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  • 1.
    Augustin, Tim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Transient Behaviour of VSC-HVDC Links with DC Breakers Under Faults2017In: 2017 19th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'17 ECCE EUROPE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In future high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems, a large number of HVDC breakers will be required.In this paper, the influence of HVDC breakers on the transient performance of point-to-point HVDC links in both asymmetrical and symmetrical monopolar configuration with half-bridge modular multilevel converters is studied with simulations in PSCAD. As HVDC breakers, the active resonant breaker and ABB’s hybrid breaker are considered. The analyzed scenarios include DC line faults, DC bus faults, and AC faults between the converter and the transformer. The highest DC breaking capability is required during DC line faults in the asymmetric and symmetric monopole. The converter stress is highest for DC bus faults and unbalanced converter AC faults in the asymmetric monopole and for DC bus pole-to-pole faults in the symmetric monopole. During DC pole-to-ground faults in the symmetric monopole, the HVDC breaker combined with DC side arrestors yields the lowest overvoltage stress on the cable of the healthy pole. The fault current shapes depend strongly on the interaction of the converter and the travelling waves on the lines, and differ from the fault current shapes in typical HVDC breaker test circuits. Furthermore, the active resonant breaker and the ABB hybrid breaker perform similarly in the used benchmarks due to the very fast DC line fault detection.

  • 2.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    et al.
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Loenders, Rick
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Leterme, Willem
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Dejene, Firew Z.
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Wang, Mian
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Requirements for functional testing of HVDC protection IEDs2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for HVDC protection is underway, driven in part by the prospective demands of future multiterminal HVDC systems. There is, however, no consensus on how to test the functionality of an HVDC protection IED. Successful operation of a future multivendor HVDC protection system requires functional specifications and harmonised test procedures for protection system components, including the protection IED. This paper presents an introduction to functional testing methods for HVDC protection IEDs. Evaluating the protection algorithm characteristic using synthetic waveforms is first performed, i.e. ’functional type testing’. Given that test procedures are in part dependent on the protection algorithm, tests are developed and presented for several algorithms. The behaviour of the IED in a power system simulation is then examined during generalised yet representative fault transients, i.e. equivalent to ’dynamic validation type testing’ of AC protection algorithms. The combination of functional and dynamic validation type testing allows the generalised functionality of the IED to be evaluated - testing the algorithm, hardware and software implementation, and overall performance. To provide examples of test procedures, an open-source HVDC IED prototype is tested in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration using a real-time simulator. The operation and accuracy of the protection characteristics are first examined, before the IED performance under representative waveforms is determined. Through tests of several non-unit line protection algorithms, it is shown that, depending on the algorithm applied, the IED is dependable for simulated faults within the protection zone, and secure during external faults. Moreover,the test configurations and procedures required to evaluate the functionality and the criteria for success are developed.

  • 3.
    Cowan, Ian
    et al.
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Ponnalagan, Bharath
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Rahman, Md Habibur
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Adeuyi, Oluwole Daniel
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Page, Fred
    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kuroda, Kenichi
    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kunjumuhammed, Linash
    Mitsubishi Electric Europe, London, UK.
    Demonstration of Partially Selective HVDC Grid Protection System with Hardware-in-the-loop IEDs2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to demonstrate a partially selective protection strategy for multiterminal VSC-HVDC systems using a simulated industrial case study network. In order to increase confidence that such a protection strategy would be suitable for implementation on a future network, this paper uses hardware protection intelligent electronic devices (IED) prototypes from industry and academia, HVDC circuit breaker models that have been developed in collaboration with manufacturers, and a realistic case study network. The tests performed within this study are used to evaluate the performance of the protection IED in a realistic system, and examine the operation of the partially selective protection strategy at the system level. Results presented indicate that each IED achieved fast fault detection,reliable discrimination, and that the circuit breaker models were able to successfully isolate the faulted circuit, indicating the success of the partially selective protection strategy.         

  • 4.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Björk, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Hohn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Svensson, Niklas
    Svenska Kraftnät, Sweden.
    Sharifabadi, Kamran
    Equinor ASA, Norway.
    Despouys, Olivier
    Réseau de Transport d'Electricité (RTE), France.
    A Proposal for Open-Source HVDC Control2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) grids are considered an enabling technology to efficiently integrate large amounts of renewable energy into the existing grid. However, already in today’s existing point-to-point HVDC links, harmonic interaction issues and instabilities related to the controland protection system of the converters have been reported. The converter control software is usually black-boxed and problems are therefore solved in close cooperation with the HVDC vendor. This paper aims to provide a starting point for a discussion onan open-source HVDC control system. In particular, it covers the control design including technical and non-technical aspects. The open-source approach can be useful to solve current as wellas future control-related problems, both in point-to-point links as well as in multiterminal and multivendor HVDC grids.

