, Jena, Germany; Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Discovering causal relations and equations from data2023In: Physics reports, ISSN 0370-1573, E-ISSN 1873-6270, Vol. 1044, p. 1-68Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physics is a field of science that has traditionally used the scientific method to answer questions about why natural phenomena occur and to make testable models that explain the phenomena. Discovering equations, laws, and principles that are invariant, robust, and causal has been fundamental in physical sciences throughout the centuries. Discoveries emerge from observing the world and, when possible, performing interventions on the system under study. With the advent of big data and data-driven methods, the fields of causal and equation discovery have developed and accelerated progress in computer science, physics, statistics, philosophy, and many applied fields. This paper reviews the concepts, methods, and relevant works on causal and equation discovery in the broad field of physics and outlines the most important challenges and promising future lines of research. We also provide a taxonomy for data-driven causal and equation discovery, point out connections, and showcase comprehensive case studies in Earth and climate sciences, fluid dynamics and mechanics, and the neurosciences. This review demonstrates that discovering fundamental laws and causal relations by observing natural phenomena is revolutionised with the efficient exploitation of observational data and simulations, modern machine learning algorithms and the combination with domain knowledge. Exciting times are ahead with many challenges and opportunities to improve our understanding of complex systems.

  • 34. Chin, C.
    et al.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cardesa, J. I.
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chong, M. S.
    Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes2018In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 1001, no 1, article id 012002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Reτ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.

  • 35.
    Chin, R. C.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Mech Engn, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Cardesa, J. , I
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Chong, M. S.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Mech Engn, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Backflow events under the effect of secondary flow of Prandtl's first kind2020In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 5, no 7, article id 074606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the backflow events in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re-tau approximate to 650 is performed and compared with the results in a straight turbulent pipe flow at Re-tau approximate to 500. The statistics and topological properties of the backflow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the backflow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the azimuthal wall-shear stress when compared to the pipe flow. In the region around the backflow events, critical points are observed. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and its straight counterpart also shows fewer backflow events and critical points in the torus. This is attributed to the secondary flow of Prandtl's first kind present in the toroidal pipe, which is responsible for the convection of momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from outer bend to the inner bend along the azimuthal direction. These results indicate that backflow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artefacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.

  • 36.
    Corrochano, Adrian
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Xavier, Donnatella
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Flow Structures on a Planar Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Nozzle at Low and Intermediate Reynolds Number2021In: Fluids, E-ISSN 2311-5521, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a general description of the flow structures inside a two-dimensional Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nozzle. To this aim, we have performed numerical simulations using the numerical code Nek5000. The topology patters of the solution obtained, identify four different flow regimes when the flow is steady, where the symmetry of the flow breaks down. An additional case has been studied at higher Reynolds number, when the flow is unsteady, finding a vortex street distributed along the expansion pipe of the geometry. Linear stability analysis identifies the evolution of two steady and two unsteady modes. The results obtained have been connected with the changes in the topology of the flow. Finally, higher-order dynamic mode decomposition has been applied to identify the main flow structures in the unsteady flow inside the FDA nozzle. The highest-amplitude dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) modes identified by the method model the vortex street in the expansion of the geometry.

  • 37.
    Cremades, Andrés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain, Camino de Vera s/n.
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022, Valencia, Spain.
    Deshpande, Rahul
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Quintero, Pedro
    CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain, Camino de Vera s/n.
    Lellep, Martin
    SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, EH9 3FD, Edinburgh, UK, James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road.
    Lee, Will Junghoon
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Monty, Jason P.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Hutchins, Nicholas
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Linkmann, Moritz
    School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3FD, Edinburgh, UK.
    Marusic, Ivan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3010, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Identifying regions of importance in wall-bounded turbulence through explainable deep learning2024In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 3864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its great scientific and technological importance, wall-bounded turbulence is an unresolved problem in classical physics that requires new perspectives to be tackled. One of the key strategies has been to study interactions among the energy-containing coherent structures in the flow. Such interactions are explored in this study using an explainable deep-learning method. The instantaneous velocity field obtained from a turbulent channel flow simulation is used to predict the velocity field in time through a U-net architecture. Based on the predicted flow, we assess the importance of each structure for this prediction using the game-theoretic algorithm of SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP). This work provides results in agreement with previous observations in the literature and extends them by revealing that the most important structures in the flow are not necessarily the ones with the highest contribution to the Reynolds shear stress. We also apply the method to an experimental database, where we can identify structures based on their importance score. This framework has the potential to shed light on numerous fundamental phenomena of wall-bounded turbulence, including novel strategies for flow control.

