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  • 1.
    Azari, Amin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Istiak Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    RACH Dimensioning for Reliable MTC over Cellular Networks2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, artikkel-id 8108187Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful implementation of massive machine-type communications (MTC) service over cellular networks is an important enabler of Internet of things. As the existing cellular infrastructure has been designed and optimized for moderate traffic, the introduction of MTC in cellular networks results in several key challenges, among them, temporal starvation of initial access resources is of paramount importance. Here, we propose a new traffic model for cellular networks serving machine-type subscribers. This model is subsequently used to derive closed-form expressions for the access rate performance of the system. This closed-form expression are subsequently used for RACH resources planning in the time and frequency domains. Given a target access rate requirement, numerical analysis indicates how and when the required RACH resources in the code/frequency domain, i.e. number of preambles, can be traded with the occurrence frequency of RACH slots in the time domain.

  • 2.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Cellular-Internet-of-Things Enablers:: A Techno-Economic Study of Wide Area Networks Connectivity and Platform Solutions2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) services are gradually attaining the expected service growth rate estimated by market actors. New connectivity paradigms, like the low-power wide-area network (LPWAN), have emerged to address the immediate challenges of IoT connectivity service. In addition, a plethora of new connectivity and application platforms have been developed to support IoT services. Until now, the majority of IoT services have been small scale deployments or trials. The overall cost-effectiveness and scalability aspects of IoT service provisioning are still not well understood. Hence, the growth of IoT services requires attention from a multidisciplinary perspective to address the cost-efficient scalability of IoT communication and service platforms.The technical part of this thesis focuses on the impact of multiplicity on the physical random access channel (PRACH) performance. We investigate the performance limitations of the initial access resource allocation, considering the multiplicity effect on physical layer signature detection to ensure uniform accessibility of devices. The performance evaluation reveals that MAC-protocol designed for PRACH needs to consider the realistic impact of multiplicity on signature detection. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm to detect multiplicity with a higher confidence factor. We also investigate the trade-off of random-access collision and resource allocation utilisation to meet the IoT resource utilisation requirements. We propose a pool-based resource allocation procedure that uses supervised learning to optimise the performance of early data transmission (EDT). Our analysis suggests that with this approach, EDT can handle delay constraint IoT services efficiently.The economic part of the thesis addresses the cost-structure and scalability aspects of both connectivity and platform solutions. The overall research question is: "What factors are driving the costs of IoT connectivity and platform services and why?" We have developed a framework for cost structure analysis of IoT services. We present cost structure breakdown analysis for both IoT connectivity and IoT platform services. The evaluation results discuss conditions when a platform service provider should choose a platform as a service (PaaS), and when on-premises platform deployment is viable.The technical study contributes to shaping the assessment metrics of the random-access algorithm selection. This study proposes solutions to support heterogeneous IoT solutions in cellular-IoT systems. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the potential of supervised learning to optimise resource allocation. The proposed algorithm assures service scalability in terms of user density for massive-IoT, and delay constraint IoT use cases.The economic study is helpful for telecom managers and IoT service providers to understand the cost breakdown of IoT connectivity and platform solutions under a different scenario. The cost driver of different IoT communication technologies like LPWAN, LPLAN, and C-IoT can be estimated at a high level. The framework provides a comparison base which is helpful for the actors in the IoT domain to analyse and compare different service provisioning options.

  • 3.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Designing Efficient Access Control to Comply Massive-Multiservice IoT over Cellular Networks2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has come in reality to improve our living quality. Automation is embraced in all the possible business verticals that have diverse communication needs ranged from static devices’ sporadic transmission to mobile devices’ every minute transmission. Despite, there are many technologies available today to support IoT services; cellular systems can play a vital role for IoT services, like wearables, vehicular, and industrial IoT, rollout which have either mobility or security concern. 

    IoT services generated traffic are foreseen as a sporadic-bursty traffic. As the cellular networks are designed to serve continuous data traffic, the existing system’s access control mechanism cannot efficiently conform to the burstiness of traffic. This limits the scope of the network scalability in terms of simultaneous serving devices’ capacity. Also, this bursty pattern can extensively increase the rate of network’s congestion incident. In this thesis, we focus on these underlying challenges to support a large number of heterogeneous IoT services with existing services over the same radio network. An important question for supporting IoT services over cellular networks is how detrimental are the effects of IoT services on other services of cellular networks. This dissertation seeks to answer this with quantitative results to indicate the real constraints of existing networks.