  • 5.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hohn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Departement Elektrotechniek, 82302 Leuven Belgium 3100.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    An Open-Source Protection IED for Research and Education in Multiterminal HVDC Grids2020In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of large amounts of renewable energy will require multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (MTDC) grids to reliably transport the energy over long distances. However, before building an MTDC grid, a functional protection system design is needed. Realistic and industrial studies are required to validate the functionality of such a system. In addition, further academic research as well as education in the field are needed. This paper presents an open-source, low-cost protection intelligent electronic device (IED) prototype for use in a laboratory environment. In particular, the IED design, its fastest measured performance, example results for different fault scenarios, and an assessment of its use in education are shown. The open-source IED is useful to accelerate industrial and academic research, as well as to enable education in protection for MTDC grids.

  • 6.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Hohn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Impact of measurement and communication aspects on protection of multi-terminal DC grids2018In: IET - The Journal of Engineering, E-ISSN 2051-3305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demand for renewable energy generation requires the higher flexibility of transmission systems. This requirement together with technical progress in high-voltage DC technology has resulted in the ambition to build large-scale multi-terminal DC grids. To achieve this goal, vendor interoperability is considered a key element. Standards exist for AC systems, but not for DC systems. This work discusses and evaluates the suitability of AC standards for DC systems. As a result, a different view on substation architecture is developed and two communication protocols are suggested for further investigation in this context.

  • 7.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hohn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Impact of Measurement and Communication on Protection of MTDC Grids2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demand for renewable energy generation requires higher flexibility of transmission systems. This requirement together with technical progress in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) technology have resulted in the ambition to build large-scale multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids. To achieve this goal, vendor interoperability is considered a key element. Standards exist for AC systems,but not for DC systems. This work discusses and evaluates the suitability of AC standards for DC systems. As a result, a different view on substation architecture is developed and two communication protocols are suggested for further investigation in this context.

  • 8.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hohn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Sharifabadi, Kamran
    Equinor ASA, Fornebu, Norway.
    Wang, Mian
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Requirements for open specifications in multivendor HVDC protection systems2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating multiterminal high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) connections into the existing alternating current (AC) power transmission system is a possible solution for transport of large amounts of renewable energy. Protection is considered a key enabler for multiterminal HVDC (MTDC) grids. Designing such a protection system is a challenge, in particular in a multivendor setup. Fault detection during transients might be required to achieve the stringent speed requirements for HVDC protection. This in turn requires knowledge about the expected system behaviour during faults and involves knowledge from all vendors supplying equipment in MTDC grid. Traditionally, HVDC projects are, however, supplied as turn-key solutions and the control and protection systems are the intellectual property of the vendors and not open for the HVDC end-users. This paper aims to provide a starting point on the discussion which information has to be shared between vendorsand HVDC end-users when designing MTDC grid protection. Simulations results show that missing information about certain aspects can lead to a failure of the protection system. A discussion on organization of the available information is added. Open specifications of the used equipment are useful to design safe and reliable MTDC grid protection.

  • 9.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Johannesson, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Survey of Methods for Selective DC Fault Detection in MTDC Grids2017In: The 13th IET international conference on AC and DC Power Transmission, Manchester (ACDC 2017), Feb. 2017., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Jahn, Ilka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Townsend, C. D.
    de la Parra, H. Zelaya
    Model-Predictive Modulation Strategy for a Hybrid Si-SiC Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Converter2016In: 2016 18TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'16 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses new model-predictive modulation strategies applied to hybrid Silicon Silicon-Carbide cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converters. The analysis identifies a suitable ratio of Silicon to Silicon-Carbide cells and the appropriate modulation strategy applied to this topology concept. The evaluation is based on semiconductor losses and harmonic performance.

