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  • 1.
    Brosse, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Finmo, Carl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Experimental study of a three-dimensional cylinder–filament system2015In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 56, no 6, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study reports on the behavior of a filament attached to the rear of a three-dimensional cylinder. The axis of the cylinder is placed normal to a uniform incoming flow, and the filament is free to move in the cylinder wake. The mean position of the filament is studied as a function of the filament length L. It is found that for long (L/D > 6.5, where D is the cylinder diameter) and short (L/D < 2) filaments, the mean position of the filament tends to align with the incoming flow, whereas for intermediate filament lengths (2 < L/D < 6.5), the filament lies down on the cylinder and tends to align with the cylinder axis. The underlying mechanism of the bifurcations is discussed and related to buckling and inverted-pendulum-like instabilities.

  • 2.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Characterizing the Orientational and Network Dynamics of Polydisperse Nanofibers at the Nanoscale.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Characterizing the Orientational and Network Dynamics of Polydisperse Nanofibers on the Nanoscale2019In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 2286-2295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polydisperse fiber networks are the basis of many natural and manufactured structures, ranging from high-performance biobased materials to components of living cells and tissues. The formation and behavior of such networks are given by fiber properties such as length and stiffness as well as the number density and fiber-fiber interactions. Studies of fiber network behavior, such as connectivity or rigidity thresholds, typically assume monodisperse fiber lengths and isotropic fiber orientation distributions, specifically for nano scale fibers, where the methods providing time-resolved measurements are limited. Using birefringence measurements in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel combined with a flow stop procedure, we here propose a methodology allowing investigations of length-dependent rotational dynamics of nanoscale polydisperse fiber suspensions, including the effects of initial nonisotropic orientation distributions. Transition from rotational mobility to rigidity at entanglement thresholds is specifically addressed for a number of nanocellulose suspensions, which are used as model nanofiber systems. The results show that the proposed method allows the characterization of the subtle interplay between Brownian diffusion and nanoparticle alignment on network dynamics.

  • 4.
    Gowda, Krishne, V
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lefranc, Thibault
    Univ Claude Bernard, Univ Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS,Lab Phys, F-69342 Lyon, France..
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Effective interfacial tension in flow-focusing of colloidal dispersions: 3-D numerical simulations and experiments2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 876, p. 1052-1076, article id PII S0022112019005664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interface between two miscible fluids is transient, existing as a non-equilibrium state before complete molecular mixing is reached. However, during the existence of such an interface, which typically occurs at relatively short time scales, composition gradients at the boundary between the two liquids cause stresses effectively mimicking an interfacial tension. Here, we combine numerical modelling and experiments to study the influence of an effective interfacial tension between a colloidal fibre dispersion and its own solvent on the flow in a microfluidic system. In a flow-focusing channel, the dispersion is injected as core flow that is hydrodynamically focused by its solvent as sheath flows. This leads to the formation of a long fluid thread, which is characterized in three dimensions using optical coherence tomography and simulated using a volume of fluid method. The simulated flow and thread geometries very closely reproduce the experimental results in terms of thread topology and velocity flow fields. By varying the interfacial tension numerically, we show that it controls the thread development, which can be described by an effective capillary number. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the applied methodology provide the means to measure the ultra-low but dynamically highly significant effective interfacial tension.

  • 5.
    Kamada, Ayaka
    et al.
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Bioengn, Tokyo, Japan..
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Assembly mechanism of nanostructured whey protein filaments2016In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 252Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kvick, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH. KTH Mech, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH Mech, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Innventia AB, S-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Erratum to: Effect of fibrils on curvature-and rotation-induced hydrodynamic stability2015In: Acta Mechanica, ISSN 0001-5970, E-ISSN 1619-6937, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1319-1321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    MacKenzie, Jordan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Swerin, Agne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Turbulent stress measurements of fibre suspensions in a straight pipe2018In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 30, no 2, article id 025104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present work is an experimental study of the behaviour of semi-dilute, opaque fibre suspensions in fully developed cylindrical pipe flows. Measurements of the normal and turbulent shear stress components and the mean flow were acquired using phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. Two fibre types, namely, pulp fibre and nylon fibre, were considered in this work and are known to differ in elastic modulus. In total, three different mass concentrations and seven Reynolds numbers were tested to investigate the effects of fibre interactions during the transition from the plug flow to fully turbulent flow. It was found that in fully turbulent flows of nylon fibres, the normal, < u(z)u(z)>(+), and shear, < u(z)u(z)>(+) (note that <.> is the temporal average, u is the fluctuating velocity, z is the axial or streamwise component, and r is the radial direction), turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number regardless of the crowding number (a concentration measure). For pulp fibre, the turbulent stresses increased with Reynolds number when a fibre plug was present in the flow and were spatially similar in magnitude when no fibre plug was present. Pressure spectra revealed that the stiff, nylon fibre reduced the energy in the inertial-subrange with an increasing Reynolds and crowding number, whereas the less stiff pulp fibre effectively cuts the energy cascade prematurely when the network was fully dispersed.

