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  • 1.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Incentivising Innovation in the Swedish Construction Industry2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost 40 percent of global final energy use and CO2 emissions are connected to buildings and building-related activities; it is therefore important to incentivise the design and construction of resource-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, energy demand and associated emissions in the sector continue to grow. Such incentives will help achieve energy and environmental targets, reduce costs, and make smart and sustainable buildings and cities possible at a larger scale. Because novel technologies carry risks alongside their advantages, developers, contractors and consultants must have incentives to reduce and share those risks in a rational way if we are to meet the crucial long-term societal goals of reduced use of resources and emissions.

     

    I hypothesise that there are legal and institutional frameworks (rules, building codes, regulations, standard contracts, etc.) that result in weak or negative incentives for construction industry actors to invest in, propose, and install resource-efficient technologies. If the hypothesis holds true, then the goal is to identify ways to better incentivise construction industry actors to fully engage in the design and construction of smart and sustainable buildings.

     

    To tackle this, four studies were carried out using a mixed-method approach. Paper 1 identifies 38 barriers to energy efficiency in Swedish multifamily buildings. The next study (Paper 2) develops a categorisation framework in order to understand where to engage to overcome or bypass barriers to energy efficiency. Paper 3 and 4 are devoted to analysing two sets of barriers and propose possible solutions to overcome or avoid them: (1) how the current legal framework guiding start and operation of housing co-operatives (mainly the Co-operative Act) influences incentives for engaging in resource-efficient construction, and (2) how the legal instrument for collaboration between developers and consultants incentivises resource-efficient construction. In this case, the contract under investigation is the General Conditions of Contract for Consulting Agreements for Architectural and Engineering Assignments (ABK 09)”. Changes to these two sets of legal and institutional frameworks could have a significant impact on how buildings are designed, produced and used. The changes proposed could incentivise construction industry actors to fully pursue the creation of smart, sustainable buildings that deliver services to users and reduce negative environmental impacts stemming from both the building construction and operation phases.

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  • 2.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Economics and Finance.
    Att styra allmänningar – en studie av svenska bostadsrättsföreningar2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 2, p. 55-66Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt i ett samhälle att ha institutioner som bidrar till ett effektivt utnyttjande av resurser. Syftet med denna artikel är att granska den svenska bostadsrättsformen utifrån de kriterier som Elinor Ostrom formulerat rörande vad som bidrar till en effektiv förvaltning av en ”allmänning”. Avslutningsvis presenteras också reformförslag som vi bedömer skulle minska problemen i dagens strukturer, problem som främst sammanhänger med att den som startar föreningen och bygger dess hus inte har något långsiktigt ansvar.

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  • 3.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Holm, Cyril
    A Note on Developing A New Type of Construction Contracts to Promote New Technologies and Sustainability2024In: Civil Engineering Research Journal, E-ISSN 2575-8950, Vol. 14, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In its different forms, the built environment is the single largest energy consumer in the EU, and one of the largest carbon dioxide emitters. Green buildings and smart technologies are two of the most important elements to reach this goal. In a situation where the use of new technologies and new knowledge becomes more important as well as the news flow increase the role of the technical consultant becomes more important. Also, the client/developer role become increasingly important when buildings turn from storage facilities to service generating entities. A closer alliance between client and consultant is necessary to align business models with new technologies. Contracts are the most important instrument to shape incentive structures for optimal economic outcomes, as well as for shaping incentives for optimal operation of smart and sustainable buildings. In this paper we propose a contract design that incentivise consultants to fully use their knowledge to make sure that planned systems are installed and operated in an optimal manner. There are in general two approaches to this type of contract design. The first is to write a detailed contract setting out how to deal with possible outcomes going forward. The second, and the approach used in this paper, is to write a less detailed contract that sets out a framework of incentives for continuing cooperation and to keep a good reputation.

