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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Ashfaq
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Arshad, Farzana
    Univ Engn & Technol, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Naqvi, Syeda I.
    Univ Engn & Technol, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Univ Engn & Technol, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Univ Turku, Dept Informat Technol, TUCS, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Design, Fabrication, and Measurements of Extended L-Shaped Multiband Antenna for Wireless Applications2018In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 388-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article expounds a multi-band compact shaped antenna, which is based on CPW ground plane. FR-4 with a thickness of 1.6 mm is used as a substrate for the proposed antenna. The proposed antenna is capable of operating at 1.56 GHz for (Global Positioning System), 2.45 GHz (Wireless Local Area Network) and 4.49 GHz (Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) fixed services). The efficiency at 1.56, 2.45, and 4.49 GHz is 79.7, 76.9 and 76.7%, respectively. The VSWR of the presented antenna is less than 1.5 at all the desired resonance modes, which confirms its good impedance matching. The performance of the proposed antenna is evaluated in terms of VSWR, return loss, radiation pattern and efficiency. CST (R) MWS (R) software is used for simulations. In order to validate the simulation results, a prototype of the designed antenna is fabricated and a good agreement is found between the simulated and measured results.

  • 2. Ahmad, S. A.
    et al.
    Naqvi, S. I.
    Khalid, M.
    Amin, Y.
    Loo, J.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Penta-band antenna with defected ground structure for wireless communication applications2019In: 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies, iCoMET 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a compact, penta-band, slotted antenna with Defected Ground Structure (DGS). The proposed multiband resonator is intended for integration into microwave circuits and portable RF portable devices. The prototype with spurlines and DGS is designed on thin Rogers RT Duroid 5880 substrate having thickness 0.508 mm. The presented radiator is capable to cover the frequency bands 2.46-2.59 GHz, 2.99-3.78 GHz, 5.17-5.89 GHz, 6.86-7.36 GHz, 9.38-11 GHz. The impedance bandwidths of 5.24%, 23.68%, 12.8%, 7.24% and 16.08% is obtained for the covered frequency bands respectively. The antenna proposed in this work thus supports WLAN, WiMAX, ISM, LTE, Bluetooth, C-band and X-band applications. The radiator attains 4.2 dB peak gain. It is apparent from the radiation performance of the prototype, that it is an effective candidate for current and forthcoming multiband wireless applications.

  • 3.
    Akhtar, Faiza
    et al.
    UET, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Naqvi, Syeda Iffat
    UET, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Arshad, Farzana
    UET, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. UET, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Pakistan.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Univ Turku, TUCS, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    A Flexible and Compact Semicircular Antenna for Multiple Wireless Communication Applications2018In: Radioengineering, ISSN 1210-2512, E-ISSN 1805-9600, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 671-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a compact, quad-band planar antenna intended for assimilation into flexible and conformal devices. The CPW-fed semicircular shaped prototype with rake-shaped slots is designed, realized and characterized experimentally. The frequency bands covered by the proposed radiator are centered at 2.5, 3.7, 5.5 and 8 GHz with measured impedance bandwidths of 16%, 13.5%, 11.8% and 14.63%, respectively. The proposed antenna is thus enabled to support WLAN, ISM, Bluetooth, WiMAX LTE and X-band applications. The antenna exhibits a significant gain. The radiation characteristics of the proposed radiator are measured in concave and convex bent shapes at various radii to analyze its flexibility. Performance of the antenna remains almost unaffected in the bent situation. Measurements demonstrate good coherence with simulations. The compactness and good performance of the design both in bent and unbent conditions proves it to be the better contender for future multiband conformal wireless applications.

  • 4. Ali, Amjad
    et al.
    Jafri, Syeda I.
    Habib, Ayesha
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Pakistan.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    RFID Humidity Sensor Tag for Low-cost Applications2017In: APPLIED COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETICS SOCIETY JOURNAL, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 1083-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a low-cost, flexible, chipless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag for humidity monitoring applications. The tag exhibits moisture sensing feature within a compact geometrical dimension of 20mm x 17.6mm. The design is loaded with 12 resonators, where each resonator represents 1 bit in the frequency domain. For the designed 12-bit tag, 11 inverted C-shaped resonators are dedicated for encoding 11-bit information in their spectral signature. An integrated meandered-shaped resonator, covered with moisture sensitive Kapton (R) HN film, functions as a 1-bit moisture sensor. It is deployed for monitoring relative humidity (RH) levels, simultaneously. The passive RFID tag is realized on Taconic TLX-0 and has an operational bandwidth of 2.62 GHz. Furthermore, the design is modeled and analyzed for multiple substrates. The performance of the sensor tag for various humidity levels indicates that it is a potential solution for inexpensive sensing applications.

  • 5.
    Ali, Mai
    et al.
    Alfaisal Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Gia, Tuan Nguyen
    Taha, Abd-Elhamid
    Alfaisal Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Comp Sci, Irvine, CA USA.;Vienna Univ Technol, Vienna, Austria..
    Westerlund, Tomi
    Univ Turku, Dept Future Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Univ Turku, Dept Future Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics.
    Autonomous Patient/Home Health Monitoring powered by Energy Harvesting2017In: Globecom 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design of an autonomous smart patient/home health monitoring system. Both patient physiological parameters as well as room conditions are being monitored continuously to insure patient safety. The sensors are connected on an IoT regime, where the collected data is wirelessly transferred to a nearby gateway which performs preliminary data analysis, commonly referred to as fog computing, to make sure emergency personnel and healthcare providers are notified in case patient being monitored is at risk. To achieve power autonomy three energy harvesting sources are proposed, namely, solar, RF and thermal. The design of the RF energy harvesting system is demonstrated, where novel multiband antenna is fabricated as well as an efficient RF-DC rectifier achieving maximum conversion efficiency of 84%. Finally, the sensor node is tested with different type of sensors and settings while being solely powered by a Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell.

  • 6. Anam, Hafsa
    et al.
    Habib, Ayesha
    Jafri, Syeda Irum
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Directly Printable Frequency Signatured Chipless RFID Tag for IoT Applications2017In: Radioengineering, ISSN 1210-2512, E-ISSN 1805-9600, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a low-cost, compact, flexible passive chipless RFID tag that has been designed and analyzed. The tag is a bowtie-shaped resonator based structure with 36 slots; where each patch is loaded with 18 slots. The tag is set in a way that each slot in a patch corresponds to a metal gap in the other patch. Hence there is no mutual interference, and high data capacity of 36 bits is achieved in such compact size. Each slot corresponds to a resonance frequency in the RCS curve, and each resonance corresponds to a bit. The tag has been realized for Taconic TLX-0, PET, and Kapton (R) HN (DuPont (TM)) substrates with copper, aluminum, and silver nanoparticlebased ink (Cabot CCI-300) as conducting materials. The tag exhibits flexibility and well optimized while remaining in a compact size. The proposed tag yields 36 bits in a tag dimension of 24.5. 25.5 mm(2). These 36 bits can tag 2(36) number of objects/items. The ultimate high capacity, compact size, flexible passive chipless RFID tag can be arrayed in various industrial and IoT-based applications.