  • 38.
    Deshpande, Rahul
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
    Van Den Bogaard, Aron
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; Physics of Fluids Group, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede, Netherlands.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Lindić, Luka
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
    Marusic, Ivan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
    Reynolds-number effects on the outer region of adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2023In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 124604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the Reynolds-number effects on the outer region of moderate adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) and find that their small-scale (viscous) energy reduces with increasing friction Reynolds number (Reτ). The trend is based on analyzing APG TBL data across 600≲Reτ≲7000 and contrasts with the negligible variation in small viscous-scaled energy noted for canonical wall flows. The data sets considered include those from a well-resolved numerical simulation [Pozuelo, J. Fluid Mech. 939, A34 (2022)0022-112010.1017/jfm.2022.221], which provides access to an APG TBL maintained at near-equilibrium conditions across 1000≲Reτ≲ 2000, with a well-defined flow history, and a new high-Reτ (∼7000) experimental study from the large Melbourne wind tunnel, with its long test section modified to permit development of an APG TBL from a "canonical"upstream condition. The decrease in small-scale energy with Reτ is revealed via decomposing the streamwise normal stresses into small- and large-scale contributions, based on a sharp spectral cutoff. The origin for this trend is traced back to the production of turbulent kinetic energy in an APG TBL, the small-scale contribution to which is also found to decrease with Reτ in the outer region. The conclusion is reaffirmed by investigating attenuation of streamwise normal stresses due to changing spatial resolutions of the numerical grid or hotwire sensors, which reduces with increasing Reτ and is found to be negligible at Reτ∼7000 in this study. The results emphasize that new scaling arguments and spatial-resolution corrections should be tested rigorously across a broad Reτ range, particularly for pressure gradient TBLs.

  • 39.
    Dogan, Eda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Quantification of amplitude modulation in wall-bounded turbulence2019In: Fluid Dynamics Research, ISSN 0169-5983, E-ISSN 1873-7005, Vol. 51, no 1, article id 011408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent investigations on the scale interactions in wall-bounded turbulent flows focus on describing so-called amplitude modulation, the phenomenon that deals with the influence of large scales in the outer region on the amplitude of the small-scale fluctuations in the near-wall region. The present study revisits this phenomenon regarding two aspects, namely the method for decomposing the scales and the quantification of the modulation. First, the paper presents a summary of the literature that has dealt with either or both aspects. Second, for decomposing the scales, different spectral filters (temporal, spatial or both) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) are evaluated and compared. The common data set is a well-resolved large-eddy simulation that offers a wide range of Reynolds numbers spanning Re-theta = 880-8200. The quantification of the amplitude modulation is discussed for the resulting scale components. Particular focus is given to evaluate the efficacy of the various filters to separate scales for the range of Reynolds numbers of interest. Different to previous studies, the different methods have been evaluated using the same data set, thereby allowing a fair comparison between the various approaches. It is observed that using a spectral filter in the spanwise direction is an effective approach to separate the small and large scales in the flow, even at comparably low Reynolds numbers, whereas filtering in time should be approached with caution in the low-to-moderate Re range. Additionally, using filters in both spanwise and time directions, which would separate both wide and long-living structures from the small and fast scales, gives a cleaner image for the small-scales although the contribution to the scales interaction from that filter implementation has been found negligible. Applying EMD to decompose the scales gives similar results to Fourier filters for the energy content of the scales and thereby for the quantification of the amplitude modulation using the decomposed scales. No direct advantage of EMD over classical Fourier filters could be seen. Potential issues regarding different decomposition methods and different definitions of the amplitude modulation are also discussed.

  • 40.
    Drozdz, Artur
    et al.
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Elsner, Witold
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Niegodajew, Pawel
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    A description of turbulence intensity profiles for boundary layers with adverse pressure gradient2020In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 84, p. 470-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an extension of the diagnostic-plot scaling (Alfredsson et al., 2012) of the turbulence-intensity profiles for the outer region of adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBLs). An extended formula including the shape factor is proposed, which allows the diagnostic-plot scaling to be used in strong APGs at high Reynolds numbers. The validity of the new formulation is verified using several available databases. We demonstrate that the new formula allows to scale profiles in cases where the Clauser-Rotta pressure-gradient parameter beta is below 14 even in presence of very strong flow-history effects. In order to extend the scaling to the near-wall region of TBLs the adapted complete difference function is proposed. The proposed scaling yields a unified description of the turbulence-intensity profiles regardless of their flow history (as opposed to other previously proposed scalings), and is valid for a wider range of cases not only for the outer but also for the inner region.

