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  • 1.
    Firouzi, Seyed Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ruiz-Alvarez, A.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cairo, I.
    An IEC 61850-90-5 gateway for IEEE C37.118.2 synchrophasor data transfer2016In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the implementation and validation of a library named Khorjin to receive and parse synchrophasor data from a PμPDC based on IEEE C37.118.2 protocol, map it to the IEC 61850 data model and transmit the synchrophasor data through either Routed-Sampled Value or Routed-GOOSE services defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 protocol. In addition, the library is capable of acting as the receiver and parser of IEC 61850-90-5 messages, extracting raw synchrophasor data and feeding to subscriber applications. The functionality of the Khorjin library is validated in a Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation environment to asses its conformance to the functional requirements of the IEC 61850-90-5 standard.

  • 2.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Singh, Ravi Shankar
    KTH.
    Singh, Narender
    KTH.
    Bidadfar, Ali
    KTH.
    Firouzi, Seyed Reza
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Synchrophasor applications facilitating interactions in transmission and distribution operations2017In: 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Powertech 2017, IEEE, 2017, article id 7980917Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamics of distribution grids are becoming more and more complex to analyze due to their transition from passive networks to active ones. This has necessitated the increase of observability between Transmission and Distribution (T&D) grids for operational security and real-time security assessment. This paper presents an overview of the IDE4L project, funded by the European Commission, where a system of PMU data-based monitoring applications has been developed to facilitate TSO-DSO interactions.

  • 3.
    Iqbal, Asif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems Engineering.
    Digital Forensic Analysis of Industrial Control Systems Using Sandboxing: A Case of WAMPAC Applications in the Power Systems2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 2598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's connected world, there is a tendency of connectivity even in the sectors which conventionally have been not so connected in the past, such as power systems substations. Substations have seen considerable digitalization of the grid hence, providing much more available insights than before. This has all been possible due to connectivity, digitalization and automation of the power grids. Interestingly, this also means that anybody can access such critical infrastructures from a remote location and gone are the days of physical barriers. The power of connectivity and control makes it a much more challenging task to protect critical industrial control systems. This capability comes at a price, in this case, increasing the risk of potential cyber threats to substations. With all such potential risks, it is important that they can be traced back and attributed to any potential threats to their roots. It is extremely important for a forensic investigation to get credible evidence of any cyber-attack as required by the Daubert standard. Hence, to be able to identify and capture digital artifacts as a result of different attacks, in this paper, the authors have implemented and improvised a forensic testbed by implementing a sandboxing technique in the context of real time-hardware-in-the-loop setup. Newer experiments have been added by emulating the cyber-attacks on WAMPAC applications, and collecting and analyzing captured artifacts. Further, using sandboxing for the first time in such a setup has proven helpful.

  • 4.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Synchrophasor based Steady State Model Synthesis of Active Distribution Networks2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) at lower voltage levels, distribution networks (DNs) are being transformed into active grids. This has led to a paradigm shift in the operation, planning and control of DNs. Traditional monitoring infrastructure is unlikely to satisfy the requirements that active distribution networks (ADNs) pose in terms of higher speed networking, time synchronization and signal resolution, precision and accuracy, scope, etc. As a result, high performance monitoring infrastructures are needed to fully utilize the potential of sensing devices at DNs, capable of monitoring ADNs in real-time. In this context, phasor measurement units (PMUs) have emerged as one of the most promising alternatives for ADNs monitoring in real-time.

    The focus of this thesis is to exploit PMU measurements to perform real-time steady state model synthesis (SSMS) of ADNs. To this end, methods for pre-processing PMU data are developed in this thesis. As the focus of this thesis is the development of a steady state PMU application, the methods presented herein extract the quasi-steady state component in PMU measurements and feeds them to the SSMS application. In addition, the methods are capable of filtering noise, compensating for missing data, and removing the outliers in PMU signals in real-time.

    The synthesis method can be applied to multiple sections of unbalanced ADNs requiring measurements from multiple PMUs. The proposed approach is generic and can be applied to any portion of a DN with any feeder configuration. The performance and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology have been illustrated in details by using real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiments.