  • 7. Anwar, Hassan
    et al.
    Jafri, Syed Mohammad Asad Hassan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Sergei, Dytckov
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Hemani, Ahmed
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Exploring Spiking Neural Network on Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures2014In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2014, p. 64-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, reconfigurable architectures are becoming increas- ingly popular as the candidate platforms for neural net- works. Existing works, that map neural networks on re- configurable architectures, only address either FPGAs or Networks-on-chip, without any reference to the Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs). In this paper we investigate the overheads imposed by implementing spiking neural networks on a Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Ar- chitecture (CGRAs). Experimental results (using point to point connectivity) reveal that up to 1000 neurons can be connected, with an average response time of 4.4 msec.

  • 8. Anzanpour, A.
    et al.
    Rahmani, Amir-Mohammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. University of Turku, Finland.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. University of Turku, Finland.
    Context-aware early warning system for in-home healthcare using internet-of-things2016In: 2nd International Summit on Internet of Things, IoT 360° 2015, Springer, 2016, p. 517-522Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early warning score (EWS) is a prediction method to notify caregivers at a hospital about the deterioration of a patient. Deterioration can be identified by detecting abnormalities in patient’s vital signs several hours prior the condition of the patient gets life-threatening. In the existing EWS systems, monitoring of patient’s vital signs and the determining the score is mostly performed in a paper and pen based way. Furthermore, currently it is done solely in a hospital environment. In this paper, we propose to import this system to patients’ home to provide an automated platform which not only monitors patents’ vital signs but also looks over his/her activities and the surrounding environment. Thanks to the Internet-of-Things technology, we present an intelligent early warning method to remotely monitor in-home patients and generate alerts in case of different medical emergencies or radical changes in condition of the patient. We also demonstrate an early warning score analysis system which continuously performs sensing, transferring, and recording vital signs, activity-related data, and environmental parameters.

  • 9. Aslam, B.
    et al.
    Khan, U. H.
    Azam, M. A.
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Loo, J.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Miniaturized decoupled slotted patch RFID tag antennas for wearable health care2017In: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, ISSN 1096-4290, E-ISSN 1099-047X, Vol. 27, no 1, article id e21048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a couple of two-layered RFID tag antenna designs exhibiting improved performance descriptors for on-body applications are presented. The antennas are designed to operate in the microwave band (2.4–2.48 GHz) ensuring high data transmission rates ideal for real-time subject monitoring applications. The radiating element of both the antennas is a slotted patch structure provisioned with a pair of T-shaped slots realized on a commercial FR4 substrate. The augmentation of a systematic sequence of narrow comb-like etchings into the design enhances the impedance bandwidth considerably. A high permittivity silicon layer embedded with the radiating patch provides resilience from the human body dielectric losses. A modified antenna design utilizing patch miniaturization technique, resulting in an overall footprint reduction by 32%, is also proposed. The designed tag antennas offer a gain of more than 1.8 dBi and an attractive read range greater than 6.8 m in the operating band.

  • 10.
    Aslam, Bilal
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan..
    Azam, Muhammad A.
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan..
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan..
    Loo, Jonathan
    Middlesex Univ, Sch Engn & Informat Sci, Dept Comp Sci, London, England..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    A high capacity tunable retransmission type frequency coded chipless radio frequency identification system2019In: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, ISSN 1096-4290, E-ISSN 1099-047X, Vol. 29, no 9, article id e21855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a 12-bit frequency coded chipless RFID system in the frequency range of 3 to 6 GHz. The system consists of a fully printable chipless tag and a pair of high-gain reader antennas. The tag also incorporates its own antennas to improve the read range. Information is encoded into frequency spectrum using a multi-resonant circuit. The circuit consists of multiple microstrip U and L-shaped open stub resonators patterned in a unique configuration. The proposed configuration aids in capturing more data in a reduced space as well as tunable frequency operation. Tag and reader antennas utilize techniques such as stepped impedance feeding line, defective partial ground plane, and stair-step patch structure to achieve wide-band impedance bandwidth in miniature size. The results of the wireless measurements in the non-anechoic environment show that the proposed system has a reading range of more than 20 cm. The presented system possesses great potential for low-cost short-range inventory tracking.

  • 11.
    Aslam, Bilal
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Punjab, Pakistan..
    Kashif, Muhammad
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Punjab, Pakistan.;Beijing Univ Aeronaut & Astronaut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Azam, Muhammad Awais
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Punjab, Pakistan..
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Loo, Jonathan
    Univ West London, Sch Comp & Commun Engn, Dept Comp Sci, London, England..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. Univ Turku, Dept Informat Technol, TUCS, Turku, Finland..
    A low profile miniature RFID tag antenna dedicated to IoT applications2019In: Electromagnetics, ISSN 0272-6343, E-ISSN 1532-527X, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 393-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID tag antennas with stable performance on the diverse electromagnetic mounting platforms are an integral part of the ubiquitous RFID systems. This research article presents a novel tag antenna design that facilitates the said objective. The proposed antenna consists of a modified H-shaped slot structure that ensures considerable robustness from the application environment through confining the surface current density within the antenna structure. The antenna offers a tunable bandwidth of 40 MHz within the microwave band of (2.4-2.5) GHz. The proposed tag antenna exhibits excellent response on metallic platforms of different sizes and thicknesses with an effective gain of almost four times of that in free space. Furthermore, the designed tag antenna performs adequately well on low-medium permittivity dielectrics (glass, paper, and plastic) and RF absorbers (water). The free space and on-metal performance of the proposed tag antenna are verified by testing a prototype realized on the FR4 substrate.

  • 12. Aslam, Bilal
    et al.
    Khan, Umar Hasan
    Azam, Muhammad Awais
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics. Univ Engn & Technol, Pakistan.
    Loo, Jonathan
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Univ Turku, Finland.
    A compact implantable RFID tag antenna dedicated to wireless health care2017In: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, ISSN 1096-4290, E-ISSN 1099-047X, Vol. 27, no 5, article id e21094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implantable tag antennas are an integral component of contemporary pervasive patient monitoring setups envisioned to reduce the medical errors and improve the quality of health care facilities. These tags, embedded into the human body, transmit critical patient information to the external equipment via a wireless communication link. This research article presents an implantable compact folded dipole antenna of size 10 mm 3 15 mm 3 2 mm, designed to operate in the industrial-scientificmedical band (2.4-2.48GHz). A three-layered phantom representing the human arm is used to evaluate the subcutaneous antenna performance. The tag antenna embedded in the middle of the fat layer offers a maximum gain of 216.3 dBi. The tag antenna performance as a function of implant position and phantom dimensions is analyzed. Link budget calculations show that with the achieved antenna gain the link power exceeds the required power by 38.37 dBm, and hence wireless communication is viable.