  • 41.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    Univ Tehran, Fac New Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran..
    Guastoni, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Azizpour, Hossein
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Recurrent neural networks and Koopman-based frameworks for temporal predictions in a low-order model of turbulence2021In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 90, article id 108816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capabilities of recurrent neural networks and Koopman-based frameworks are assessed in the prediction of temporal dynamics of the low-order model of near-wall turbulence by Moehlis et al. (New J. Phys. 6, 56, 2004). Our results show that it is possible to obtain excellent reproductions of the long-term statistics and the dynamic behavior of the chaotic system with properly trained long-short-term memory (LSTM) networks, leading to relative errors in the mean and the fluctuations below 1%. Besides, a newly developed Koopman-based framework, called Koopman with nonlinear forcing (KNF), leads to the same level of accuracy in the statistics at a significantly lower computational expense. Furthermore, the KNF framework outperforms the LSTM network when it comes to short-term predictions. We also observe that using a loss function based only on the instantaneous predictions of the chaotic system can lead to suboptimal reproductions in terms of long-term statistics. Thus, we propose a model-selection criterion based on the computed statistics which allows to achieve excellent statistical reconstruction even on small datasets, with minimal loss of accuracy in the instantaneous predictions.

  • 42.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    School of Aerospace Engineering Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Madrid, Spain.
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Inst. Univ. Matemática Pura y Aplicada Universitat Politècnica de València Valencia, Spain.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Non-Linear Orthogonal Modal Decompositions in Turbulent Flows via Autoencoders2022In: 12th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2022, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a deep probabilistic-neural-network architecture for learning a minimal and near-orthogonal set of nonlinear modes from high-fidelity turbulent-flow data. Our approach is based on β-variational autoencoders (β-VAEs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which enable extracting non-linear modes from multi-scale turbulent flows while encouraging the learning of independent latent variables and penalizing the size of the latent vector. Moreover, we introduce an algorithm for ordering VAE-based modes with respect to their contribution to the reconstruction. We apply this method for non-linear mode decomposition of the turbulent flow through a simplified urban environment. We demonstrate that by constraining the shape of the latent space, it is possible to motivate the orthogonality and extract a set of parsimonious modes sufficient for high-quality reconstruction. Our results show the excellent performance of the method in the reconstruction against linear-theory-based decompositions. We show the ability of our approach in the extraction of near-orthogonal modes with the determinant of the correlation matrix equal to 0.99, which may lead to interpretability.

  • 43.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Hoyas, Sergio
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Univ Matemat Pura & Aplicada, Valencia 46022, Spain..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Towards extraction of orthogonal and parsimonious non-linear modes from turbulent flows2022In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 202, p. 117038-, article id 117038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal-decomposition techniques are computational frameworks based on data aimed at identifying a low-dimensional space for capturing dominant flow features: the so-called modes. We propose a deep probabilistic-neural-network architecture for learning a minimal and near-orthogonal set of non-linear modes from high-fidelity turbulent-flow data useful for flow analysis, reduced-order modeling and flow control. Our approach is based on beta-variational autoencoders (beta-VAEs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which enable extracting non-linear modes from multi-scale turbulent flows while encouraging the learning of independent latent variables and penalizing the size of the latent vector. Moreover, we introduce an algorithm for ordering VAE-based modes with respect to their contribution to the reconstruction. We apply this method for non-linear mode decomposition of the turbulent flow through a simplified urban environment, where the flow-field data is obtained based on well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LESs). We demonstrate that by constraining the shape of the latent space, it is possible to motivate the orthogonality and extract a set of parsimonious modes sufficient for high-quality reconstruction. Our results show the excellent performance of the method in the reconstruction against linear-theory-based decompositions, where the energy percentage captured by the proposed method from five modes is equal to 87.36% against 32.41% of the POD. Moreover, we compare our method with available AE-based models. We show the ability of our approach in the extraction of near-orthogonal modes with the determinant of the correlation matrix equal to 0.99, which may lead to interpretability.

