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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    How does travel satisfaction sum up?: Decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how satisfaction with individual trip legs aggregates to the overall travel experience for different types of trips will enable the identification of the trip legs that are most impactful. For this purpose we analyze data on retrospective evaluations of entire multi-modal trip experiences and satisfaction with individual trip legs. We formulate and describe alternative aggregation rules and underpin them in theory and previous empirical findings. The results of a series of regression models show that for a large number of multi-modal trip configurations normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules. This indicates that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience, especially for trips legs involving waiting and/or transferring time. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yielded the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction. No evidence for a disproportional effect of the last or most exceptional part of the trip was found. This research contributes to the literature on combining multi-episodic experiences and provides novel empirical evidence in the transport domain. 

  • 2.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Investigating the nature of Public Transport service attributes2018In: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 3.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Individual, Travel, and Bus Stop Characteristics Influencing Travelers’ Safety Perceptions2018In: TRR Journal of transportation research boardArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring safety during door-to-door public transport trips is a fundamental challenge to service providers as safety influences individuals’ mobility. Using reported safety perceptions of travelers waiting at six bus stops with different characteristics in Stockholm, this study investigates factors that have an impact on determining travelers’ perceived safety and crime perceptions. This is done by assessing the importance of real-time information provision and the environmental characteristics of bus stops during the day and at night for different types of crime, after controlling for travelers’ individual and trip characteristics, and their previous experiences of victimization. Interaction effects of age, gender, and travel frequency are also tested. The  results  suggest  that  bus  shelter  characteristics,  natural  surveillance,  and  trustworthy  real-time  information  are  the most important factors influencing safety and crime perceptions. Additionally, safety perceptions are strongly influenced by previous experiences of victimization. The effect of perceived feelings about crime and safety are found to be nuanced by age and gender. Unlike some common beliefs, travelers: (1) feel less worried about becoming a victim of crime at bus stops associated with high crime rates; (2) prefer opaque shelters at night; and (3) have higher safety perceptions when the stop is located in an area of mixed land use. The impact of a bus stop’s number of passers-by is found to be insignificant. No direct or indirect effects can be attributed to frequency of travel by bus, indicating that familiar places and routine behavior have noeffect on declared crime and safety perceptions.

  • 4.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Delft University, Netherlands.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden Identifying Priority Areas2015In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2538, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and analysing satisfaction with public transport services facilitates service performance monitoring, market analysis, benchmarking and the identification of priority areas. The systematic and regular collection of information concerning satisfaction enables to investigate how passengers’ satisfaction as well as its determinants changes over time. These changes may be driven by changes in service quality or shifts in passengers’ expectations and preferences. This study analyses how satisfaction with public transport and its determinants evolved over time in Sweden in the years 2001-2013. The determinants of satisfaction are identified based on a factor analysis and the estimation of multivariate satisfaction models. The superposition of our findings culminates in a dynamic passenger satisfaction priority map which allows identifying priority areas based on observed trends in satisfaction with service attributes and their respective importance. The deterioration of overall satisfaction with public transport in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time. These two service aspects as well as operation were found key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory. The results of this study are instrumental in supporting service providers in designing measures that will foster satisfaction in the future.

  • 5. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Satisfaction with intermodal trips in Stockholm: How do service attributes influence satisfaction with the main mode and with the journey as a whole?2016In: TRB 95th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2016, Vol. 16, article id 2247Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using door-to-door travel satisfaction data which was collected in Stockholm, Sweden, in this paper the authors have investigated how satisfaction with the main mode is related to the overall trip satisfaction, and how service related variables influence satisfaction at both levels. The results show that every stages within the journey matters in influencing traveler’s door-to-door journey experience. Some other factors, such as occurrence of disruptions, were also found as significant factor influencing the reported travel satisfaction. The quality of vehicle design, one of the traditional emphases in improving passenger’ travel satisfaction, affects the trip as a whole but not the main mode satisfaction. This indicates that this variable is more relevant for the access and egress trips made by addition means of public transport. Overall, the authors' findings suggest that in order to improve the overall trip satisfaction, it does not suffice to focus only on characteristics of the main mode, but also the quality of egress and access trips and also the quality of the interchanges as a whole.