  • 13. Azimi, I.
    et al.
    Anzanpour, A.
    Rahmani, A. M.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Self-aware early warning score system for IoT-based personalized healthcare2017In: International Summit on eHealth 360°, 2016, Springer, 2017, p. 49-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early Warning Score (EWS) system is specified to detect and predict patient deterioration in hospitals. This is achievable via monitoring patient's vital signs continuously and is often manually done with paper and pen. However, because of the constraints in healthcare resources and the high hospital costs, the patient might not be hospitalized for the whole period of the treatments, which has lead to a demand for in-home or portable EWS systems. Such a personalized EWS system needs to monitor the patient at anytime and anywhere even when the patient is carrying out daily activities. In this paper, we propose a self-aware EWS system which is the reinforced version of the existing EWS systems by using the Internet of Things technologies and the self-awareness concept. Our self-aware approach provides (i) system adaptivity with respect to various situations and (ii) system personalization by paying attention to critical parameters. We evaluate the proposed EWS system using a full system demonstration. © ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2017.

  • 14. Azimi, Iman
    et al.
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Internet of things for remote elderly monitoring: a study from user-centered perspective2017In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 273-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in life expectancy achieved by technological advancements in the recent decades have increased the proportion of elderly people. Frailty of old age, susceptibility to diseases, and impairments are inevitable issues that these senior adults need to deal with in daily life. Recently, there has been an increasing demand on developing elderly care services utilizing novel technologies, with the aim of providing independent living. Internet of things (IoT), as an advanced paradigm to connect physical and virtual things for enhanced services, has been introduced that can provide significant improvements in remote elderly monitoring. Several efforts have been recently devoted to address elderly care requirements utilizing IoT-based systems. Nevertheless, there still exists a lack of user-centered study from an all-inclusive perspective for investigating the daily needs of senior adults. In this paper, we study the IoT-enabled systems tackling elderly monitoring to categorize the existing approaches from a new perspective and to introduce a hierarchical model for elderly-centered monitoring. We investigate the existing approaches by considering the elderly requirements at the center of the attention. In addition, we evaluate the main objectives and trends in IoT-based elderly monitoring systems in order to pave the way for future systems to improve the quality of elderly's life.

  • 15. Ben Dhaou, I.
    et al.
    Kondoro, Aron
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kelati, Amleset
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems. University of Turku, Finland.
    Rwegasira, Diana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. University of Turku, Finland.
    Naiman, S.
    Mvungi, N. H.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Communication and security technologies for smart grid2018In: Fog Computing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice, IGI Global , 2018, p. 305-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The smart grid is a new paradigm that aims to modernize the legacy power grid. It is based on the integration of ICT technologies, embedded system, sensors, renewable energy and advanced algorithms for management and optimization. The smart grid is a system of systems in which communication technology plays a vital role. Safe operations of the smart grid need a careful design of the communication protocols, cryptographic schemes, and computing technology. In this article, the authors describe current communication technologies, recently proposed algorithms, protocols, and architectures for securing smart grid communication network. They analyzed in a unifying approach the three principles pillars of smart-gird: Sensors, communication technologies, and security. Finally, the authors elaborate open issues in the smart-grid communication network.

  • 16. Dhaou, I. B.
    et al.
    Skhiri, H.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Study and implementation of a secure random number generator for DSRC devices2018In: 2017 9th IEEE-GCC Conference and Exhibition, GCCCE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an algorithm to select a low-cost modulus for the implementation of Blum Blum Shub pseudorandom number generator in an FPGA device. Additionally, it elaborates a low-latency architecture for the BBS algorithm suitable for the security service of the IEEE 1609.2 standard. The architecture uses diminished-1 arithmetic and is log2($N$) faster than previously reported implementation using Montgomery multiplier. The architecture is able to implement 224-bit and 256-bit BBS sequences. Synthesis results show that the latencies for the 224-bit and 256-bit BBS are, respectively, 1.12μs and 1.28μs.

  • 17. Dhaou, I. B.
    et al.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Design techniques of 5G mobile devices in the dark silicon era2016In: 5G Mobile Communications, Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 381-400Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the internet of things age, future communication technologies should provide the necessary bandwidth and latency for the connection of billion devices and the development of ubiquitous applications to improve the quality of life. The design of the prospected mobile communication system needs wide skills in wireless communication, analog circuit design, embedded system, microwave technology, and so forth. System level analyses, design space exploration, performance tradeoffs are some key steps that enable the design of low-cost, energy efficient, ubiquitous and flexible transceiver. This chapter provides comprehensive design techniques for 5G mobile communication in the dark silicon era and using More than Moore technology (MtM). 

  • 18. Ebrahimi, Masoumeh
    et al.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Plosila, Juha
    Flich, Jose
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    Path-Based Partitioning Methods for 3D Networks-on-Chip with Minimal Adaptive Routing2014In: I.E.E.E. transactions on computers (Print), ISSN 0018-9340, E-ISSN 1557-9956, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 718-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining the benefits of 3D ICs and Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) schemes provides a significant performance gain in ChipMultiprocessors (CMPs) architectures. As multicast communication is commonly used in cache coherence protocols for CMPs and invarious parallel applications, the performance of these systems can be significantly improved if multicast operations are supported at thehardware level. In this paper, we present several partitioning methods for the path-based multicast approach in 3D mesh-based NoCs,each with different levels of efficiency. In addition, we develop novel analytical models for unicast and multicast traffic to explore theefficiency of each approach. In order to distribute the unicast and multicast traffic more efficiently over the network, we propose theMinimal and Adaptive Routing (MAR) algorithm for the presented partitioning methods. The analytical and experimental results show thatan advantageous method named Recursive Partitioning (RP) outperforms the other approaches. RP recursively partitions the networkuntil all partitions contain a comparable number of switches and thus the multicast traffic is equally distributed among several subsetsand the network latency is considerably decreased. The simulation results reveal that the RP method can achieve performanceimprovement across all workloads while performance can be further improved by utilizing the MAR algorithm. Nineteen percent averageand 42 percent maximum latency reduction are obtained on SPLASH-2 and PARSEC benchmarks running on a 64-core CMP.

  • 19.
    Ebrahimi, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Kelati, Amleset
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Nkonoki, Emma
    Kondoro, Aron
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Rwegasira, Diana
    KTH.
    Ben Dhaou, Imed
    Taajamaa, Ville
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Creation of CERID: Challenge, Education, Research, Innovation, and Deployment: in the context of smart MicroGrid2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iGrid project deals with the design and implementation of a solar-powered smart microgrid to supply electric power to small rural communities. In this paper, we discuss the roadmap of the iGrid project, which forms by merging the roadmaps of KIC (knowledge and Innovation Community) and CDE (Challenge-Driven Education). We introduce and explain a five-gear chain as Challenge, Education, Research, Innovation, and Deployment, called CERID, to reach the main goals of this project. We investigate the full chain in the iGrid project, which is established between KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden) and University of Dar es Salam (Tanzania). We introduce the key stakeholders and explain how CERID goals can be accomplished in higher educations and through scientific research. Challenges are discussed, some innovative ideas are introduced and deployment solutions are recommended.