  • 11.
    Kabzinski, Jan
    et al.
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Budde-Meiwes, Heide
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Jahn, Ilka
    Kowal, Julia
    TU Berlin.
    Sauer, Dirk Uwe
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Karden, Eckhard
    Ford Research and Advanced Engineering, Aachen.
    Modeling Dynamic Charge Acceptance of Lead-Acid Batteries for Micro-Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Influence of Previous Discharge Rate: Poster in Kraftwerk Batterie, Aachen, 20152015Other (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kabzinski, Jan
    et al.
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Budde-Meiwes, Heide
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Jahn, Ilka
    Kowal, Julia
    TU Berlin.
    Sauer, Dirk Uwe
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Karden, Eckhard
    Ford Research and Advanced Engineering, Aachen.
    Modeling Dynamic Charge Acceptance of SLI Batteries for Micro-Hybrid Vehicles: Presentation in 14th European Lead Battery Conference (ELBC), Edinburgh, 2014.2014Other (Other academic)
  • 13. Leterme, Willem
    et al.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Ruffing, Philipp
    Sharifabadi, Kamran
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    Designing for High-Voltage dc Grid Protection: Fault Clearing Strategies and Protection Algorithms2019In: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, ISSN 1540-7977, E-ISSN 1558-4216, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 73-81Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting High-Voltage (HV) dc grids requires a different approach compared with that of ac power system protection and poses one of the major challenges that must be resolved before the realization of large scale HVdc grids that use equipment from multiple vendors. HVdc grid protection, which is essential for safe and reliable HVdc grid operation, entails the appropriate detection and fault clearing of dc-side short circuit faults (i.e., dc faults). In this context, fault clearing refers to interrupting the dc fault current and isolating the faulted component. Fault current interruption is much more complex in HVdc grids compared to ac systems because dc fault currents have no naturally recurring zero crossings and, without countermeasures, quickly increase to values that are unacceptable for power electronic components. Conversely, the technologies used within HVdc grids offer options for fault clearing beyond the well-known approach of using circuit breakers in existing ac systems.

  • 14.
    Wang, Mian
    et al.
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Leuven/Genk, Belgium.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Page, Fred
    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishida, Keisuke
    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kuroda, Kenichi
    Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kunjumuhammed, Linash
    Mitsubishi Electric Europe, London, UK.
    Cowan, Ian
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Ponnalagan, Bharath
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Rahman, Md Habibur
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Adeuyi, Oluwole Daniel
    The National HVDC Centre (part of SHE Transmission), Cumbernauld, UK.
    Multi-vendor interoperability tests of IEDs for HVDC grid protection2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future large scale HVDC systems must have components from different manufacturers, however, this will require multi-vendor interoperability. This paper studies multi-vendor interoperability of HVDC protection IEDs using hardware IED prototypes developed by industrial and academic partners. Multi-vendor interoperability tests are performed using real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulations based on open-access converter models configured to represent the proposed three-terminal design of an extension to an existing point-to-point HVDC system in the UK. In particular, this paper focuses on developing testing procedures for IEDs in a multi-vendor environment and identifying possible interoperability issues. Interoperability of two hardware IEDs is demonstrated during primary protection, IED failure backup protection and breaker failure backup protection. In each case, the protection scheme operates correctly and it is shown that, in the studied scenarios,the protection IEDs are interoperable.

  • 15.
    Wang, Mian
    et al.
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Belgium.
    Jovcic, Dragan
    Aberdeen Institute of Energy, UK.
    Leterme, Willem
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Belgium.
    van Hertem, Dirk
    KU Leuven/EnergyVille, Belgium.
    Zaja, Mario
    Aberdeen Institute of Energy, UK.
    Jahn, Ilka
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Pre-standardisation of Interfaces between DC Circuit Breaker and Intelligent Electronic Device to Enable Multivendor Interoperability2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DC circuit breakers (DCCBs) are one of the key components to facilitate large meshed HVDC grids. Driven by the needs for achieving high speed, low loss and low cost, various DCCB technologies have been proposed for HVDC applications. Unlike AC circuit breakers (ACCBs), some DCCBs provide a variety of functions, such as proactive opening or fault current limiting (FCL), mainly attributed to the high controllability of the power electronic switches used in such DCCBs. To enable these functions, the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) are expected to provide signals steering these functions in addition to a trip command. Interoperability between IEDs and DCCBs from different vendors is considered feasible, but expected to be more complex than their AC counterparts, due to the different functions provided by various DCCB technologies. It is therefore crucial to understand which of the functions are essential to fulfil the requirements imposed in HVDC grid protection, and to standardise the interfaces between the IEDs and DCCBs to achieve multivendor interoperability between IEDs and DCCBs provided by different vendors. This paper first classifies the DCCB functions into minimally required and auxiliary ones based on reviewing the existing literature. Then, standardised interfaces between the IEDs and DCCBs are proposed to enable both types of DCCB functions. An example of such IED is implemented in PSCAD/EMTDC to demonstrate that the proposed interfaces are adequate to enable both minimally required and auxiliary functions using a four-terminal test system. Auxiliary functions of hybrid DCCBs, such as proactive opening, fault current limiting, fast reclosing and reopening, breaker failure internal detection and repeated O-C-O operation are demonstrated by simulations.

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