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  • 1.
    Hagberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Maples, Henry A.
    Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 42, A-1090 Vienna, Austria .
    Alvim, Kayne S. P.
    Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 42, A-1090 Vienna, Austria .
    Xu, Johanna
    Polymeric Composite Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden .
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Bismarck, Alexander
    Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währinger Straße 42, A-1090 Vienna, Austria ; Polymer and Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK .
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lithium iron phosphate coated carbon fiber electrodes for structural lithium ion batteries2018In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 162, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural lithium ion battery is a material that can carry load and simultaneously be used to store electrical energy. We describe a path to manufacture structural positive electrodes via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of LiFePO4 (LFP), carbon black and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) onto carbon fibers. The carbon fibers act as load-bearers as well as current collectors. The quality of the coating was studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The active electrode material (LFP particles), conductive additive (carbon black) and binder (PVDF) were found to be well dispersed on the surface of the carbon fibers. Electrochemical characterization revealed a specific capacity of around 60–110 mAh g−1 with good rate performance and high coulombic efficiency. The cell was stable during cycling, with a capacity retention of around 0.5 after 1000 cycles, which indicates that the coating remained well adhered to the fibers. To investigate the adhesion of the coating, the carbon fibers were made into composite laminae in epoxy resin, and then tested using 3-point bending and double cantilever beam (DCB) tests. The former showed a small difference between coated and uncoated carbon fibers, suggesting good adhesion. The latter showed a critical strain energy release rate of ∼200–600 J m−2 for coated carbon fibers and ∼500 J m−2 for uncoated fibers, which also indicates good adhesion. This study shows that EPD can be used to produce viable structural positive electrodes.

  • 2.
    Ihrner, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Sieland, Fabian
    University of Paderborn, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Paderborn, Germany .
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Structural lithium ion battery electrolytes via reaction induced phase-separation2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 48, p. 25652-25659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the realization of structural batteries, electrolytes where both higher ionic conductivity and stiffness are combined need to be developed. The present study describes the formation of a structural battery electrolyte (SBE) as a two phase system using reaction induced phase separation. A liquid electrolyte phase is combined with a stiff vinyl ester based thermoset matrix to form a SBE. The effect of monomer structure variations on the formed morphology and electrochemical and mechanical performance has been investigated. An ionic conductivity of 1.5 x 10(-4) S cm(-1), with a corresponding storage modulus (E') of 750 MPa, has been obtained under ambient conditions. The SBEs have been combined with carbon fibers to form a composite lamina and evaluated as a battery half-cell. Studies on the lamina revealed that both mechanical load transfer and ion transport are allowed between the carbon fibers and the electrolyte. These results pave the way for the preparation of structural batteries using carbon fibers as electrodes.

  • 3.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ihrner, Niklas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Carlstedt, D.
    Asp, L. E.
    Sieland, F.
    Multifunctional performance of a carbon fiber UD lamina electrode for structural batteries2018In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 168, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In electric transportation there is an inherent need to store electrical energy while maintaining a low vehicle weight. One way to decrease the weight of the structure is to use composite materials. However, the electrical energy storage in today's systems contributes to a large portion of the total weight of a vehicle. Structural batteries have been suggested as a possible route to reduce this weight. A structural battery is a material that carries mechanical loads and simultaneously stores electrical energy and can be realized using carbon fibers both as a primary load carrying material and as an active battery electrode. However, as yet, no proof of a system-wide improvement by using such structural batteries has been demonstrated. In this study we make a structural battery composite lamina from carbon fibers with a structural battery electrolyte matrix, and we show that this material provides system weight benefits. The results show that it is possible to make weight reductions in electric vehicles by using structural batteries. 

  • 4.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Ihrner, Niklas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Analysis of Carbon Fiber Composite Electrode2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials Copenhagen, 19 - 24th July 2015, INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS , 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article a novel energy-storing composite electrode is investigated with regards to its mechanical and electrochemical properties. This composite electrode consists of carbon fibers, which provide both the mechanical reinforcement and the negative electrode in the battery cell. Also, this carbon fiber composite electrode consists of a polymer matrix that can conduct lithium ions, in order to simultaneously act as the electrolyte in the battery cell.

    Electrochemical tests were performed on the manufactured composite electrode and show extremely promising results for the battery performance. Furthermore, mechanical tests show that the composite electrode has acceptable mechanical properties for structural use.

    It is shown that the internal distances in the composite are large, and volume fraction of fibers is low. This is not only significantly limiting the mechanical properties of the composite, but also the electrochemical properties.

    Overall, the carbon fiber composite electrode is found to have suitable characteristics for further research, where many further research topics are found in order to improve and characterize the composite further. 

  • 5.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    Jönsson, Christina
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Modelling and design of structural batteries with life cycle assessment2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multifunctional structural battery consisting of carbon fibers, lithium-electrode coatings and a structural battery electrolyte is investigated with an analytical bottom-up model. This model has a multiphysics approach, calculating both mechanical properties and electrical energy storage. The intention of the model is twofold; first, calculating the potential mass saving with using a structural battery instead of the combination of a monofunctional carbon fiber composite and a monofunctional lithium ion battery. Second, the model is used to investigate the behavior of the mass saving due to changing variables of the structural battery. This variable sensitivity analysis is made in order to understand the behavior of the structural battery and its sensitivity to the different construction variables. The results show that the structural battery can save up to 26% of mass compared to the monofunctional parts.

    Next, the model of the structural battery is further utilized in a life cycle assessment, where the manufacturing, usage and recycling of the structural battery is investigated. The life cycle assessment examines the structural battery as the roof of an electric vehicle. This analysis is compared to the same assessment for a steel roof and standard lithium ion batteries, which shows that manufacturing the carbon fibers and structural battery with clean energy is most important for decreasing the emissions from manufacturing.

  • 6.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Model of a structural battery and its potential for system level mass savings2019In: Multifunctional Materials, ISSN 2399-7532, article id 035002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural batteries are materials that can carry mechanical load while storing electrical energy. This is achieved by combining the properties of carbon fiber composites and lithium ion batteries. There are many design parameters for a structural battery and in order to understand their impact and importance, this paper presents a model for multifunctional performance. The mechanical behavior and electrical energy storage of the structural battery are matched to the mechanical behavior of a conventional carbon fiber composite, and the electrical energy storage of a standard lithium ion battery. The latter are both monofunctional and have known performance and mass. In order to calculate the benefit of using structural batteries, the mass of the structural battery is compared to that of the two monofunctional systems. There is often an inverse relationship between the mechanical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional materials, in order to understand these relationships a sensitivity analysis is performed on variables for the structural battery. This gives new insight into the complex multifunctional design of structural batteries.

    The results show that it is possible to save mass compared to monofunctional systems but that it depends strongly on the structure it is compared with. With improvements to the design of the structural battery it would be possible to achieve mass saving compared to state-of-the-art composite laminates and lithium ion batteries.

1 - 6 of 6
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