  • 20. Fattah, M.
    et al.
    Airola, A.
    Ausavarungnirun, R.
    Mirzaei, N.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Plosila, J.
    Mohammadi, S.
    Pahikkala, T.
    Mutlu, O.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    A low-overhead, fully-distributed, guaranteed-delivery routing algorithm for faulty network-on-chips2015In: Proceedings - 2015 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip, NOCS 2015, ACM Digital Library, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new, practical routing algorithm, Maze-routing, to tolerate faults in network-on-chips. The algorithm is the first to provide all of the following properties at the same time: 1) fully-distributed with no centralized component, 2) guaranteed delivery (it guarantees to deliver packets when a path exists between nodes, or otherwise indicate that destination is unreachable, while being deadlock and livelock free), 3) low area cost, 4) low reconfiguration overhead upon a fault. To achieve all these properties, we propose Maze-routing, a new variant of face routing in on-chip networks and make use of deflections in routing. Our evaluations show that Maze-routing has 16X less area overhead than other algorithms that provide guaranteed delivery. Our Maze-routing algorithm is also high performance: for example, when up to 5 links are broken, it provides 50% higher saturation throughput compared to the state-of-the-art. Copyright 2015 ACM.

  • 21. Gia, Tuan Nguyen
    et al.
    Tcarenko, Igor
    Sarker, Victor K.
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Westerlund, Tomi
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    IoT-Based Fall Detection System with Energy Efficient Sensor Nodes2016In: 2016 2ND IEEE NORDIC CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS CONFERENCE (NORCAS), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fall needs to be attentively considered due to its highly frequent occurrence especially with old people - up to one third of 65 and above year-old people around the world are risk of being injured due to falling. Furthermore, fall is a direct or indirect factor causing severe traumas such as brain injuries or bone fractures. However, timely medical attention might help to avoid serious consequences from a fall. A viable solution to solve this is an IoT-based system which takes advantage of wireless sensor networks, wearable devices, Fog and Cloud computing. To deliver sufficient degree of reliability, wearable devices working at the core of a fall detection system, are required to work for prolonged period of time. In this paper we investigate energy consumption of sensor nodes in an IoT-based fall detection system and present a design of a customized sensor node. In addition, we compare the customized sensor node with other sensor nodes, built on general purpose development boards. The results show that sensor nodes based on delicate customized devices are more energy efficient than the others based on general purpose devices while considering identical specification of micro-controller and memory capacity. Furthermore, our customized sensor node with energy efficiency selections can operate continuously up to 35 hours.

  • 22. Habib, A.
    et al.
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Pakistan.
    Azam, M. A.
    Loo, J.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Turku, Finland.
    Frequency signatured directly printable humidity sensing tag using organic electronics2017In: IEICE Electronics Express, ISSN 1349-2543, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 14, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper chipless RFID tag, capable of carrying 9-bit data is presented. The tag is optimized for several flexible substrates. With growing information and communication technology, sensor integration with data transmission has gained significant attention. Therefore, the tag with the same dimension is then optimized using paper substrate. For different values of permittivity, the relative humidity is observed. Hence, besides carrying information bits, the tag is capable of monitoring and sensing the humidity. The overall dimension of the tag comprising of 9 ring slot resonators is 7 mm. Due to its optimization on the paper substrate, the tag can be an ideal choice for deploying in various low-cost sensing applications.

  • 23. Habib, A.
    et al.
    Asif, R.
    Fawwad, M.
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan.
    Loo, J.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Turku, Finland.
    Directly printable compact chipless RFID tag for humidity sensing2017In: IEICE Electronics Express, ISSN 1349-2543, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 14, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, 8-bit paper based printable chipless tag is presented. The tag not only justifies the green electronic concept but also it is examined for sensing functionality. The compact tag structure comprises of seven L-shaped and one I-shaped dipole structure. These conducting tracks/dipole structures are of silver nano-particle based ink having a conductivity of 1.1 × 107 S/m. Each conducting track yields one bit corresponding to one peak. The tag design is optimized and analyzed for three different flexible substrates i.e. paper, Kapton® HN, and PET. The tag has ability to identify 28 = 256 objects, by using different binary combinations. The variation in length of particular conducting strip results in a shift of peak for that specific conducting track. This shift corresponds to logic state-1. The response of the tag for paper, Kapton® HN, and PET substrates is observed in the frequency band of 2.2-6.1 GHz, 2.4-6.3 GHz, and 2.5-6.5 GHz, respectively. The tag has an attractive nature because of its easy printability and usage of low-cost, flexible substrates. The tag can be deployed in various low-cost sensing applications.

  • 24. Haghbayan, M. -H
    et al.
    Kanduri, A.
    Rahmani, A. -M
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Jantsch, A.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    MapPro: Proactive runtime mapping for dynamic workloads by quantifying ripple effect of applications on networks-on-chip2015In: Proceedings - 2015 9th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip, NOCS 2015, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing dynamic workloads running on NoC-based many-core systems necessitates efficient runtime mapping strategies. With an unpredictable nature of application profiles, selecting a rational region to map an incoming application is an NP-hard problem in view of minimizing congestion and maximizing performance. In this paper, we propose a proactive region selection strategy which prioritizes nodes that offer lower congestion and dispersion. Our proposed strategy, MapPro, quantitatively represents the propagated impact of spatial availability and dispersion on the network with every new mapped application. This allows us to identify a suitable region to accommodate an incoming application that results in minimal congestion and dispersion. We cluster the network into squares of different radii to suit applications of different sizes and proactively select a suitable square for a new application, eliminating the overhead caused with typical reactive mapping approaches. We evaluated our proposed strategy over different traffic patterns and observed gains of up to 41% in energy efficiency, 28% in congestion and 21% dispersion when compared to the state-of-the-art region selection methods. Copyright 2015 ACM.

  • 25. Haghbayan, Mohammad-Hashem
    et al.
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Jantsch, Axel
    Miele, Antonio
    Bolchini, Cristiana
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Can Dark Silicon Be Exploited to Prolong System Lifetime?2017In: IEEE design & test, ISSN 2168-2356, E-ISSN 2168-2364, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Haghbayan, Mohammad-Hashem
    et al.
    Teravainen, Sami
    Rahmani, Amir-Mohammad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics. Turku Univ..
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Adaptive Fault Simulation on Many-core Microprocessor Systems2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DEFECT AND FAULT TOLERANCE IN VLSI AND NANOTECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS (DFTS), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 151-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency of Network-on-Chip based many-core microprocessors to implement parallel fault simulation methods for different circuit sizes is explored in this paper. We show that a naive and straightforward execution of fault simulation programs on such systems does not provide the maximum speedup due to severe bottlenecks in off-chip shared memory access at memory controllers. In order to exploit the available massive parallelism of homogenous many-core microprocessors, a runtime approach capable of adaptively balancing the load during the fault simulation process is proposed. We demonstrate the proposed adaptive fault simulation approach on a many-core platfonn, Intels Single-chip Cloud Computer showing up to 45X speedup compared to a serial fault simulation approach.