  • 8. Meibohm, J.
    et al.
    Candelier, F.
    Rosén, Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Einarsson, J.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Mehlig, B.
    Angular velocity of a sphere in a simple shear at small Reynolds number2016In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 1, no 8, article id 084203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the angular velocity of a small neutrally buoyant spheroid log rolling in a simple shear. When the effect of fluid inertia is negligible the angular velocity. equals half the fluid vorticity. We compute by singular perturbation theory how weak fluid inertia reduces the angular velocity in an unbounded shear, and how this reduction depends upon the shape of the spheroid (on its aspect ratio). In addition we determine the angular velocity by direct numerical simulations. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory at small but not too small values of the shear Reynolds number Res, for all aspect ratios considered. For the special case of a sphere we find omega/s = -1/2 + 0.0540 Re-s(3/2) where s is the shear rate. The O( Re-s(3/2)) correction differs from that derived by Lin et al. who obtained a numerical coefficient roughly three times larger.

  • 9.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ansari, Farhan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.
    Gowda, Krishne, V
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chen, Pan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. RISE Bioeconomy, P.O. Box 5604, Stockholm, SwedenRISE Bioeconomy, P.O. Box 5604, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roth, Stephan Volkher
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Kotov, Nicholas Alexander
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Multiscale Control of Nanocellulose Assembly: Transferring Remarkable Nanoscale Fibril Mechanics to Macroscale Fibers2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 6378-6388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoscale building blocks of many materials exhibit extraordinary mechanical properties due to their defect-free molecular structure. Translation of these high mechanical properties to macroscopic materials represents a difficult materials engineering challenge due to the necessity to organize these building blocks into multiscale patterns and mitigate defects emerging at larger scales. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), the most abundant structural element in living systems, has impressively high strength and stiffness, but natural or artificial cellulose composites are 3-15 times weaker than the CNFs. Here, we report the flow-assisted organization of CNFs into macroscale fibers with nearly perfect unidirectional alignment. Efficient stress transfer from macroscale to individual CNF due to cross-linking and high degree of order enables their Young's modulus to reach up to 86 GPa and a tensile strength of 1.57 GPa, exceeding the mechanical properties of known natural or synthetic biopolymeric materials. The specific strength of our CNF fibers engineered at multiscale also exceeds that of metals, alloys, and glass fibers, enhancing the potential of sustainable lightweight high-performance materials with multiscale self-organization.

  • 10.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ultrastrong and Bioactive Nanostructured Bio-Based Composites2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 5148-5159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature’s design of functional materials relies on smart combinations of simple components to achieve desired properties. Silk and cellulose are two clever examples from nature–spider silk being tough due to high extensibility, whereas cellulose possesses unparalleled strength and stiffness among natural materials. Unfortunately, silk proteins cannot be obtained in large quantities from spiders, and recombinant production processes are so far rather expensive. We have therefore combined small amounts of functionalized recombinant spider silk proteins with the most abundant structural component on Earth (cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs)) to fabricate isotropic as well as anisotropic hierarchical structures. Our approach for the fabrication of bio-based anisotropic fibers results in previously unreached but highly desirable mechanical performance with a stiffness of ∼55 GPa, strength at break of ∼1015 MPa, and toughness of ∼55 MJ m–3. We also show that addition of small amounts of silk fusion proteins to CNF results in materials with advanced biofunctionalities, which cannot be anticipated for the wood-based CNF alone. These findings suggest that bio-based materials provide abundant opportunities to design composites with high strength and functionalities and bring down our dependence on fossil-based resources.