  • 44.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, 1439957131, Iran.
    Tahani, Mojtaba
    Univ Tehran, Fac New Sci & Technol, Tehran 1439957131, Iran..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Physics-informed neural networks for solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations2022In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 34, no 8, article id 075117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) are successful machine-learning methods for the solution and identification of partial differential equations. We employ PINNs for solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible turbulent flows without any specific model or assumption for turbulence and by taking only the data on the domain boundaries. We first show the applicability of PINNs for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flows by solving the Falkner-Skan boundary layer. We then apply PINNs for the simulation of four turbulent flow cases, i.e., zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layer, and turbulent flows over a NACA4412 airfoil and the periodic hill. Our results show the excellent applicability of PINNs for laminar flows with strong pressure gradients, where predictions with less than 1% error can be obtained. For turbulent flows, we also obtain very good accuracy on simulation results even for the Reynolds-stress components.

  • 45.
    Eivazi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    Tech Univ Clausthal, Inst Software & Syst Engn, D-38678 Clausthal Zellerfeld, Germany..
    Wang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Physics-informed deep-learning applications to experimental fluid mechanics2024In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 35, no 7, article id 075303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-resolution reconstruction of flow-field data from low-resolution and noisy measurements is of interest due to the prevalence of such problems in experimental fluid mechanics, where the measurement data are in general sparse, incomplete and noisy. Deep-learning approaches have been shown suitable for such super-resolution tasks. However, a high number of high-resolution examples is needed, which may not be available for many cases. Moreover, the obtained predictions may lack in complying with the physical principles, e.g. mass and momentum conservation. Physics-informed deep learning provides frameworks for integrating data and physical laws for learning. In this study, we apply physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) for super-resolution of flow-field data both in time and space from a limited set of noisy measurements without having any high-resolution reference data. Our objective is to obtain a continuous solution of the problem, providing a physically-consistent prediction at any point in the solution domain. We demonstrate the applicability of PINNs for the super-resolution of flow-field data in time and space through three canonical cases: Burgers' equation, two-dimensional vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder and the minimal turbulent channel flow. The robustness of the models is also investigated by adding synthetic Gaussian noise. Furthermore, we show the capabilities of PINNs to improve the resolution and reduce the noise in a real experimental dataset consisting of hot-wire-anemometry measurements. Our results show the adequate capabilities of PINNs in the context of data augmentation for experiments in fluid mechanics.

  • 46.
    Fahland, Georg
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Stroh, Alexander
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Frohnapfel, Bettina
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Atzori, Marco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Investigation of Blowing and Suction for Turbulent Flow Control on Airfoils2021In: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 59, no 11, p. 4422-4436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive parametric study of turbulent boundary-layer control on airfoils via uniform blowing or suction is presented. The control is applied on either the suction or pressure side of several four-digit NACA-series airfoils. The considered parameter variations include angle of attack, Reynolds number, control intensity, airfoil camber, and airfoil thickness. Two comprehensive metrics, designed to account for the additional energy required by the control, are introduced to evaluate the net aerodynamic performance enhancements. The study confirms previous findings for suction-side boundary-layer control and demonstrates the interesting potential of blowing on the pressure side under various conditions, which achieves a maximum total net drag saving of 14% within the considered parameter space. The broad parameter space covered by the presented Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes simulations allows for more general conclusions than previous studies and can thus provide guidelines for the design of future detailed experimental or numerical studies on similar boundary-layer control schemes.

  • 47.
    Fahland, Georg
    et al.
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Stroh, Alexander
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Frohnapfel, Bettina
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Atzori, Marco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Gatti, Davide
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Investigation of Blowing and Suction for Turbulent FlowControl on AirfoilsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive parametric study of turbulent boundary layer control on airfoils via uniform blowing or suction is presented. The control is applied on either suction or pressure side of several4-digit NACA-series airfoils. The considered parameter variations include angle of attack, Reynolds number, control intensity, airfoil camber and airfoil thickness. Two comprehensive metrics, designed to account for the additional energy required by the control, are introduced to evaluate the net aerodynamic performance enhancements. The study confirms previous findings for suction side boundary layer control and demonstrates the interesting potential of blowing on the pressure side under various conditions, which achieves a maximum total net drag saving of 14% within the considered parameter space. The broad parameter space covered by the presented Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations allows for more general conclusions than previous studies and can thus provide guidelines for the design of future detailed experimental or numerical studies on similar boundary layer control schemes.