  • 27.
    Huan, Yuxiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Jiawei
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Li-rong
    KTH. Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zou, Zhuo
    Fudan Univ, State Key Lab ASIC & Syst, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    A 3D Tiled Low Power Accelerator for Convolutional Neural Network2018In: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (ISCAS), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It remains a challenge to run Deep Learning in devices with stringent power budget in the Internet-of-Things. This paper presents a low-power accelerator for processing Convolutional Neural Networks on the embedded devices. The power reduction is realized by exploring data reuse in three different aspects, with regards to convolution, filter and input features. A systolic-like data flow is proposed and applied to rows of Processing Elements (PEs), which facilitate reusing the data during convolution. Reuse of input features and filters is achieved by arranging the PE array in a 3D tiled architecture, whose dimension is 3 x 14 x 4. Local storage within PEs is therefore reduced and only cost 17.75 kB, which is 20% of the state-of-the-art. With dedicated delay chains in each PE, this accelerator is reconfigurable to suit various parameter settings of convolutional layers. Evaluated in UMC 65 nm low leakage process, the accelerator can reach a peak performance of 84 GOPS and consume only 136 mW at 250 Mhz.

  • 28. Ibwe, K. S.
    et al.
    Kalinga, E. A.
    Mvungi, N. H.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Taajamaa, V.
    The impact of industry participation on challenge based learning2018In: International Journal of Engineering ,Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 0949-149X, E-ISSN 2277-3754, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 187-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of learning is being revolutionized by challenge based learning (CBL), where academia offers solutions to real life challenges. Unfortunately, in developing countries academia overlook the importance of involving stakeholders who are the prospective owners of the solutions developed. This is because of the weak link between academic institutions and industry in research and development activities. However, to solve real life challenges faced by the society the researchers need to work closely and continuously with the targeted community for them to get the sense of ownership and for the solutions to take into account all relevant factors. This paper presents the impacts realized when eight stakeholders were fully involved from identification to developing solutions of the challenges facing the electrical power sector in Tanzania which is wholly managed by a public utility company TANESCO from generation to distribution. Challenge based courses introduced in taught PhD and MSc programs were used to create the necessary skills but also to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach in realizing the intended objectives. Nine PhD and six MSc students were involved. The stakeholders' involvement helped the research students to align the identification of the challenges to be in line with societal perception rather being purely scientific and/or technical like excessive reactive power or skin effect and to work in multidisciplinary teams. This paper presents the process adopted in real life challenges identification, the proposed solutions to the identified challenges and how academia can link with industry in solving real-life problems facing the society, in particular the higher learning institutions in developing countries. 

  • 29.
    Ibwe, Kwame
    et al.
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Kalinga, Ellen
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Mvungi, Nerey
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Kelati, Amleset
    KTH.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH.
    Ben Dhaou, Imed
    Qassim Univ, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.;Univ Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia..
    The Role of Challenge Driven Learning in Activating Industry-Academia Cooperation in Low Income Countries2017In: 10th International Conference 0f Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI2017) / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED) , 2017, p. 8158-8166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industry-academia cooperation to solve the real-life problems facing the societies of which the industry and academia are serving is a common phenomenon in developed economies and even to some of the middle-income countries. The challenges with such cooperation come from the level of trust that the industries have in the capacity of academia to solve their technical and scientific challenges. These challenges are vividly observable in low-income countries where large multinational companies having franchisees in these countries do not prefer local experts from academic institutions but rather engage such services from developed countries. The same applies to local companies and industries, public institutions and government agencies. The challenge does not come from the incompleteness of the academia to solve such challenges, but from the long perceived stigma that academia solutions are merely theoretical and cannot be realized in practice. This may have been perpetrated by the way academia have been conducting their research and development projects. Conventionality, academia identified a challenge for industry and started working on perceived solution to the change from start to finish just to find a nice work prototype mismatch the actual operational environment and conditions. The importance of the cooperation with the industries was only a concept which was never realized. It is important that the cooperation is emphasized early to avoid the current situation of not recognizing the potentials, and/or using the local academia multidisciplinary capacity. The challenge is how to make academia to effectively engage with local industries for the mutual benefits of both parties in low-income countries. Hence, challenge driven learning (CDL) is perceived as a possible way forward. To that effect, postgraduate course for MSc and PhD programme was introduced specifically to use challenge driven education approach. It is a project based course focused on building capacity in group/team work and multidisciplinary engagement to reflect demands for addressing a real life challenge. The challenge to the students which was systematically chosen inefficient and ineffective methods/systems used to clear faults which occur in different parts of the electrical power system network, either reported or observed by the utility company staff. The students, therefore, worked to develop solutions to facilitate efficient fault clearance jointly with utility company staff involved design, innovation, workshops with stakeholders, site visits and feedback from stakeholders. The regular involvement of the key stakeholder user, the utility company, was perceived as a means to promote and strengthen industry-academia cooperation in low-income countries. The Question is how can academia win trust from industries in low-income countries that they can solve their real-life problems? This paper adopts the perspective of challenge driven learning (CDL) methodology using a project based course in a postgraduate program as a tool. The validation data for this paper are based on inputs from the PhD and Masters CDL attending the course and the utility company staff. Based on the literature review, student's iterative designs based on student's presentations to client and to other stakeholders in workshops, complimentary site visits to study the actual situation on the ground and environment the students refined their designs and implementation strategies.

  • 30. Iqbal, M. S.
    et al.
    Shahid, H.
    Riaz, M. A.
    Rauf, S.
    Amin, Y.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. University of Turku, Finland.
    FSS inspired polarization insensitive chipless RFID tag2017In: IEICE Electronics Express, ISSN 1349-2543, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 14, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polarization insensitive, compact, fully-passive bit encoding structure exhibiting 1 : 1 resonator-to-bit correspondence is presented. Inspired by frequency selective surface (FSS) based microwave absorbers, the structure readily operates as a chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The unit cell is composed of several concentric hexagonal loops. Finite repetitions of the unit cell constitute the proposed RFID tag in its entirety. The required bit sequence is encoded in the frequency domain by addition or omission of corresponding nested resonant elements. A functional prototype is fabricated on a commercial-grade grounded FR4 substrate, occupying a physical footprint of 23 × 10mm2 while offering a capacity of 14 bits. The proposed tag boasts a minuscule profile, and demonstrates polarization insensitivity as well as stable oblique angular performance.

  • 31.
    Javed, Aqsa
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, ACTSENA Res Grp, Taxila 47050, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Ejaz, Asma
    ACTSENA Research Group, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Punjab 47050, Pakistan.
    Mehak, Sumrin
    ACTSENA Research Group, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Punjab 47050, Pakistan.
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH. ACTSENA Research Group, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Punjab 47050, Pakistan.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Department of Information Technology, TUCS, University of Turku, Turku, 20520, Finland.
    Miniaturized cross-lines rectangular ring-shaped flexible multiband antenna2019In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 625-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compact, flexible antenna for wireless applications, i.e., WLAN/WiMAX/Wi-Fi, UMTS2100, C-Band, and DSRC is presented. The quad-band antenna is designed and analyzed in terms of efficiency, gain, radiation pattern, return loss, and VSWR. The optimized design consists of a CPW fed rectangular ring patch with the semi-circular ground. The cross-lines and the semicircular ground is investigated to ascertain the multiband effect. A concept of inset feed mechanism is also interpolated to enhance impedance matching. The framed antenna is examined under the bent condition as well. The reported work is an apt candidate for the proposed applications because of its high efficiency of 95% with a peak gain of 3.22 dBi along with VSWR less than 2. With stable radiation pattern and bandwidth, there is a justified concurrence between simulated and measured results.