    An important conclusion is that existing cellular system is incompetent to support the bursty arrival of massive IoT devices in terms of radio networks’ access control plane’s scalability. Therefore, this dissertation presents solutions to overcome the identified limitations of access control planes. To improve the performance of the access control plane, we incorporate a vertical core network controlled group management scheme that can assure the operator’s granular control over capillary gateways. Besides, this introduces a unique handover opportunity between cellular and capillary network vertices. Then, we present a simple but efficient initial access mechanism to overcome the initial access collision at the very early stage. Finally, we show the impact of access collision and retransmission on the initial access resource dimensioning.We present a practical traffic model that is realistic for the traffic scenario for mixed-traffic. Our presented results and analysis depict the trade-offs between access rate, retransmission and resource allocation over time and frequency.Our results reveal that with proposed schemes of the cellular system’s access control plane can be scalable and resilient to accommodate a large number of IoT devices without incurring extra delay or need of resources to the system.

  • 4.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Azari, Amin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Enhanced Random Access:: Initial Access Load Balance in HighlyDense LTE-A Networks for Multiservice (H2H-MTC) Traffic2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications, IEEE, 2017, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 7996622Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Random Access (RA) procedure in existing cellular networks is not capable of functioning properly during high access load conditions. For this purpose, overload control mechanisms are needed. Most proposed mechanisms in the literature offer a tradeoff between access rate and experienced delays. However, when the maximal tolerated delay and the energy spent on retransmissions are tightly bounded, the very high access rate, targeted for 5G systems, cannot be achieved. For these situations, we propose the Delay Estimation based RA (DERA)-scheme that has the potential to meet very stringent reliability requirements, even in high access load conditions. The present work shows that this goal can be achieved only at the cost of limited additional complexity. Furthermore, we also study the optimal switchover point at which the proposed scheme moves from low-load to the high-load phase. The derived tool can also be used along with other proposed RA overload control schemes, e.g.when to invoke access class barring. The performance evaluation results show that the novel DERA scheme can significantly improve the control channels’ resource utilization along with the success rate in dense deployment scenarios.

  • 5.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Azari, Amin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Zander, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Collision Multiplicity Detection: Challenges, Solutions, and Impacts on Cellular Random Access2020Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In cellular and cellular-IoT systems, random access has the utmost importance as it is the gatekeeper that assures conflict-free access to radio resources. The main drawback of the legacy protocols lies at the collision resolution procedure as the base station (BS) is blind to the collision multiplicity and collided devices rely on the BSs for contention resolution. While contention resolution over the random access channel (RACH) is mature in the literature, most studies are following optimistic assumptions in which the full collision impact at the receiver is neglected, and a simplified model of partially overlapping packets is considered. This work is devoted to the investigation of a more realistic model of collision in cellular networks with the aim to investigate challenges and potential solutions in preamble detection in collision scenarios. The simulation results show that besides previously well-known challenges in dealing with collisions, the occurrence of collisions significantly increases the probability of false preamble detection.

  • 6.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Islam, Raihan Ul
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Azari, Amin
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Early Data Transmit in Cellular-IoT: A Supervised Learning Approach to Optimized Resource Pool Allocation2020Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    3GPP introduced Early Data Transmit (EDT) protocol in release-15 to address Internet of things (IoT) services signaling cost and connection delay due to RRC connectivity procedure. EDT enables data transmission in MSG3 wherein traditional RACH procedure, a collision is realized at MSG3 reception. Traditional preventive approach (access class barring) may control the device access rate, but that does not always adequate to solve hidden collision due to the receiver’s limitation and devices power control mechanism. The present work aims at solving the problem by allocating extra resources pool for potential collided devices. The allocated resource of the pool is optimized based on an artificial neural network (ANN) based learning algorithm. The performance evaluation result shows that the learning-based resource allocation radically increases the data transmission success rate with EDT.

