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  • 1. Bocken, Nancy M. P.
    et al.
    Olivetti, Elsa A.
    Cullen, Jonathan M.
    Potting, José
    Lifset, Reid
    Taking the Circularity to the Next Level A Special Issue on the Circular Economy2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 476-482Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    The inclusion of vehicle shape and aerodynamic drag estimations within the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 84, p. 902-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work describes a widening of the scope of the Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology with the addition of shape-related design variables. They describe the curvature of a vehicle which impacts its aerodynamic drag and therewith its operational energy demand. Aerodynamic drag is taken into account through the estimation of the drag coefficient of the vehicle body shape using computational fluid dynamics simulations. Subsequently, the aforementioned coefficient is used to calculate the operational energy demand associated with the vehicle. The methodology is applied to the design of the roof of a simplified 2D vehicle model which is both mechanically and geometrically constrained. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables consisting of the material compositions of the different layers, their thicknesses as well as the shape variables. The efficacy of the LCEO methodology is displayed through its ability to deal with the arising functional conflicts while simultaneously leveraging the design benefits of the underlying functional alignments. On average, the optimisation process resulted in 2.5 times lighter and 4.5 times less life cycle energy-intensive free shape designs. This redesign process has also underlined the necessity of defining an allocation strategy for the energy necessary to overcome drag within the context of vehicle sub-system redesign.

  • 3.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Towards holistic energy-efficient vehicle product system design: The case for a penalized continuous end-of-life model in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019In: 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED19, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 2901-2910Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology aims at finding a design solution that uses a minimum amount of cumulative energy demand over the different phases of the vehicle's life cycle, while complying with a set of functional constraints. This effectively balances trade-offs, and therewith avoids sub-optimal shifting between the energy demand for the cradle-to-production of materials, operation of the vehicle, and end-of-life phases. The present work describes the extension of the LCEO methodology to perform holistic product system optimisation. The constrained design of an automotive component and the design of a subset of the processes which are applied to it during its life cycle are simultaneously optimised to achieve a minimal product system life cycle energy. A subset of the processes of the end-of-life phase of a vehicle’s roof are modelled through a continuous formulation. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables being the material compositions and the thicknesses of the different layers. The results show the applicability of the LCEO methodology to product system design and the use of penalisation to ensure solution feasibility.

  • 4.
    Jank, Merle-Hendrikje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Netherlands.
    Advancing energy efficient early-stage vehicle design through inclusion of end-of-life phase in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2017In: 12th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies Conference, EVER, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally-friendly energy-efficient vehicles are an important contributor to meet future global transportation needs. To minimise the environmental impact of a vehicle throughout its entire life cycle, the life cycle energy optimisation (LCEO) methodology has been proposed. Using the proxy of life cycle energy, this methodology balances the energy consumption of vehicle production, operation and end-of-life scenarios. The overall aim is to design a vehicle where life cycle energy is at a minimum. While previous work only included vehicle production and operation, this paper aims at advancing the LCEO methodology by including an end-of-life phase. A simplified design study was conducted to illustrate how vehicle design changes when end-of-life treatment is included. Landfilling, incineration and recycling have been compared as end-of-life treatments, although the focus was put on recycling. The results reveal that the optimal design not only changes with the inclusion of an end-of-life phase but it changes with specific end-of-life treatment. 

  • 5.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    O'Born, Reyn
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norweigian University of Science and Technology.
    Birgisdottir, Harpa
    Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Toller, Susanna
    The Swedish Transport Administration.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Life cycle assessment as decision-support in choice of road corridor: case study and stakeholder perspectivesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities to influence environmental impacts during the road life cycle are greatest in early planning; however, the lack of project specific data makes it difficult to use life cycle assessment as decision-support. This paper examines how life cycle assessment can be used to support the choice of road corridor, considering the practical prerequisit of simplicity and usefulness of results for decision-making. The model LICCER was used to quantify life cycle impacts of road corridors in a construction project in Sweden. Availability of input data and usefulness of results was discussed with road authorities in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Traffic operation contributed most to life cycle impacts in all road corridors, thus the shortest construction alternative had the lowest life cycle impacts. However, the shortest alternative had the highest infrastructure related impacts due to large quantities of earthworks. Parameters that had the highest influence on results were those that affected the impacts of traffic, earthworks, and pavement. While workshop participants agreed that project specific data are scarce and uncertain in early planning, they also believed that planners can make satisfactory estimations and that the model output is useful to support the choice of road corridor. To balance simplicity and usefulness of results, data collection should focus on parameters that have high contribution to environmental impacts, that differentiate the road corridors, and are not proportional to the road length. To implement life cycle assessment in practice, models should preferably include nation specific data approved by the national road authority.