    A detailed sensitivity analysis of the SSMS application is performed in order to show how sensitive the output of the SSMS method is to changes in its inputs. An extended version of the total vector error (TVE) was developed as an evaluation metric. The location of PMUs, system operating point and the occurrence of different disturbances are considered when evaluating the SSMS method. The sensitivity analysis is performed through several case studies as discussed above.

    Finally, the thesis provides extensive experimental validation experiments on the SSMS application. Syncrophasor measurements acquired from real PMUs installed at an actual active distribution feeder in a university campus were used for this purpose. A detailed performance assessment of the SSMS method is conducted for different conditions. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis is performed to help power system operators to determine how to configure the SSMS application.

  • 5.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lavenius, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Lund, Per
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Real-time reduced steady state model synthesis of active distribution networks using PMU measurements2016In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 546-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increase of generation sources in distribution networks, it is becoming more and more complex to develop and maintain models of these networks. Network operators need to determine reduced models of distribution networks to be used in grid management functions. This paper presents a novel method that synthesizes steady state models of unbalanced active distribution networks by the use of dynamic measurements (time series) from PMUs. As PMU measurements may contain errors and bad data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. In addition, PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter has been improved to extract the steady state component of the PMU measurements to be fed to the steady state model synthesis application. Performance of the proposed methods has been assessed by real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations on a sample distribution network.

  • 6.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. KTH The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs) may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.

  • 7.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Implementation of an architecture for steady state model synthesis of active distribution networks using syncrophasors2016Other (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Sensitivity Analysis of a PMU-Fed Steady State Model Synthesis Method for Active Distribution Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to carry outsensitivityanalysisofa method that performssteady state model synthesis(SSMS)of active distribution networksusing SyncrophasorMeasurements.An extended version of the Total Vector Error (TVE) is used as a metric to evaluate how sensitive the output of the SSMS method is to the changesinthe inputsto the method.Location of PMUs in the system,system operating point,and occurrence of different disturbancesareconsideredas the input tothe SSMS method. The sensitivity analysis is performed through several case studieseach containing changesin one of the inputs.

  • 9.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, Dept Elect Comp & Syst Engn, Troy, NY 12180 USA..
    Pignati, Marco
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Distributed Elect Syst Lab, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, Dept Elect Comp & Syst Engn, Troy, NY 12180 USA..
    Sossan, Fabrizio
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Distributed Elect Syst Lab, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Paolone, Mario
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Distributed Elect Syst Lab, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Experimental Validation of a Steady State Model Synthesis Method for a Three-Phase Unbalanced Active Distribution Network Feeder2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 4042-4053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the field validation of a method that performs steady-state model synthesis (SSMS) of active distribution networks using syncrophasor measurements. The validation is performed by applying the SSMS method on a real active distribution feeder network by utilizing the measurements from real phasor measurement units (PMUs) installed at the EPFL campus. An extended version of total vector error and a power flow comparison at the PMU buses are used as performance assessment metrics. A real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations set up at the Distributed Energy System Laboratory is used for further performance assessment of the SSMS application. The effectiveness of the SSMS application is demonstrated by testing it extensively for several different case studies.

  • 10.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH.
    Singh, Ravi Shankar
    KTH.
    Bidadfar, Ali
    KTH.
    Mahmood, Farhan
    KTH.
    Synchrophasor Applications for Distribution Networks, Supporting The IDE4L Use Case2017In: 2017 IEEE POWER & ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING, IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution grid dynamics are becoming increasingly complex to analyze due to their transition from passive to active networks. This transition requires to increase the observability and awareness of the interactions between Transmission and Distribution (T&D) grids, particularly to guarantee adequate operational security. As part of the work carried out in the EU-funded IDE4L project, 11 specific use case, containing PMU-based monitoring functions, has been defined to support the architecture design of a distribution grid automation system. As a result, the architecture can accommodate for key dynamic information extraction and exchange between Distribution System Operator (DSO) and Transmission System Operator (TSO). This paper presents the use case and focuses on the technical aspects related to the development and implementation of the PMU-based monitoring functionalities.

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