  • 7.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Kumar, Niroop
    KTH.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Techno-Economic Framework for IoT Service Platform:: A Cost-Structure Aspects of IoT Service ProvisioningInngår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A plethora of Internet of Things (IoT) platforms are available in the market today. Most of the IoT platforms are used mainly for service prototyping. Cost-efficient service scalability on any platform is still an unresolved concern that, so far, has been addressed qualitatively. A quantitative method for IoT platform economics is missing in the literature. In this paper, we propose a generic framework to address this gap. Our proposed framework covers the dimensioning of the platform's software and hardware to envisage the design, deployment, and operation cost of platform services. Then, we use the framework to perform a quantitative study of platform rollout in three platform business contexts. Our analysis shows the applicability of different deployment and platform integration choices. Our results suggest that storage and energy are the main cost drivers for platforms' hardware scalability, where the main cost driver is the intensity of the sensors' message transmission rate. Additionally, our use-case based study suggests that platform as a service (PaaS) is only beneficial for actors who have limited scale or niche market need.

  • 8.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Laya, Andres
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Militano, Francesco
    Ericsson Research.
    Iraji, Sassan
    Aalto University..
    Reducing Signaling Overload:: Flexible Capillary Admission Control for Dense MTC over LTE Networks2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing adoption of Machine-Type Communication (MTC) applications on existing LongTerm Evolution (LTE) brings new challenges for additional signaling mechanism and system capacity.MTC is related to a high number of devices; which represents a challenge when performing control and signaling procedures required for getting resource grant since these processes are inefficient compared to the actual resource usage for small data transmissions.Solutions based on device grouping propose a static grouping approach, which does not perform well in low load scenario. This paper introduces the notion of a flexible admission/connection that can give granular group device control to Core network. With the proposed approach devices can be grouped for a certain period under supervision and control of a gateway and they can be ungrouped when there is no need for grouping them together. In this way, a finer control can be achieved on prioritizing certain services and load balancing. Our simulation results demonstrate significant signaling reduction by using this simple scheme compared to conventional connection procedure.

  • 9.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Lin, Lu
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    A Comparative Study of IoT-Communication Systems Cost Structure: Initial Findings of Radio Access Networks Cost2018Inngår i: 11th CMI International Conference, 2018: Prospects and Challenges Towards Developing a Digital Economy within the EU, PCTDDE 2018 / [ed] Williams, I, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 49-55, artikkel-id 8624853Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This techno-economic study introduces a framework to study the deployment cost of IoT radio access network and to compare the cost and capacity of LPWAN, LPLAN, and Cellular-IoT systems. There are a plethora of Communication technologies available today. Small rollout and pilot projects are visible for most of the IoT connectivity technologies. However, The economic viability of cellular and non-cellular IoT connectivity technologies are not definite. The primary objective of this work is to analyze the cost structure of SigFox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, and WiFi-HaLow. In this paper, we study an urban scenario with the consideration of an Greenfield and Brownfield actor to understand the technology selection strategy of communication service prodvider's perspective. One of our findings indicates that the maintenance cost is the key cost driver for IoT radio access networks. We also point out certain bounds where a technology is potentially cost-effective.

  • 10.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Comparison of LPWAN Technologies: Cost Structure and Scalability2019Inngår i: Telecommunications Policy, ISSN 0308-5961, E-ISSN 1879-3258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    — Pilot rollouts of Cellular-IoT (C-IoT) networks just started to take place this year. In the coming years, commercial deployment will take place. However, among the plethora of low power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies, the cost-effectiveness of C-IoT is not certain for IoT service providers, small and greenfield operators.  Today, there is no known public framework for the feasibility analysis of IoT communication technologies.

    Hence, this paper first presents a generic framework to assess the viability of cellular and non-cellular LPWAN technologies. Then, we applied the framework in eight deployment scenarios to analyze the prospect of LPWAN technologies like Sigfox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, LTE-M, and EC-GSM. We consider the inter-technology interference impact on LoRaWAN and Sigfox scalability. Our results validate that large rollout with a single technology is not cost-efficient. Also, our analysis suggests the viability of an IoT communication Technology may not be linear to cost efficiency.