  • 32. Jiang, Mingzhe
    et al.
    Gia, Tuan Nguyen
    Anzanpour, Arman
    Rahmani, Amir
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Westerlund, Tomi
    Salantera, Sanna
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    IoT-based Remote Facial Expression Monitoring System with sEMG Signal2016In: 2016 IEEE SENSORS APPLICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (SAS 2016) PROCEEDINGS, IEEE, 2016, p. 211-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biopotentials including Electrocardiography (ECG), Electromyography (EMG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) measure the activity of heart, muscles and brain, respectively. They can be used for noninvasive diagnostic applications, assistance in rehabilitation medicine and human-computer interaction. The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) can bring added value to applications with biopotential signals in healthcare and human-computer interaction by integrating multiple technologies such as sensors, wireless communication and data science. In this work, we present a wireless biopotentials remote monitoring and processing system. A prototype with the case study of facial expression recognition using four channel facial sEMG signals is implemented. A multivariate Gaussian classifier is trained offline from one person's surface EMG (sEMG) signals with four facial expressions: neutral, smile, frown and wrinkle nose. The presented IoT application system is implemented on the basis of an eight channel biopotential measurement device, Wi-Fi module as well as signal processing and classification provided as a Cloud service. In the system, the real-time sEMG data stream is filtered, feature extracted and classified within each data segment and the processed data is visualized in a browser remotely together with the classification result.

  • 33. Jin, Y.
    et al.
    Shen, Jue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Nejad, M. B.
    Xie, Li
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Fudan University, China.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Zheng, L.
    A Power management scheme for wirelessly-powered RFID tags with inkjet-printed display2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Application, RFID-TA 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 180-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work proposes a new power management scheme for wirelessly-powered UHF RFID tags with flexible inkjet-printed Electrochromic (EC) display for human-to-device interaction. EC display on polyimide substrate is integrated at tag side to provide an ambient and direct human-to-device display interface. An aggressive duty-cycling power management scheme with dual supplies is designed to drive the EC display under the tag power budget in microwatt level through RF energy harvesting. In this scheme, energy for display refreshing is accumulated over multiple power management cycles. A single-pixel addressing scheme with minimal pixel size is proposed to further reduce display power and improve tag sensitivity by exploiting EC display bi-stability. The experimental results show that the EC display can be refreshed with the tag sensitivity of -10.5 dBm at 11.7 sec/cm2 update rate.

  • 34. Kalinga, E. A.
    et al.
    Ibwe, K. S.
    Mvungi, N. H.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Active learning through smart grid model site in challenge based learning course2018In: IMSCI 2018 - 12th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, Proceedings, International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, IIIS , 2018, p. 120-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Grid is a new and growing technology to developing countries. Its implementation and sustainability rely on well trained experts. Sustainability of the smart grid need local experts, hence a project named iGRID: Smart Grid Capacity Development and Enhancement in Tanzania was started. The project is running at the College of Information and Communication Technologies, University of Dar es Salaam. It intends to generate the necessary technical and scientific skills to ensure sustainable implementation of smart grid. iGRID project introduced taught PhD and Masters programs focusing on society, innovation and entrepreneurship in iGRID aspects, as well as to facilitate implementation of automation of monitoring, evaluation, analysis, control and management of electrical power system (smart grid) in order to improve delivery efficiency and to optimize operational costs in the electrical power system in Tanzania. The project made use of Challenge-Based Learning (CBL) methodology to engage students to work together with stakeholders in identifying challenges facing electrical power system in Tanzania. This paper presents the experience of using CBL methodology to achieve active learning to engineering students. The dynamicity of the teaching model, allowed students to acquire skills necessary to solve medium to high tech complex problems. The results build a continuous learning platform for students researching in electrical field. 

  • 35. Kanduri, Anil
    et al.
    Haghbayan, Mohammad-Hashem
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Jantsch, Axel
    Dutt, Nikil
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    Approximation Knob: Power Capping Meets Energy Efficiency2016In: 2016 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power Capping techniques are used to restrict power consumption of computer systems to a thermally safe limit. Current many-core systems employ dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), power gating (PG) and scheduling methods as actuators for power capping. These knobs are oriented towards power actuation, while the need for performance and energy savings are increasing in the dark silicon era. To address this, we propose approximation (APPX) as another knob for close-looped power management, lending performance and energy efficiency to existing power capping techniques. We use approximation in a pro-active way for long-term performance-energy objectives, complementing the short-term reactive power objectives. We implement an approximation-enabled power management framework, APPEND, that dynamically chooses an application with appropriate level of approximation from a set of variable accuracy implementations. Subject to the system dynamics, our power manager chooses an effective combination of knobs APPX, DVFS and PG, in a hierarchical way to ensure power capping with performance and energy gains. Our proposed approach yields 1.5x higher throughput, improved latency upto 5x, better performance per energy and dark silicon mitigation compared to state-of-the-art power management techniques over a set of applications ranging from high to no error resilience.

  • 36. Kanduri, Anil
    et al.
    Haghbayan, Mohammad-Hashem
    Rahmani, Amir M.
    Liljeberg, Pasi
    Jantsch, Axel
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. University of Turku, Finland.
    Dutt, Nikil
    Accuracy-Aware Power Management for Many-Core Systems Running Error-Resilient Applications2017In: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, E-ISSN 1557-9999, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2749-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power capping techniques based on dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and power gating (PG) are oriented toward power actuation, compromising on performance and energy. Inherent error resilience of emerging application domains, such as Internet-of-Things (IoT) and machine learning, provides opportunities for energy and performance gains. Leveraging accuracy-performance tradeoffs in such applications, we propose approximation (APPX) as another knob for close-looped power management, to complement power knobs with performance and energy gains. We design a power management framework, APPEND+, that can switch between accurate and approximate modes of execution subject to system throughput requirements. APPEND+ considers the sensitivity of the application to error to make disciplined alteration between levels of APPX such that performance is maximized while error is minimized. We implement a power management scheme that uses APPX, DVFS, and PG knobs hierarchically. We evaluated our proposed approach over machine learning and signal processing applications along with two case studies on IoT-early warning score system and fall detection. APPEND+ yields 1.9x higher throughput, improved latency up to five times, better performance per energy, and dark silicon mitigation compared with the state-of-the-art power management techniques over a set of applications ranging from high to no error resilience.

  • 37.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Ben Dhaou, Imed
    Qassim Univ, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.;Univ Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia..
    Taajamaa, Ville
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Rwegasira, Diana
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Kondoro, Aron
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Univ Turku, Turku, Finland..
    Mvungi, Nerey
    Univ Dar Es Salaam, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    CHALLENGES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES (TLA) AT ENGINEERING EDUCATION2018In: 12TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE (INTED) / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION & DEVELOPMENT , 2018, p. 9093-9098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the knowledge-based society, the legacy education system does not provide the needed skills for creative engineers especially enhancing student innovation and entrepreneurship capacity. Triple-helix model is a concept that aims to bond universities, industry and government in a bid to create innovations. In Europe, integrating research, education, and innovation together in a comprehensive manner has been the major driving force for local and European university development, as example in the form of European Institute Innovation Technology (EIT). At KTH, there are activities that alien the Teaching and Learning Activities (TLA) with different task group with the aim of creating a mutual innovation capacity to contribute solutions for major social challenges. Some of these task groups are Cross-Cultural Faculty Development for Challenge Driven Education, Global learning and digital platform and open innovation platform for learning. The progress and the success are measured by the number of joint student teams and their skills, knowledge development with the follow-up workshop, and the ongoing research and results of the socio-oriented projects. To enhance TLA and the teaching and learning practices, we have developed new curriculums (MSc. and PhD) for our partners to spark innovation and entrepreneurship where the students interact with Open Lab activities. The assessments show that the enrolled students have gained creative skills in dealing with engineering problem and consolidate their knowledge to improve the future TLA and the Intended Learning Outcome (ILO).