  • 6.
    O'Born, Reyn
    et al.
    Univ Agder, Fac Sci & Engn, Jon Lilletunsvei 9, Grimstad, Norway..
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Sem Sxlands Vei 7, Trondheim, Norway..
    Iversen, Ole Magnus Kalas
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Sem Sxlands Vei 7, Trondheim, Norway..
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Environm Strategies Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Environm Strategies Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Quantifying energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions of road infrastructure projects: An LCA case study of the Oslo fjord crossing in Norway2016In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 445-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The road sector consumes large amounts of materials and energy and produces large quantities of greenhouse gas emissions, which can be reduced with correct information in the early planning stages of road project. An important aspect in the early planning stages is the choice between alternative road corridors that will determine the route distance and the subsequent need for different road infrastructure elements, such as bridges and tunnels. Together, these factors may heavily influence the life cycle environmental impacts of the road project. This paper presents a case study for two prospective road corridor alternatives for the Oslo fjord crossing in Norway and utilizes in a streamlined model based on life cycle assessment principles to quantify cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for each route. This technique can be used to determine potential environmental impacts of road projects by overcoming several challenges in the early planning stages, such as the limited availability of detailed life cycle inventory data on the consumption of material and energy inputs, large uncertainty in the design and demand for road infrastructure elements, as well as in future traffic and future vehicle technologies. The results show the importance of assessing different life cycle activities, input materials, fuels and the critical components of such a system. For the Oslo fjord case, traffic during operation contributes about 94 % and 89 % of the annual CED and about 98 % and 92 % of the annual GHG emissions, for a tunnel and a bridge fjord crossing alternative respectively.

  • 7.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Funazaki, Atsushi
    Japan Automobile Research Institute.
    Suzuki, Tetsuya
    Japan Automobile Research Institute.
    Edlund, Stefan
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Lundow, Jan-Olov
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Cerin, Pontus
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Cameron, Christopher J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Swerea SICOMP.
    Wennhage, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.
    Life-cycle energy optimisation: A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 135, p. 750-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately kept simple in order to emphasise the conceptual idea. The obtained optimisation results demonstrate that there is a unique driving-scenario-specific design solution, which meets functional requirements with a minimum life cycle energy cost. The results also suggest that a use-phase focussed design may result in a solution, which is sub-optimal from a life cycle point-of-view.

  • 8. van Oirschot, R.
    et al.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Fortuin, K. P. J.
    Brandenburg, W.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Explorative environmental life cycle assessment for system design of seaweed cultivation and drying2017In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 27, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweeds are presently explored as an alternative source to meet the future protein demand from a growing world population with an increasing welfare level. Present seaweed research largely focuses on agri-technical and economic aspects. This paper explores directions for optimizing the cultivation, harvesting, transport and drying of seaweed from an environmental point of view. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and detailed sensitivity analysis was made for two different system designs. One system design is featuring one layer of cultivation strips (four longlines side by side) interspaced with access corridors. The other system design is featuring a doubling of cultivation strips by dual layers in the water column. Impact profiles and sensitivity analysis showed that the most important impacts came from drying the harvested seaweed, and from the production of the chromium steel chains and polypropylene rope in the infrastructure. This indicates that caution should be used when designing cultivation systems featuring such materials and processes. Furthermore, the high-density productivity of the dual layer system decreases absolute environmental impacts and so found to be a little more environmentally friendly from a life cycle perspective.

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