  • 11.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    IoT-Communications as a Service: Actor Roles on Indoor Wireless Coverage2017Inngår i: 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS / [ed] Falch, M, IEEE , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is anticipated as a 'game changer' for communication service providers. Numerous IoT devices will deploy in areas where humans already inhabit. It is increasing the importance of indoor area coverage to support IoT services. This again brings the historically important questions, 'what roles an actor play and who will control the indoor coverage?' In this paper, we discuss the business actors' roles in IoT indoor service context. We identify the possible roles and activities needed to provide end-to-end indoor IoT services. Additionally, we analyze the actors' roles in IoT ecosystem. We compare the actors' roles in the context of the suitable technology and deployment choices. Our identification of roles and initial analysis shows the impact of technology and rollout choices over network business strategy. With our presented analysis, we evaluate the possible paths for mobile network operators (MNOs) on low-power wide area (LPWAN) or low-power wireless local area (LPWLAN) network deployment.

  • 12.
    Huq, Rachaen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Moreno, Kevin
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Zhu, Hui
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Zhang, Jue
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Ohlsson, Oscar
    Ericsson Research.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    On the Benefits of Clustered Capillary Networks for Congestion Control in Machine Type Communications over LTE2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the significant complexities that MachineType Communications (MTC) is expected to bring about is congestion. One promising conceptual approach in the literature to reduce congestion is clustering or grouping based solutions.Designing group-based solutions highly depend on particular cases, and it is challenging to come up with a universal solution.This paper is based on a project designed to address a grouping based congestion control technique in a particular MTC application scenario using the Capillary Networks approach from an experimental point of view. In this paper, an MTC congestion scene is generated inside a network-simulation environment in a defined “parking lot scenario” during a busy hour, where a huge number of cars and parking space sensors will try to connect to an LTE node in a congestive fashion. Based on the impact of this congestion on the node, the simulation results were analyzed to come up with a reasonable cluster size, a comparison of technologies to communicate within a group, and the benefits and tradeoffs due to clustering and Capillary Network-based solutions.

  • 13.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    Jonsson, Alex
    Evothings Lab AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    To Connect Idle Capacity with Users - on Business and Digital Platform Aspects for Sharing Services2018Inngår i: 11th CMI International Conference, 2018: Prospects and Challenges Towards Developing a Digital Economy within the EU, PCTDDE 2018 / [ed] Williams, I, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 38-43, artikkel-id 8624874Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we look into the business and service platform settings for a number of sharing services interpreted in a broad sense. It includes offering and renting of unused resources, bike and car pools, car rental, co-working spaces, second hand, and recycling. The objective of the study is to identify and describe requirements and features for an open two sided service platform for sharing services. The data set includes more than 30 sharing economy services and initiatives in Sweden. Primary data is collected from around 20 persons representing cities, local communities, providers of sharing services, technology providers and start-ups. We have also interviewed a few users of sharing services, car pools, bike pools, and coworking spaces in order to get some insight about user experience.. The sharing service should typically consider temporary use of idle capacity, usage of a platform enabling sharing and transaction between any persons in an open setting. We consider sharing of both goods and services. The main findings and research contributions are: i) a more clear definition of sharing services using the model with closed/open sets of both users and resources (providers), ii) identification of key values of a sharing service platform (as compared to values of a product or a rental service), and iii) a list of key features to implement in sharing service platforms.

  • 14.
    Martinez, Luis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth.
    Hossain, Mohammad Istiak
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    M2M Communications in Developing Countries2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    M2M sector is an increasingly important source of connections growth for mobile operatorsworldwide. Operators are looking at M2M as a new business alternative means to reduce the impact of theslowing growth (or declines) in traditional consumer mobile services. As a result, many operators areadapting their organisational structures and business models exploring opportunities to expand theirportfolio to emerging markets in developing countries. These markets are still in process of maturing,with M2M implementations at very early stage. On the other hand, the benefits that could accrue todeveloped countries through the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine type communication (MTC) arenumerous. In this context, this paper presents an initial study about the current status of M2M in somedeveloping countries, considering as study cases regions such as Latin America and Asia. Presentedinformation remarks the potential of the considered markets to boost the growth of M2M solutionsworldwide. Finally, we show some specific requirements for M2M business models for developingcountries and a description of the technical challenges to be considered at the moment of investing inM2M solutions for developing countries.

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