  • 11.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Kaldéus, Tahani
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Effect of cellulose nanofibril morphology on the strength and stiffness of macroscopic filaments2017In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedhammar, My
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Flow-assisted organization of nanostructured bio-based materials2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Miyauchi, Suguru
    et al.
    Hayase, Toshiyuki
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Loiseau, Jean-Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the behavior of a circular capsule subject to an inclined centrifugal force near a plate in a fluid2017In: JOURNAL OF FLUID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1880-5558, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to examine mechanical interactions between erythrocytes and a blood vessel surface, the frictional characteristics between erythrocytes and plates in plasma have been measured by an inclined centrifuge microscope. The frictional characteristics have been properly reproduced by a numerical simulation of a rigid erythrocyte model assuming a flat bottom surface. However, validity of the assumption has not been confirmed. The purpose of this fundamental study, therefore, was to clarify the behavior of a two-dimensional circular capsule subjected to inclined centrifugal force near a plate in a fluid. An unsteady simulation was performed for various values of the angles of the inclined centrifugal force and membrane elasticity. In equilibrium states, a lubrication domain with high pressure and a large shear stress is formed between the capsule and the base plate, and the bottom surface of the capsule becomes flat with a positive attack angle. The gap distance and translational and rotational velocities increase with decreasing membrane elasticity or increasing centrifugal force angle. The attack angle increases with increasing membrane elasticity or centrifugal force angle. The results in this study qualitatively justified the assumption of the former numerical study that erythrocytes in an inclined centrifuge microscope have a flat bottom surface and its result that they have a positive attack angle in equilibrium state.

  • 14.
    Moradi Nour, Zeinab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Study of particle dynamics in three phase flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Moradi Nour, Zeinab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Simulation of spherical particles with outflow from the surface in simple shear flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Nechyporchuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Molndal, Sweden..
    Hakansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Bioecon, POB 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gowda, Krishne, V
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hagstrom, Bengt
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Molndal, Sweden..
    Kohnke, Tobias
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Mat & Prod, POB 104, SE-43122 Molndal, Sweden..
    Continuous Assembly of Cellulose Nanofibrils and Nanocrystals into Strong Macrofibers through Microfluidic Spinning2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 1800557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic fiber spinning is a promising technique for assembling cellulose nanomaterials into macroscopic fibers. However, its implementation requires upscalabe fabrication processes while maintaining high strength of the fibers, which could not be previously achieved. Herein, a continuous wet spinning process based on microfluidic flow focusing is developed to produce strong fibers from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and nanocrystals (CNCs). Fibers with an average breaking tenacity as high as 29.5 cN tex(-1) and Young's modulus of 1146 cN tex(-1) are reported for the first time, produced from nonhighly purified CNF grades. Using the same developed method, wet spinning of fibers from CNCs is achieved for the first time, reaching an average Young's modulus of 1263 cN tex(-1) and a breaking tenacity of 10.6 cN tex(-1), thus exhibiting strength twice as high as that of common CNC films. A rather similar stiffness of CNC and CNF spun fibers may originate from similar degrees of alignment, as confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and birefringence measurements, whereas lower strength may primarily arise from the shorter length of CNCs compared to that of CNFs. The benefit of CNCs is their higher solids content in the dopes. By combining both CNCs and CNFs, the fiber properties can be tuned.

  • 17.
    Rosén, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. SUNY Stony Brook.
    Brouzet, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. DESY.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Three-Dimensional Orientation of Nanofibrils in Axially Symmetric Systems Using Small-Angle X-ray Scattering2018In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 6889-6899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased availability and brilliance of new X-ray facilities have in the recent years opened up the possibility to characterize the alignment of dispersed anisotropic nanoparticles in various microfluidic applications, from hydrodynamic self-assemblies to flows in complex geometries. In such applications, it is vital to study the alignment of the nanoparticles in the flow, as this in turn affects the final properties of the self-assembled superstructures or those of the flow itself. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well-suited characterization technique for this but typically provides the alignment in a projected plane perpendicular to the beam direction. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to reconstruct the full three-dimensional orientation distribution function from a SAXS experiment through the assumption that the azimuthal angle of the nanoparticles around the flow direction is distributed uniformly, an assumption that is valid for a large range of nanoparticle flow processes. For demonstration purposes, the experimental results from previous works on hydrodynamic self-assembly of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) into filaments have been revised, resulting in a small correction to the presented order parameters. The results are then directly compared with simple numerical models to describe the increased alignment of CNFs both in the flowing system and during the drying of the filament. The proposed reconstruction method will allow for further improvements of theoretical or numerical simulations and consequently open up new possibilities for optimizing assembly processes, which include flow alignment of elongated nanoparticles.