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  • 4.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Holm, Cyril
    Univ Oxford, Fac Law, St Cross Bldg,St Cross Rd, Oxford OX1 3UL, England..
    Incentivising innovation in the construction sector: the role of consulting contracts2019In: Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, ISSN 1835-6354, E-ISSN 1837-9133, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 181-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of whether contracts promote innovation and sustainability is an important but overlooked aspect for achieving energy and environmental targets, as well as for creating smart and sustainable cities. In this article, based on the principle/agent problem and Holmstrom and Milgrom's work on optimal contracts it is argued that the current general conditions of architectural and engineering consulting agreements in Sweden (ABK 09)-a standard type of contract often used in developer/consultant relations-may not incentivize choices that support the long-term goals of society. Furthermore, although this exploratory study specifically analyses a Swedish standard contract, the question of how contractual incentive structures can optimize real-world performance is a general one, and thus the article's findings have general applicability. This exploratory study also points to further research into how contractual structures impact climate-neutral buildings. In this way, Swedish consultants who use ABK 09 are incentivized to include low-risk, well-proven, and widely used technologies in order to minimize risks for themselves. This study contributes to resolving this dilemma by suggesting how ABK 09 could be restructured to change the balance between incentives and risk and incentivize innovation and sustainability. As mentioned above, the current study operates at a theoretical level. It discusses six possible changes that would better align the contract with the societal goals of innovation and sustainability.

  • 5.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Who is Governing the Commons: Studying Swedish Housing Cooperatives2016In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 424-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines current governance structures related to multifamily buildings designed by single actors (developers) and operated in cooperative forms. The study analyses the long-term sustainability of the resource regime of study (multifamily buildings) and inked governance structures by applying Ostrom’s eight design principles for long-term survival of self-organized resource regimes (Common-pool resources or CPR’s). The study also searches for signs of movement towards social innovation and collective action in current governance structures. We argue that the structures governing planning, production and operation of housing cooperatives in Sweden do not fulfil the eight design principles for the long-term survival of the resource regime of study, nor do they encourage movement towards social innovation or collective action. In order to ensure the long-term survival of the resource regime of study and to increase innovation in governance structures, five adjustments are proposed; changes in the structures governing risk/profit distribution, communication, collaboration and information between actors in the Swedish cooperative housing sector.

  • 6.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Arias, Jaime
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifaily buildings2015In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifamily buildings. The paper first presents a generic list of (theoretical) problem areas identified through a literature survey. Using a qualitative approach, the paper also investigates if the problem areas identified in the literature also have an impact on the Swedish building sector. Results from the interview study reveal a strong coherence between problem areas in the literature and those expressed by the interviewees. However, this paper identifies seven novel challenges that cannot be derived from the list of barriers in the literature. Moreover, results reveal that as many as 12 problem areas have their origin in national factors such as agreement structures, incentive schemes, and cost calculation methods.

  • 7.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Van Bueren, Ellen
    Delft University of Technology.
    Verhoef, Leendert
    Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions.
    Goldberg, Brian
    Office of Sustainability MIT.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Sarin, Emma
    HSB Living Lab.
    Co-Creation in Living Labs to Accelerate Innovation2020In: Civil Engineering Research Journal, ISSN 2575-8950, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 555776Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in the construction sector occurs as stepwise reconfigurations of subsystems, but sometimes the effect of many systems coincides and there is so called radical change. Stepwise reconfigurations of individual systems such as windows, insulation, and heat recovery systems have made it possible to heat buildings with preheated inlet air instead of water radiators. Thus, making building more sustainable, cheaper and resource-efficient; the potential for radical change has been achieved. The question is then why not every new building uses preheated inlet air? The reason is not the lack of innovation or new technologies. It is rather connected to malfunctioning structures related to incentives, collaboration, testing, and validation, resulting in norms and standards that aim to reproduce existing technologies, preferring incremental innovations over radical ones.This article argues that testbeds and Living Labs are a way to work on complex, multi-stakeholder and urgent problems in a co-creative way. In these labs there are possibilities to test technologies, in systems, in real buildings and cities. There are possibilities to follow-up, measure and adjust; to live, study, work and develop. The Living Labs have the potential of making new technologies standard to use in the course of years instead of decades and thus minimize unnecessary use of resources linked to the construction and use of buildings. In addition, it will help to make technologies more user-friendly, considering user needs, wishes and experiences, thus contributing to the effectiveness of the technologies developed and tested.

