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  • 1. Canestrari, F.
    et al.
    Ferrotti, G.
    Lu, X.
    Millien, A.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Petit, C.
    Phelipot-Mardelé, A.
    Piber, H.
    Raab, C.
    Mechanical testing of interlayer bonding in asphalt pavements2013In: Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 303-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steadily increasing requirements on pavement performance properties, in terms of bearing capacity and durability, as well as new innovative developments regarding pavement materials and construction, are observed worldwide. In this context interlayer bonding at the interfaces of multi-layered bituminous systems is recognized as a key issue for the evaluation of the effects, in terms of stress-strain distribution, produced by traffic loads in road pavements. For this reason a correct assessment of interlayer bonding is of primary importance, and research efforts should be addressed in order to improve the lack of correlation and/or harmonization among test methods. Following this principle RILEM TG 4 organized an interlaboratory test in order to compare the different test procedures to assess the interlayer bonding properties of asphalt pavement. The results of the experimental research are presented with a preliminary overview of basic elements, test methods and experimental investigations on interlayer bonding. Then the RILEM TG 4 experimental activities, based on the construction of three real- scale pavement sections, are presented in detail. Each pavement section was composed of two layers, and three different interface conditions were chosen. The first pavement was laid without interface treatment and the others with two different types of emulsion. Fourteen laboratories from 11 countries participated in this study and carried out shear or torque tests on 1,400 cores. The maximum shear or torque load and the corresponding displacement were measured, and the shear or torque strength was calculated as a function of the following parameters: diameter, test temperature, test speed, stress applied normal to the interface and age of the specimen. The results of this study are presented in terms of precision and correlations regarding the parameters which results in useful information on asphalt pavement interlayer bond tests.

  • 2.
    Chen, Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. EMPA–Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Experimental and numerical analysis of asphalt flow in a slump test2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 20, p. S446-S461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical behaviour of uncompacted asphalt mixtures is still not well understood,threatening directly to the pavement practices such as control of mixture’s workability andsegregation. This situation may become even worse due to the gradually increasing complexityand advances in paving materials and technologies. This study adopts a slump flow testbased on concrete technology and a Discrete Element (DE)-based numerical tool to investigatethe mechanical behaviour of uncompacted asphalt mixture from a microstructural point ofview, particularly focusing on the bituminous binder effects. The combined experimental andnumerical analysis indicates that bitumen distinctly influences the contact interactions withinthe mixture and thus its macroscopic flow, which can be physically interpreted as a combinedeffect of lubricated friction and bonding force. Additional case studies demonstrate that the DEmodel is capable of simulating the flow response of asphalt mixtures under changed particlecontact conditions and driven force.

  • 3.
    Fadil, Hassan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Measurement of the viscoelastic properties of asphalt mortar and its components with indentation tests2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable determination of material properties is a key component for modelling and performance prediction of asphalt pavements. This paper deals with the potential use of instrumented indentation tests for viscoelastic characterisation of asphalt mortar as a new alternative to existing techniques. The main focus lies on the potential of indentation tests for multi-scale measurement of the shear relaxation modulus. A three-dimensional finite element model of a rigid spherical indenter penetrating an asphalt mortar sample is developed and used to model indentation tests performed at different material scales. The asphalt mortar is modelled as an idealised fine aggregate composite with elastic spheres, suspended within a viscoelastic bitumen mastic matrix. Based on the obtained numerical results the scale-dependency of the shear relaxation modulus measured with the indentation test is investigated. It is shown that the measurement scale is effectively controlled by the size of the indenter-specimen contact area, while the effect of indentation depth is minimal. The minimum contact area size required for obtaining representative properties, measured at the mortar scale, is determined. The viscoelastic parameters obtained from the indentation model are compared to those obtained using a representative volume element (RVE) for the asphalt mortar. In this way, the paper provides a new impulse for linking the mortar and asphalt scales in the multiscale modelling of asphalt mixtures. Feasibility of the proposed testing technique is further evaluated experimentally. Viscoelastic indentation tests are performed on asphalt mastics and mortar at two different sizes of contact areas. Experimental results indicate that indentation tests allow reliable characterisation of mortars relaxation modulus on both macro-scale as well as on individual component level.

  • 4.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Investigation of asphalt joint compaction using discrete element simulation2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructing high quality asphalt joints plays a vital role in preventing premature failures of pavements. Previous studies suggested that many construction parameters directly and indirectly influence the quality of asphalt joints. Due to uncertainties about the influence of each parameter on the quality of the finalised joints, closer and more detailed studies are still needed for achieving further improvements in this field. This study investigates the possible impacts of thickness, bottom layer roughness, joint interface geometries and compaction techniques on the particle flow of a coarse structured mixture during compaction. Therefore, discrete element method (DEM) was utilised to evaluate the influence of each construction parameter on the interlock between the cold and the hot side of an asphalt pavement joint. The results helped to explain earlier experimental findings about the joints and revealed potential for further laboratory and field investigations.

  • 5.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Influence of layer thickness on the flow of asphalt under simulated compaction2018In: Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields, BCRRA 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 1435-1441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compaction is one of the most important phases in the life cycle of asphalt pavements and has therefore been a hot subject of research for a long time. However, despite of valuable research efforts on this topic, a remarkable gap between laboratory and field measurements still remains. Moreover, whereas most of the experimental methods are carried out on compacted pavement material, methods for evaluating compactability of asphalt mixtures for increasing the fundamental knowledge about internal movements within the asphalt during compaction are only scarce. Hence, in this study, a recently developed tool for simulating the compaction process with respect to the particle flow, i.e. Compaction Flow Test (CFT), was used along with simultaneous X-ray imaging for investigating the impact of thickness changes on two different asphalt mixture structures in terms of the compaction effort as well as flow pattern differences. The results of the investigation provided reasonably useful input for building up a better understanding of the behavior of mixtures under compaction loads. This method was able to successfully reveal the differences of the structural rearrangements within the asphalt mixtures for three different lift thicknesses. It also helped to explain some of the previous research studies results in a more comprehensive way. The achievements of this study may serve for developing an in-site evaluating test method for assessing compactability of asphalt mixtures before placing them on the roads.