  • 18.
    Rosén, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Kotsubo, Yusuke
    Aidun, Cyrus K.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Orientational dynamics of a triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear flow: Influence of inertia2017In: Physical review. E, ISSN 2470-0045, E-ISSN 2470-0053, Vol. 96, no 1, article id 013109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion of a single ellipsoidal particle in simple shear flow can provide valuable insights toward understanding suspension flows with nonspherical particles. Previously, extensive studies have been performed on the ellipsoidal particle with rotational symmetry, a so-called spheroid. The nearly prolate ellipsoid (one major and two minor axes of almost equal size) is known to perform quasiperiodic or even chaotic orbits in the absence of inertia. With small particle inertia, the particle is also known to drift toward this irregular motion. However, it is not previously understood what effects from fluid inertia could be, which is of highest importance for particles close to neutral buoyancy. Here, we find that fluid inertia is acting strongly to suppress the chaotic motion and only very weak fluid inertia is sufficient to stabilize a rotation around themiddle axis. Themechanism responsible for this transition is believed to be centrifugal forces acting on fluid, which is dragged along with the rotational motion of the particle. With moderate fluid inertia, it is found that nearly prolate triaxial particles behave similarly to the perfectly spheroidal particles. Finally, we also are able to provide predictions about the stable rotational states for the general triaxial ellipsoid in simple shear with weak inertia.

  • 19.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Zade, Sagar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Poole, Rob J.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent duct flow with polymers2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 859, p. 1057-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.

  • 20.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Centre for Bioprocess Technology, CBioPT. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Protein Technology.
    Mittal, Nitesh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Jansson, Ronnie
    Spiber AB, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Bioecon, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bioactive composites of cellulose nanofibrils and recombinant silk proteins2019In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Vijayakumar, Krishnegowda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orientation and alignment of cellulose nanofibrils in shear and extensional flows2019In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Yada, Susumu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hansson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    van der Wijngaart, Wouter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Södertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Droplet leaping governs microstructured surface wetting2019In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Zade, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH Mech, Linne Flow Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Mech, SeRC Swedish E Sci Res Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Costa, Pedro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH Mech, Linne Flow Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Mech, SeRC Swedish E Sci Res Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH Mech, Linne Flow Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Mech, SeRC Swedish E Sci Res Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH Mech, Linne Flow Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Mech, SeRC Swedish E Sci Res Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics of Industrial Processes. KTH Mech, Linne Flow Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Mech, SeRC Swedish E Sci Res Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Experimental investigation of turbulent suspensions of spherical particles in a squareduct2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 857, p. 748-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report experimental observations of turbulent flow with spherical particles in a square duct. Three particle sizes, namely 2H/d(p) = 40, 16 and 9 (2H being the duct full height and d(p) being the particle diameter), are investigated. The particles are nearly neutrally buoyant with a density ratio of 1.0035 and 1.01 with respect to the suspending fluid. Refractive index matched-particle image velocimetry (RIM-PIV) is used for fluid velocity measurement even at the highest particle volume fraction (20 %) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) for the particle velocity statistics for the flows seeded with particles of the two largest sizes, whereas only pressure measurements are reported for the smallest particles. Settling effects are seen at the lowest bulk Reynolds number R-e2H approximate to 10 000, whereas, at the highest R-e2H approximate to 27 000, particles are in almost full suspension. The friction factor of the suspensions is found to be significantly larger than that of single-phase duct flow at the lower R-e2H investigated; however, the difference decreases when increasing the flow rate and the total drag approaches the values of the single-phase flow at the higher Reynolds number considered, R-e2H = 27 000. The pressure drop is found to decrease with the particle diameter for volume fractions lower than (sic) = 10% for nearly all R-e2H investigated. However, at the highest volume fraction (sic) = 20 %, we report a peculiar non-monotonic behaviour: the pressure drop first decreases and then increases with increasing particle size. The decrease of the turbulent drag with particle size at the lowest volume fractions is related to an attenuation of the turbulence. The drag increase for the two largest particle sizes at (sic) = 20 %, however, occurs despite this large reduction of the turbulent stresses, and it is therefore due to significant particle-induced stresses. At the lowest Reynolds number, the particles reside mostly in the bottom half of the duct, where the mean velocity significantly decreases; the flow is similar to that in a moving porous bed near the bottom wall and to turbulent duct flow with low particle concentration near the top wall.