  • 38.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. University of Turku, Finland .
    DHAOU, Imed BEN
    Unaizah College of Engineering, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia; University of Monastir, Tunisia .
    Kondoro, Aron
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Rwegasira, Diana
    KTH. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. University of Turku, Finland .
    IoT based Appliances Identification Techniques with FogComputing for e-Health2019In: 2019 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa, Narobi, Kenya: IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the living standard of urban communities and to render the healthcare services sustainable and efficient, e-health system is experiencing a paradigm shift. Patients with cognitive discrepancies can be monitored and observed through the analyses of power consumption of home appliances. This paper surveys recent trends in home-based e-health services using metered energy consumption data. It also analyses and summarizes the constant impedance, constant current and constant power (ZIP) approaches for load modelling. The analysis briefly recaptures both non-intrusive and intrusive techniques. The work reports an architecture using IoT technologies for the design of a smart-meter, and fog-computing paradigm for raw processing of energy dataset. Finally, the paper describes the implementation platform based on GirdLAB-D simulation to construct accurate models of household appliances and test the machine-learning algorithm for the detection of abnormal behaviour.

  • 39.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. University of Turku, Finland.
    Nigussie, Ethiopia
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. University of Turku, Finland.
    Biosignal Feature Extraction Techniques for IoT Healthcare Platform2016In: IEEE Conference on Design and Architectures for Signal and Image Processing (DASIP2016), Rennes, France, 2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In IoT healthcare platform, a variety of biosignals are acquired from its sensors and appropriate feature extraction techniques are crucial in order to make use of the acquired biosignal data and help the healthcare scientist or bio-engineer to reach at optimal decisions. This work reviews the existing biosignal feature extraction and classification methods for different healthcare applications. Due the enormous amount of different biosignals and since most healthcare applications uses electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), Electrogastrogram (EGG), we focus the review on feature extractions and classification method for these biosignals. The review also includes a summary of Blood Oxygen Saturation determined by Pulse Oximetry (SpO2), Electrooculography and eye movement (EOG), and Respiration (RSP) signals. Its discussion and analysis focuses on advantages, performance and drawbacks of the techniques.

  • 40.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    Smart Meter Load Profiling for e-Health Monitoring System2019In: 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), Oshawa, ON, Canada: IEEE, 2019, , p. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural health-monitoring system needed to come out from the problem associated due to the rapidly growing population of elderly and the health care demand. The paper discussed the consumer's electricity usage data, from the smart meter, how to support the healthcare sector by load profiling the normal or abnormal energy consumption. For this work, the measured dataset is taken from 12 households and collected by the smart meter with an interval of an hour for one month. The dataset is grouped according to the features pattern, reduced by matrix-based analysis and classified with K-Means algorithm data mining clustering method. We showed how the clustering result of the Sum Square Error (SSE) has connection trend to indicate normal or abnormal behavior of electricity usage and leads to determine the assumption of the consumer's health status.

  • 41.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    Plosila, Juha
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    University of Turku (UTU), Turku, Finland.
    et al.,
    Smart Meter Load Profiling for e-Health Monitoring System2019In: 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), Oshawa, ON, Canada: IEEE conference proceedings, 2019, , p. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural health-monitoring system needed to come out from the problem associated due to the rapidly growing population of elderly and the health care demand. The paper discussed the consumer's electricity usage data, from the smart meter, how to support the healthcare sector by load profiling the normal or abnormal energy consumption. For this work, the measured dataset is taken from 12 households and collected by the smart meter with an interval of an hour for one month. The dataset is grouped according to the features pattern, reduced by matrix-based analysis and classified with K-Means algorithm data mining clustering method. We showed how the clustering result of the Sum Square Error (SSE) has connection trend to indicate normal or abnormal behavior of electricity usage and leads to determine the assumption of the consumer's health status.

  • 42.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Wearable in a Cloud2018In: 2018 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERECE ON CONNECTED HEALTH: APPLICATIONS, SYSTEMS AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES (CHASE), IEEE , 2018, p. 7-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I Nowadays, health care at home becomes more and more important, there are also some product which can measure the ECG, EMG with wearable device. However, these devices are not so accurate for diagnosis because of the low sample rate and less channel on body. In this project, we design a wearable system with 8-channels AFE and use Wi-Fi module to transfer the data to cloud so that we can measure the ECG or EMG more accurate at home, almost at the same sample rate and channels at the hospital. And then the cloud is built for received the data and a real-time display can help doctor monitor the patients' condition remotely. template is essential with some standard steps.

  • 43.
    Kelati, Amleset
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems. UTU.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Deep Breath - Wearable IoT sensor node to Monitor and Detect cough2016In: Thirteenth International Summer School on Advanced Computer Architecture and Compilation for High-Performance and Embedded Systems, 2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Coughing is the number one symptom individuals report when experiencing an illness. It is the most common symptom for respiratory disorders, including chronic lung disease, pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza. Cough can appear sporadically with common illnesses

    (e.g. cold), but when it becomes chronic it can severely impair life quality. This symptom is the most common reason for people to seek medical advice.

    Continuous monitoring of objective cough frequency and severity can greatly assist physicians to give an early diagnosis of patient’s illness and the assessment of treatment efficiency. It requires a combination of measures characterizing cough frequency, intensity and its impact on quality of life.

    In the proposed project we will investigate a sensor fusion approach, where the sound detection algorithms are combined with additional sensor parameters from a wearable health device. Parameters such as accelerometer and bio impedance data is combined with audio input to give a reliable cough detection. The algorithms will be

    implemented on a low power sensor node for real-time operation. The respiratory sounds and signal processing focused on detection of frequency and phases of respiratory cycle are the main features. The research include cough sound detection designed for operation on sensor node with low power management.

  • 44. Khan, Aamir
    et al.
    Naqvi, Syeda I.
    Arshad, Farzana
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Åbo universitet, Finland.
    A Compact Quad-band CPW-fed Planar Resonator for Multiple Wireless Communication Applications2017In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1001-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a low-cost, compact antenna with coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed line for multiband wireless applications. The presented multiband radiator is envisioned for integration into microwave circuits and portable RF devices. The prototype is realized on 1.6 mm thick readily available FR4 substrate with a compact geometrical size of 24x32 mm(2). The acquired quad-bands are centered at: 2.45, 3.5, 5.2 and 5.8 GHz justifying the appropriateness of the proposed radiator for the WLAN and WiMAX applications, as well as Bluetooth and ISM wireless standards. From the aspect of integration into transportable handheld devices and system designing, the presented compact antenna illustrates more expandability and flexibility. The radiation characteristics measured in the E and H-planes for desired operating frequencies are monopole-like and omni-directional, respectively. A sufficient gain is also achieved. Simulated as well as experimental results exhibit agreeable behavior.