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    Co-Creation in Living Labs to Accelerate Innovation
  • 8.
    Fagrell, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Building The Future: Unveiling Educational and Competence Demands for Smart and Sustainable Buildings2024In: Civil engineering research journal, ISSN 2575-8950, Vol. 14, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish construction sector is said to be highly traditional with a slow pace of development, e.g., in terms of adapting new technologies. However, current developments related mainly to digitalization, but also sustainability and entrepreneurship, are forcing this sector to change from almost static to highly dynamic. This paper presents results from an interview study performed with eight industry experts from various property management and/or construction companies in Sweden, all in different ways connected to research at KTH Live-In Lab. The interviews were performed to discuss and identify what engineering skills are required to operate and manage the smart and sustainable buildings of the future. The results indicate that changes in the three areas of digitalization, sustainability and entrepreneurship have different characteristics. The interviewees describe rapid changes in these areas, changes that have an unknown end goal. What is asked for in the construction industry seems unreachable. The construction sector cannot fully harvest the benefits of ongoing technological development, and academia is, in the short term, unable to help. Hence, dedicated actors solve the competence need outside traditional university educational programs.

  • 9. Holm, Cyril
    et al.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    GDPR och Smarta Byggnader - En undersökning av teknik, individ och samhälle i framtidens smarta byggnader2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapports huvudfokus är att undersöka balansen, beskriven ovan, utifrån det rättsliga ramverk som GDPR utgör, samt att ge vägledning för hur kommersiella fastighetsägare rent praktiskt kan arbeta med smarta byggnader. Den pågående trenden att genom sensorer och hantering av data påverka byggnaders resursanvändning och möjligheten till ökad tjänsteleverans kommer med all sannolikhet att fortsätta och öka. Digitaliseringen av samhällsbyggnadssektorn är enbart i sin linda och vinsterna på individ, företags och samhällsnivå, dels ekonomiskt och miljömässigt, bedöms som mycket stora. För att möjliggöra potentialen av digitaliseringen, en minimering av klimatpåverkan kopplat till drift av byggnader, och samtidigt värna om individens integritet måste framtida byggnaders system för insamling och hantering av data designas varsamt. För att möjliggöra optimering av en byggnads tekniska system, samt en minimering av klimatpåverkan kopplat till drift av byggnaden, kan en fastighetsägare behöva samla in och lagra information som faller inom ramen för GDPR. För att säkerställa att fastighetsägaren följer GDPR beskrivet ovan bör följande rutiner och åtgärder genomföras.

    • Rättslig strategi
    • Minimera uppgifter som går att koppla till fysisk person
    • Hur kan man optimera med aggregerade uppgifter som inte kopplas till person
    • Problematisera samtycken, resultatet av det är en rättslig osäker het som leder till att använda anonyma data. Det är inte kopplingen till person som är intressant, utan optimeringen.
    • Problematisera anonymisering, hur gör man rent tekniskt eller sam man utgå ifrån att det är en praktisk variant av anonymisering som gäller eftersom GDPR förslår det?

    I den här rapporten vill vi visa hur man kan göra det enkelt att följa GDPR, och enkelt att bygga kommersiella smarta hus i relation till GDPR. Vårt förslag innehåller följande punkter som vi sedan utvecklar nedan.