  • 24.
    Zade, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Buoyant finite-size particles in turbulent duct flow2019In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, no 4, article id 024303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry have been employed to investigate the dynamics of finite-size spherical particles, slightly heavier than the carrier fluid, in a horizontal turbulent square duct flow. Interface resolved direct numerical simulations (DNSs) have also been performed with the immersed boundary method at the same experimental conditions, bulk Reynolds number Re2H=5600, duct height to particle-size ratio 2H/dp=14.5, particle volume fraction Φ=1%, and particle to fluid density ratio ρp/ρf=1.0035. Good agreement has been observed between experiments and simulations in terms of the overall pressure drop, concentration distribution, and turbulent statistics of the two phases. Additional experimental results considering two particle sizes 2H/dp=14.5 and 9 and multiple Φ=1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% are reported at the same Re2H. The pressure drop monotonically increases with the volume fraction, almost linearly and nearly independently of the particle size for the above parameters. However, despite the similar pressure drop, the microscopic picture in terms of fluid velocity statistics differs significantly with the particle size. This one-to-one comparison between simulations and experiments extends the validity of interface resolved DNS in complex turbulent multiphase flows and highlights the ability of experiments to investigate such flows in considerable detail, even in regions where the local volume fraction is relatively high.

  • 25.
    Zade, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulence modulation by finite-size spherical particles in Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids2019In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 112, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally investigate the influence of finite-size spherical particles in turbulent flows of a Newtonian and a drag reducing viscoelastic fluid at varying particle volume fractions and fixed Reynolds number. Experiments are performed in a square duct at a Reynolds number Re2H of nearly 1.1 × 104, Weissenberg number Wi for single phase flow is between 1 and 2 and results in a drag-reduction of 43% compared to a Newtonian flow (at the same Re2H). Particles are almost neutrally-buoyant hydrogel spheres having a density ratio of 1.0035 ± 0.0003 and a duct height 2H to particle diameter dp ratio of around 10. We measure flow statistics for four different volume fractions ϕ namely 5, 10, 15 and 20% by using refractive-index-matched Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). For both Newtonian Fluid (NF) and Visceolastic Fluid (VEF), the drag monotonically increases with ϕ. For NF, the magnitude of drag increase due to particle addition can be reasonably estimated using a concentration dependent effective viscosity for volume fractions below 10%. The drag increase is, however, underestimated at higher ϕ. For VEF, the absolute value of drag is lower than NF but, its rate of increase with ϕ is higher. Similar to particles in a NF, particles in VEF tend to migrate towards the center of the duct and form a layer of high concentration at the wall. Interestingly, relatively higher migration towards the center and lower migration towards the walls is observed for VEF. The primary Reynolds shear stress reduces with increasing ϕ throughout the duct height for both types of fluid.

  • 26.
    Zade, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Shamu, Tafadzwa John
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics.
    Finite-size spherical particles in a square duct flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid: an experimental studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present experimental study addresses the flow of a Yield Stress Fluid (YSF) with some elasticity (Carbopol gel) in a square duct. The behaviour of two fluids with lower and higher yield stress is investigated in terms of the friction factor and flow velocities at multiple Reynolds numbers $Re^* \in$ (1, 200) and, hence, Bingham numbers $Bi \in$ (0.01, 0.35). Taking advantage of the symmetry planes in a square duct, we reconstruct the entire 3-component velocity field from 2-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A secondary flow consisting of eight vortices is observed to recirculate the fluid from the core towards the wall-center and from the corners back to the core. The extent and intensity of these vortices grows with increasing $Re^*$ or, alternately, as the plug-size decreases. The second objective of this study is to explore the change in flow in the presence of particles. To this end, almost neutrally-buoyant finite-size spherical particles with duct height, $2H$, to particle diameter, $d_p$, ratio of 12 are used at two volume fractions $\phi$ = 5 and 10\%. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to measure the velocity of these refractive-index-matched spheres in the clear Carbopol gel, and PIV to extract the fluid velocity. Additionally, simple shadowgraphy is also used for qualitatively visualising the development of the particle distribution along the streamwise direction. The particle distribution pattern changes from being concentrated at the four corners, at low flow rates, to being focussed along a diffused ring between the center and the corners, at high flow rates. The presence of particles induces streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations in the fluid phase; however, the primary Reynolds shear stress is still very small compared to turbulent flows. The size of the plug in the particle-laden cases appears to be smaller than the corresponding single phase cases. Similar to Newtonian fluids, the friction factor increases due to the presence of particles, almost independently of the suspending fluid matrix. Interestingly, predictions based on an increased effective suspension viscosity agrees quite well with the experimental friction factor for the concentrations used in this study.

1 - 26 of 26
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