  • 6.
    Ghafoori Roozbahany, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Guarin, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Introducing a new method for studying the field compaction2017In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 18, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow of particles during compaction may have a prominent influence on the difference of field and laboratory results as recently demonstrated by the authors with their newly developed compaction flow test (CFT). This test with a simple compaction simulator was used for studying the flow behaviour and rearrangement of particles for mixtures with different structures and thicknesses. However, validating the CFT results for practical purposes requires field measurements that provide more insight into the compaction process and eventually allowing to adjust the CFT for further use as an evaluating in-site tool. This study presents a new method for conducting such measurements during field compaction. In this method, some representative particles are tracked inside asphalt specimens and the accuracy of the results is examined by X-ray computed tomography. The results of the feasibility tests show that this method has potential for further use in the field and for building up a comprehensive basis of knowledge on field compaction towards closing the gap between the field and laboratory results.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Jelagin, Denis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.), Solid Mechanics (Div.).
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    New discrete element framework for modelling asphalt compaction2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During asphalt mixture compaction, loads in the material are mainly transferred through contact between the stones and the interaction between the stones and the binder. The behaviour of such materials is suitable to model using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). In this study, a new DEM modelling approach has been developed for studying the asphalt compaction process, incorporating contact and damage laws based on granular mechanics. In the simulations, aggregate fracture is handled by a recently developed method of incorporating particle fracture in DEM, based on previously performed fracture experiments on granite specimens. The binder phase is modelled by adding a viscoelastic film around each DEM particle. This surface layer has a thickness that obtains the correct volume of the binder phase and has mechanical properties representative for the binder at different temperatures. The ability of the model to capture the influence of mixture parameters on the compactability and the eventual stone damage during compaction is examined for the cases of compaction flow test and gyratory compaction. Explicitly, the influence of different aggregate gradations, mixture temperatures and binder properties are studied. The results show that the proposed DEM approach is able to capture qualitatively and quantitatively responses in both cases and also provide predictions of aggregate damage. One large benefit with the developed modelling approach is that the influence of different asphalt mixture parameters could be studied without re-calibration of model parameters. Furthermore, based on comparative DEM simulations, it is shown that the proposed approach provides more realistic force distribution networks in the material.

  • 8.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. Carleton University, Canada.
    Editorial2017In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 18, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Introduction2018In: RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports, Springer Netherlands , 2018, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview on the background and motivation for this report on the achievements of the technical committee RILEM TC 237-SIB on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable Innovative Bituminous Materials and Systems is presented, together with a short summary on the scope of this voluntary international team effort. Challenges and key research paths towards modern “green” asphalt pavements are addressed, focusing on general aspects associated with the increasing variety of approaches and their implication on testing and characterization of innovative asphalt pavement materials. As example for the complexity of the experimental challenges and the potential necessity to break free from traditional testing patterns, selected specific aspects of reinforced asphalt pavements are considered and discussed. It is emphasized that testing must be consistent with the purpose of the reinforcement, answering the key questions in what respect, under what conditions and in what loading direction reinforcement should be achieved and tested. This “garbage-in-garbage-out” awareness is also valid for all other fields dealing with testing and characterization of innovative bituminous materials and systems, of course. 

  • 10.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Towards improved testing of modern asphalt pavements2018In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 51, no 6, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 50 years, Rilem was continuously active in pre-standardization efforts aiming at gradually improving scientific and technological testing and analysis methods for refined understanding and characterization of bituminous binders and asphalt, both under well-defined laboratory and performance driven in-field conditions. This paper intends to highlight and provide a short overview on the international activities of Rilem’s to date 18 technical committees (TC) on asphalt and bituminous binders. After some general background information, underlining the specific complexity of asphalt pavement materials in terms of rheological behavior and basic structural functioning, it is shown that these activities resulted in numerous recommendations, state of the art reports and conference proceedings, all produced on a voluntary basis by scientific and technical commitment of individual experts. This wealth of results was created by the TCs following an own systematic methodology for many years which, at the end of the day, allowed building up activities through the new TCs of today in a much more specialized but at the same time also more diverse way. In view of this new flexibility and keeping in mind the previous success story of Rilem towards improved testing of asphalt pavements, future developments, challenges and interdisciplinary issues regarding bituminous road materials are outlined as potential starting point for future TC initiatives.

  • 11. Piber, H.
    et al.
    Partl, Manfred
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Raab, Christiane
    Interlaboratory tests on pavement performance prediction and evaluation-rutting2013In: RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports, Springer Netherlands, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 257-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The former RILEM TC 182 PEB organized 1997 an international interlaboratory test on pavement performance, prediction and evaluation. The aim was to predict the expected damages after 10 years on the basis of traffic and climatic data by testing samples that were cut from the newly constructed road. On esection in Austria was monitored as planned until 2007. Thirteen laboratories from 12 countries participated in the study and provided performance predictions for both sections according to their own methods and standards. This chapter summarises the road condition after this long term performance observation and compares it to the rutting results from those laboratories which performed dynamic rutting tests on more than one pavement layer and based their prediction on their own test results and models without relying on national requirements. © RILEM 2013.

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