  • 6.
    F. Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    VTI.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 7.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Satisfaction with Public Transport Trips2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous urban growth, environmental issues, competition for limited space, longer commuting distances as well as the need to promote equity and equality in society are the primary reasons that make the improvement of public transport (PT) services a key policy area in many countries across the globe. Travel satisfaction measures the perceived quality of the PT service and it is an important aspect that operators and PT authorities need to consider when improving the service offered.Desk research identified a number of important issues that previous studies had neglected. These knowledge gaps include the investigation of: (a) the evolution over time of the determinants (service attributes) of travel satisfaction, (b) the main determinants of travel satisfaction for different traveler segments and travel modes; (c) the most relevant part of door-to-door trips for different types of trip configurations; (d) the impact on the travel experience of weather, accessibility and proximity measures and built-environment characteristics of the first mile of the trip; (e) the [non]linear and [a]symmetric nature of the relationship between PT service attributes and overall travel satisfaction for different travelers and travel modes.The five papers included in this doctoral thesis present an array of approaches and methodologies aiming at increasing overall travel satisfaction with PT services while covering the knowledge gaps that previous research failed to address.Paper I, investigates the determinants of PT satisfaction and their evolution over time (2001-2013). The results show that: a) customer interface and operation, and at a lesser extent trip duration are the quality of service attributes that need to be prioritized; b) while satisfaction, in general, remains rather constant, relative importance fluctuates year after year. However, the QoSAs remain in the same quadrant of the priority map and thus the determinants of travel satisfaction stay invariable.Paper II, reduces the diversity of needs and priorities of Swedish travelers to 5 distinctive multi-modal travelers’ segments. Considering the importance attached to service attributes, these travelers’ segments exhibit geographical disparities and in between-groups overall similarity. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences can be observed. Service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent PT user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while one of the groups - rural motorist commuters - is markedly dissatisfied with the service operation attributes.Paper III, first aims to understand how travelers combine trip legs’ satisfactions into an overall evaluation of their trip, and then to investigate the relative importance of satisfaction with access, main and egress segments for the entire door-to-door travel experience. A number of both normative and heuristic satisfaction aggregation rules are tested for different types of trip configurations. The results show that normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules, indicating that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yield the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction, especially when applying a penalty for each waiting time of 3 or 4 times in- vehicle or walking time.Paper IV, investigates the impact that built-environment, accessibility and weather characteristics from the access stage of the trip have on the overall travel experience. This is done in two geographical contexts (urban and peri-urban and rural) and with models regarding the last and the overall trips. The results indicate that perceptual and non-perceptual built-environment variables have a rather weak effect in the overall satisfaction. Safety feelings around PT stations/stops have an effect on the overall travel experience while safety feelings related to travelers’ neighborhood of residence have none. Accessibility results indicate that living in an area that is well-connected to all other areas, and in particular to the attractive ones, has a positive impact on the overall travel experience. Most of the tested weather conditions at the time of the start of the trip exert an impact on travel satisfaction.Based on the three-factor theory, Paper V classifies quality of service attributes regarding their influence (positive, negative or both) on overall travel satisfaction. The analysis is done for different traveler segments and travel modes and presented in the form of a series of three-level cubes. For a general travel, attributes that can mainly bring dissatisfaction when they are not well-provided are, staff and assistance and ticket accessibility (basic factor). These are followed by attributes that can provide both satisfaction and dissatisfaction in a similar way and depending on their performance level (performance factor). Performance attributes are related to operational aspects (trip duration and operation) and safety perceptions while traveling. Quality of service attributes that can mainly bring satisfaction when they are well provided are network and on-board conditions (exciting factor). Important differences are found in the attribute factor classification between travel modes and segments which indicates that a “one size fits all” approach is not recommendable to adopt.This set of papers can help authorities to better evaluate and cater for travelers’ needs by supporting the allocation of resources and prioritizing policy measures in the most impactful part of the door-to-door trip and to the most important factors.

  • 8.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 64-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing public transport ridership while providing a service that better caters to individual travelers poses an important goal and challenge for society, particularly public transport authorities and operators. This study identifies and characterizes current and potential users of public transport in Sweden and identifies the most important determinants of travel satisfaction with Public Transport services for each segment of travelers. In addition, it investigates the changes over time of attribute importance among the different segments and the inter-segment geographical variation of overall satisfaction. The analysis is based on a dataset of almost half a million records. Travelers were clustered based on their socio-demographics, travel patterns and accessibility measures to enable the analysis of determinants of satisfaction for different market segments. The cluster analysis results with five segments of Swedish travelers include: (i) inactive travelers; (ii) long distance commuters; (iii) urban motorist commuters; (iv) rural motorist commuters and;(v) students. By contrasting satisfaction with the importance of each quality of service attribute, three key attributes that should be prioritized by stakeholders are identified: customer interface, operation, network and  length  of  trip time. Interestingly, the results suggest an overall similarity in the importance of service attributes among traveler segments. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences could be observed. The quality of service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent public transport user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while rural motorist commuters are markedly dissatisfied with service operation attributes. This work can help authorities to tailor their policies to specific traveler groups.