    Data:

    • Minimera lagring av data och maximera momentant utnyttjande av sensordata
    • Höj och förfina optimeringsgraden Minimera uppgifter som går att koppla till fysisk person Pseudonymisera data som måste lagras

    Organisation:

    • Ha tydlig organisation och ansvarsfördelning runt hanteringen av data och personuppgifter i relation till GDPR.
    • Alltid ha en aktuell lista på sensorer.
    • Använd opt-out5GDPR OCH SMARTA BYGGNADER.
    • Utarbeta genomarbetade skriftliga samtycken. 
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  • 10.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. Digital futures KTH.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Rolando, Davide
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. Digital futures KTH.
    Using Living Labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study2021In: Technology Innovation to Accelerate Energy Transitions, Applied Energy Innovation Institute (AEii) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of innovation in the buildingsector is currently too low for the ambitious sustainability goals that our societies have agreed upon. The concept of smart building, for instance, is being implemented too slowly. One of the main reasons for this is that technologies have to be proven effective and reliable before being introduced at large scale in buildings. Testbeds and demonstrators are seen as a crucial infrastructure to test and demonstrate the impact of solutions in the building sector and hence facilitate their adoption in buildings. The KTHLive-In Lab is a platform of building testbeds designed to this scope. This work describes the Live-In Lab vision,approach, technical features,provides an overview on the multidisciplinary projects that it has enabled and discusses its replicability.

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    Using Living Labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study
  • 11.
    Molinari, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Rolando, Davide
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Using living labs to tackle innovation bottlenecks: the KTH Live-In Lab case study2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 338, p. 120877-120877, article id 120877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of innovation in the building sector is currently too slow for the ambitious sustainability goals thatour societies have agreed upon. Living labs are open innovation ecosystems in real-life environments usingiterative feedback processes throughout a lifecycle approach of an innovation to create sustainable impact. In thecontext of the built environment, such co-creative innovation and demonstration platforms are needed tofacilitate the adoption of innovative technologies and concepts for more energy-efficient and sustainablebuildings. However, their feasibility is not extensively proven. This paper illustrates the implementation anddemonstrates the feasibility of the Living Labs Triangle Framework for buildings living labs. This conceptualframework has been used to conceive the KTH Live-In Lab, a living lab for buildings. The goal of the Live-In Labwas to create a co-creative open platform for research and education bridging the gap between industry andacademia, featuring smart building demonstrators. The Living Lab Triangle Framework has been deployed tomeet the goals of the Live-in Lab, and the resulting concept is described. This paper then analyses the meth-odological and operational results introducing performance metrics to measure the economic sustainability, thepromotion of multidisciplinary research and development projects, dissemination and impact. The results arecompleted with a SWOT analysis identifying its current strengths and weaknesses. The results collected in thiswork fill a missing gap in the scientific literature on the performance of living labs and provide empirical evi-dence on the sustainability and impact of living labs.

  • 12.
    Vogel, Jonas Anund
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Arias, Jaime
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Categorizing barriers to energy efficiency in buildings2015In: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, 2015, p. 2839-2845Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing new technologies in buildings in Sweden have historically been connected with great portions of scepticism, hence influencing the speed of acceptance of new technologies. The speed is slow even though technologies are tested, evaluated, proven to make an impact, and economic efficient. In order to understand acceptance of energy efficient technologies in multifamily buildings and to identify the origin of barriers to energy efficiency this paper investigates barriers as consequences of the current system structure in the Swedish building sector. The study views the Swedish building sector as a sociotechnical system built from technical artefacts, institutions, and actors, thus often deeply embedded in our societies. The Swedish building sector is well structured, resulting in that innovation and development occurring outside of the existing sociotechnical regime might not be recognized as feasible investments. In order to identify the structures enabling barriers to energy efficiency adoption this paper aims at developing a framework for categorizing barriers depending on their structural origin. The categorization framework is inspired by theories of sustainable innovation journeys and of soft systems and distinguishes between three decision-levels for barriers to energy efficiency: Project level, Sector level and Contextual level. By implementing the proposed categorization framework it becomes obvious that problem areas in the building sector are not connected to any specific structural level. However, results in this study reveal that most barriers originate in the Contextual level, which implies that energy and sustainability are not yet key aspects when forming and transforming contextual preconditions on how to design and build multifamily buildings in Sweden. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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