  • 48.
    Fan, Yitong
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Aeronaut & Astronaut, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Atzori, Marco
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Inst Fluid Mech, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Li, Weipeng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Aeronaut & Astronaut, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Decomposition of the mean friction drag on an NACA4412 airfoil under uniform blowing/suction2021In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 932, article id A31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of drag-control strategies on canonical wall-bounded turbulence, such as periodic channel and zero- or adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers, raises the question on how to distinguish consistently the origin of control effects under different reference conditions. We employ the RD identity (Renard & Deck, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 790, 2016, pp. 339-367) to decompose the mean friction drag and investigate the control effects of uniform blowing and suction applied to an NACA4412 airfoil at chord Reynolds numbers Re-c = 200 000 and 400 000. The connection of the drag reduction/increase by using blowing/suction with the turbulence statistics (including viscous dissipation, turbulence kinetic energy production and spatial growth of the flow) across the boundary layer, subjected to adverse or favourable pressure gradients, is examined. We found that the inner and outer peaks of the contributions associated with the friction-drag generation show good scaling with either inner or outer units, respectively. They are also independent of the Reynolds number, control scheme and intensity of the blowing/suction. The small- and large-scale structures are separated with an adaptive scale-decomposition method, namely the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which aims to analyse the scale-specific contribution of turbulent motions to friction-drag generation. Results unveil that blowing on the suction side of the airfoil is able to enhance the contribution of large-scale motions and to suppress that of small scales; however, suction behaves contrarily. The contributions related to cross-scale interactions remain almost unchanged with different control strategies.

  • 49.
    Fan, Yitong
    et al.
    School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Atzori, Marco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Gatti, Davide
    Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Li, Weipeng
    School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Friction drag decomposition of the turbulent boundary layers on a NACA4412 airfoil under uniform blowing and suction2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of control strategies on distinct canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows, such as periodic channel and zero- or adverse-pressure-gradient boundary layers, raises the question of how to describe control effects consistently for different reference cases. Renard and Deck (\textit{J. Fluid Mech.}, \textbf{790}, 2016, pp. 339--367) proposed a skin-friction decomposition based on turbulent-kinetic-energy budget, which we employ in this paper for the first time to investigate the effects of uniform blowing and uniform suction applied to a NACA4412 airfoil in combination with the empirical-mode decomposition (EMD). We found that uniform blowing increases the skin-friction contribution related to turbulent-kinetic-energy production, slightly decreases that related to viscous dissipation, and significantly decreases the contribution related to flow development. Uniform suction has opposite effects. By inspecting the contributions at different wall-normal distances, it is shown that blowing and suction have different effects on the flows in different layers. In particular, blowing inhibits the skin-friction generation near the wall, but it increases it in the outer regions, while uniform suction does the opposite. It is also found that, in both control and reference cases, the locations of the inner peak of the contributions scale in viscous units, while that of the outer peak scale in outer units. The EMD unveils that this control modifies the small- and large-scales turbulent structures, but it has negligible effects on cross-scale interactions.

  • 50.
    Fan, Yitong
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Aeronaut & Astronaut, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Li, Weipeng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Aeronaut & Astronaut, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Atzori, Marco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Pozuelo, Ramon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Decomposition of the mean friction drag in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2020In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 5, no 11, article id 114608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we exploit the Renard-Deck identity [J. Fluid Mech. 790, 339 (2016)] to decompose the mean friction drag in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (APG-TBLs) into three components, associated with viscous dissipation, turbulence kinetic energy production, and spatial growth of the flow, respectively. We consider adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers developing on flat plates and airfoils, with friction Reynolds numbers in the range 200 < Re-tau < 2000, and with Rotta-Clauser pressure-gradient parameters (beta) ranging from 0 to 50. The effects of Reynolds number, adverse pressure gradient, and the pressure-gradient history on the contributing components are individually investigated, and special attention is paid to the comparisons with zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG-TBLs). Our results indicate that the inner peaks of the dissipation and production terms are located at y(+) approximate to 6 and y(+) approximate to 16.5, respectively, and their outer peaks scale with the 99% boundary-layer thickness (delta(99)), i.e., y/delta(99) approximate to 0.7 and 0.53, respectively. These results are independent of the friction Reynolds number, the magnitude of beta, and its development history. Moreover, the spatial-growth component is negative in the investigated APG-TBLs, and its magnitude increases with beta.

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