  • 45.
    Khan, Tayyaba
    et al.
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Rahman, MuhibUr
    Polytech Montreal, Dept Elect Engn, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Akram, Adeel
    Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics. Univ Engn & Technol, Dept Telecommun Engn, Taxila 47050, Pakistan..
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    A Low-Cost CPW-Fed Multiband Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Wireless Applications2019In: ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 8, article id 900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel, cedar-shaped, coplanar waveguide-fed frequency reconfigurable antenna is proposed. The presented antenna uses low-cost FR4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm. Four PIN diodes are inserted on the antenna surface to variate the current distribution and alter the resonant frequencies with different combinations of switches. The proposed antenna is fabricated and measured for all states, and a good agreement is seen between measured and simulated results. This antenna resonates within the range of 2 GHz to 10 GHz, covering the major wireless applications of aviation service, wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), long distance radio telecommunications, and X-band satellite communication. The proposed antenna works resourcefully with reasonable gain, significant bandwidth, directivity, and reflection coefficient. The proposed multiband reconfigurable antenna will pave the way for future wireless communications including WLAN, WiMAX, and possibly fifth-generation (5G) communication.

  • 46. Khan, U. H.
    et al.
    Aslam, B.
    Khan, J.
    Nadeem, M.
    Shahid, H.
    Azam, M. A.
    Amin, Y.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
    A novel asterisk-shaped circularly polarized RFID tag for on-metal applications2016In: Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal, ISSN 1054-4887, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1035-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An asterisk-shaped, metal-mountable RFID tag with a minuscule footprint is presented. The proposed design makes use of multiple asymmetric slots patterned in a cross-shaped fashion to achieve circular polarization. The structure is excited capacitively using a terminally-grounded, T-shaped feed line positioned within the slots. This peculiar arrangement permits the attainment of circular polarized radiation characteristics over a wide band of operation. Impedance matching, antenna size reduction and read range enhancement are the additional advantages offered by the embedded feed line. The final design is realized on a commercially available FR-4 substrate over dimensions of 40 x 40 mm2 yielding an impedance bandwidth and an axial ratio bandwidth of 37 MHz and 20 MHz, respectively. Improvement in antenna gain (and consequently in the read range) is reported upon mounting the tag on metallic surfaces.

  • 47. Khan, Umar Hasan
    et al.
    Rasheed, Hira
    Aslam, Bilal
    Fatima, Ammara
    Shahid, Laiba
    Amin, Yasar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Localization of Compact Circularly Polarized RFID Tag Using ToA Technique2017In: Radioengineering, ISSN 1210-2512, E-ISSN 1805-9600, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A compact, flexible crossed-dipole circularly polarized antenna using commercially available paper substrate is presented which caters North American frequency band. The crossed-dipoles have meandered lines for reduction of size as well as increased inductivity in the antenna. Dipoles have asymmetric T-shaped rectangular endings to provide the required compactness. Two semicircles are induced between the orthogonal dipoles and meandering matching structure to accomplish circular polarization excitation. Good impedance matching with the chip is achieved through a modified meander line matching structure. The proposed design dimensions are 32 x 32 x 0.4 mm(3). Systematic analysis revealed the results comprising circular polarization 3dB-AR bandwidth of 12 MHz (908-920 MHz) and power transmission coefficient bandwidth of 36 MHz (900-936 MHz). Time delay between interrogating signal and backscattered signal is measured and relative distance is calculated. Linear Least Square (LLS) method is applied to approximate the position of tag in interrogation area. The proposed tag is placed at known locations and its position is measured to analyze accuracy of the method by simulating the positioning algorithm code in MATLAB. Six valid tag positions 0.5-2 m read range and 0 degrees-150 degrees angular resolution has been investigated.

  • 48.
    Kondoro, Aron
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Ben Dhaou, I.
    Rwegasira, Diana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Kelati, Amleset
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Mvungi, N.
    A Simulation Model for the Analysis of Security Attacks in Advanced Metering Infrastructure2018In: 2018 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica, PowerAfrica 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 533-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the power grid has given rise to new applications such as Advanced Metering Infrastructure. However, these technologies have also exposed the grid to new forms of security attacks. It is challenging to analyse and find solutions for these attacks due to the complexity of the grid system. There is a need of simple mechanisms to model and study the security implications of new power applications. This paper introduces a simulation model to evaluate the impact of security attacks on the Advanced Metering Infrastructure of a microgrid. The model is evaluated by demonstrating three security attack scenarios which lead to theft of power theft, privacy loss, and power outage.

  • 49. Majd, Amin
    et al.
    Abdollahi, Mandi
    Sahebi, Golnaz
    Abdollahi, Davoud
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics and Embedded Systems.
    Plosila, Juha
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Elektronics. Univ Turku, Finland.
    Multi-Population Parallel Imperialist Competitive Algorithm for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations2016In: 2016 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING & SIMULATION (HPCS 2016), IEEE, 2016, p. 767-775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    the widespreadimportance of optimization and solving NP-hard problems, like solving systems of nonlinear equations, is indisputable in a diverse range of sciences. Vast uses of non-linear equations are undeniable. Some of their applications are in economics, engineering, chemistry, mechanics, medicine, and robotics. There are different types of methods of solving the systems of nonlinear equations. One of the most popular of them is Evolutionary Computing (EC). This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm that is called Parallel Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (PICA) which is based on a multi population technique for solving systems of nonlinear equations. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, some well-known problems are utilized. The results indicate that the PICA has a high success and a quick convergence rate.

  • 50. Mohamed, S. A. S.
    et al.
    Haghbayan, M. -H
    Westerlund, T.
    Heikkonen, J.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits. Department of Future Technologies, University of Turku (UTU), Turku, 20500, Finland.
    Plosila, J.
    A Survey on Odometry for Autonomous Navigation Systems2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 97466-97486, article id 8764393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a navigation system is one of the major challenges in building a fully autonomous platform. Full autonomy requires a dependable navigation capability not only in a perfect situation with clear GPS signals but also in situations, where the GPS is unreliable. Therefore, self-contained odometry systems have attracted much attention recently. This paper provides a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of self-contained, i.e., GPS denied odometry systems, and identifies the out-coming challenges that demand further research in future. Self-contained odometry methods are categorized into five main types, i.e., wheel, inertial, laser, radar, and visual, where such categorization is based on the type of the sensor data being used for the odometry. Most of the research in the field is focused on analyzing the sensor data exhaustively or partially to extract the vehicle pose. Different combinations and fusions of sensor data in a tightly/loosely coupled manner and with filtering or optimizing fusion method have been investigated. We analyze the advantages and weaknesses of each approach in terms of different evaluation metrics, such as performance, response time, energy efficiency, and accuracy, which can be a useful guideline for researchers and engineers in the field. In the end, some future research challenges in the field are discussed.

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