  • 9.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Ettema, Dick
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Do accessibility, vulnerability, opportunity, and travel characteristics have uniform impacts on traveler experience?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 114, p. 38-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a door-to-door travel survey (METPEX) for Stockholm and the year 2014, this study analyzed the effects of quality of infrastructure and design of public transport premises on the overall travel experience and on the trip stages for different traveler segments. The market segmentation approach was based on travel characteristics, captivity, vulnerability and travel attitudes which were either found to be impactful in previous literature or that had not been deeply explored.

     

    A latent class cluster model segmentation process yields 4 traveler segments: i) content urban commuters, ii) unfulfilled rural travelers, iii) active leisure travelers, and, iv) vulnerable mode switchers. The model estimation results show similarities in terms of appreciations and needs between the attributes that influence the whole trip and the different trip stages. Two attributes are found to be of outermost importance across all trip stages but especially for the whole trip and the main mode: travel modes integration and quality of infrastructure for the entire trip.

     

    This study also unveils particularities and important differences amongst different trip stages and traveler segments. Therefore stakeholders would do well in treating travelers differently when evaluating infrastructure and design characteristics of PT. This study can help stakeholders to tailor their policies to tackle with specific traveler’s needs.

  • 10.
    Fernández Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Improving Travel Satisfaction with Public Transport2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing link between PT travelers’ satisfaction, ridership and loyalty prove the relevance of improving overall trip satisfaction. The thesis present an array of approaches and methodologies aiming at increasing overall satisfaction with PT door-to-door trips while covering important issues that previous research has failed to address. These knowledge gaps include: disregarding the different needs and priorities of different type of travelers; overlooking the evolution over time and across geographical areas that overall satisfaction and satisfaction with specific service attributes may experience; and, neglecting the importance of access and egress legs.

    Based on the Swedish customer satisfaction barometer (2001-2013), an investigation of the determinants of PT satisfaction and their evolution over time (I) shows that: a) the deterioration of overall satisfaction with PT in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time; b) these two service aspects as well as operation are found as key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory.

    The diversity of needs and priorities of SKT travelers was reduced into 5 distinctive multi-modal travelers’ groups (II). These travelers’ groups exhibited geographical disparities and an in between-groups overall similarity in the importance attached to the service attributes. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences could be observed. The service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time.

    A number of both normative and heuristic satisfaction aggregation rules are tested on METPEX dataset for different types of trip configurations (III). The results show that normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules, indicating that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience.

  • 11.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Woodcock, Andree
    Osmond, Jane
    Diana, Marco
    Findings from measuring door-to-door travellers’ travel satisfaction with traditional and smartphone app survey methods in eight European cities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how different travel satisfaction survey methods influence the reported level of door-to-door travel satisfaction among travellers. The travel satisfaction measurement survey tools tested consisted of two types of smartphone applications (a satellite navigation app and a game app), an on-line survey, a paper-based semi-structured questionnaire and a focus group. Each of the measurement tools comprised similar set of questions, but in different formats, aimed at exploring the pros and cons of each tool among different group of travellers. In total, 5,275 valid responses were collected during the survey period from eight European cities and five FIA national motorist networks. The analysis results with ordered logit model of travellers’ reported overall satisfaction showed that the travel satisfaction reported by different survey methods and different travel modes and user groups, correlated with distinct groups of key determinants. The relationship between and within these key determinants, however, was far from straight forward. Some were more complex than others. Some issues that are mostly discussed by policy makers and users may not be the ones that directly correlate with the users’ overall travel satisfactions. Consistent with previous studies, the travellers’ mood and previous experience influenced the reported overall journey satisfaction.

  • 12.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Woodcock, Andree
    Liotopoulos, Fotis
    Duarte, Andre
    Osmond, Jane
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Anghel, Lucian Emanuel
    Herrero, Dolores
    Fornari, Federico
    Tolio, Virginie
    O'Connell, Eileen
    Markuceviciute, Ieva
    Kritharioti, Chrysoula
    Pirra, Miriam
    Deploying traditional and smartphone app survey methods in measuring door-to-door travel satisfaction in eight European cities2017In: WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH - WCTR 2016 / [ed] Ulengin, F Li, K Boltze, M, 2017, p. 2262-2280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the lessons learned from designing, deploying and analysing the results from different travel satisfaction survey tools which measures the travellers' door-to-door travel satisfaction. The travel satisfaction measurement survey tools tested consisted of two types of smartphone applications (a satellite navigation app and a game app), an on-line survey, a paper based semi-structured questionnaire and a focus group questionnaire. Each of the measurement tools comprised the same set of basic questions, but in different formats, aimed at exploring the pros and cons of each tool among different groups of travellers. The data collection was carried out at eight different European cities and five FIA motorist networks. 5,275 valid responses were gathered from the survey. Further analysis results show that different survey methods performed better in different sites. The satisfaction that was gathered via main trip leg does not necessarily correspond with overall satisfaction of the door-to-door journey. The results of this study highlight the need for more inclusive, complete, door-to-door, travel survey measurements.

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