kth.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 30 of 30
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Al-Mousa, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Capacity Allocation of Unmonitored Railway Yards2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, p. 4041-4048Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for railway service facilities in Europe has been rapidly increasing, prompting for more conflicts in capacity requests by railway undertakings. In Sweden, many of these facilities do not have any automatic monitoring possibilities and the infrastructure manager does not have accurate or real-time information about vehicles occupying the tracks. This introduces challenges in having efficient capacity utilization in such facilities. This paper proposes a framework for capacity allocation for facilities which are currently unmonitored in general and for railway yards in specific. The framework is proposed upon abessment of the feasibility of emerging technologies in monitoring railway service facilities, as well as evaluating the current capacity allocation process and the suitability of different pricing principles as a basis for a charging scheme for capacity reservation.

  • 2. Diotallevi, Claudio
    et al.
    van Bunningen, Thomas
    Aronsson, Martin
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Åkerfeldt, Mats
    Internet of Logistics: A New Opportunity for the Digitalization of Logistics2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the applicability of the Semantic Web technologies to the logistics domain, as an open, flexible and efficient approach to share the digital information. The Semantic Web is a framework of technical standards and information management tools that provides a method to store and publish digital data, securely, easily searched, cross-referenced and processed by computers. The proposed approach is introduced within the framework of the H2020 - Shift2rail initiative and FR8HUB project and defined as “Internet of Logistics”, since it aims at creating a common, distributed and interoperable data exchange infrastructure. It overcomes the limitations of traditional supply chain communication systems based on one2one messages (e.g. EDI), and the complexity associated to ad-hoc IT system implementations that are required to build interfaces between legacy systems, enabling new possibilities for the digitalization of processes and operations in the freight sector.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Djordjevic, Boban
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Perstel, Peter
    Report on capacity/productivity gains, modal shift potential, marketopportunities and quantification of external effects2023Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Djordjevic, Boban
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Krmac, Evelin
    Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Pot pomorščakov 4, SI-6320 Portorož, Slovenia, Pot pomorščakov 4.
    Lin, Chen Yu
    Department of Transportation and Logistics Management, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, No.1001, Daxue Rd., East Dist., Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan, No.1001, Daxue Rd., East Dist..
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    An optimisation-based digital twin for automated operation of rail level crossings2024In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 239, article id 122422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway level crossings (LCs), as the intersection of road and rail transport, are the weak points in terms of safety, as they are used by different modes of transport. The safety level at LCs can therefore be affected by the behaviour of the users. However, the level of safety can also be affected by failures and errors in the operation of LC equipment. Apart from safety, errors and failures of the LC devices can lead to longer waiting times for road users. As the volume of traffic on rail and road increases, so does the risk that the level of safety will decrease. The increase in traffic volume via LC leads to higher traffic volume on the road and more frequent trains on the rail, which leads to longer waiting times for road users on the LCs. The longer waiting times can disrupt the traffic flow, especially during peak hours when the growing volume of traffic on road and rail increases road user dissatisfaction. Moreover, in the era of Industry 4.0 and Digital Rail, new digital and automated technologies are being introduced to improve rail performance and competitiveness. These technologies are aligned with the LCs and are intended to ensure the efficient operation of LC and the efficient use of LCs by conventional trains as well. To achieve this, a concept is needed that simultaneously monitors and visualises the operation of LC in real time, identifies potential faults and failures of the LC equipment, and updates and monitors the proper operation of LC based on the historical data and information of the operation of LC according to the road traffic volume and the characteristics of the rail traffic and trains. Therefore, in this study, a digital twin system (DT) for rail LC was initiated and built as a concept that can meet the above requirements for proper LC operation in real time. DT of LC includes all components of LC and communication between them to synchronise the operation of LC according to the real-time requirements. The DT system is able to optimise the operation time of LC by monitoring the operation of LC and collecting data to ensure efficient use of LC and reduce unnecessary waiting time for road users. In this paper, the operation time of LCs on Swedish and Taiwanese railways was compared using the developed level crossing optimisation model (OLC). Since the introduction of new signalling concepts requires an improvement of LC operating characteristics and their design, the operating strategies were modelled using the OLC model. The results of the work show that the optimal values of LC operation time are different for the case studies investigated. The replacement of track circuits as detection devices and the introduction of balises can also positively influence the operation time, as well as increasing the speed of trains via LCs. However, due to the formulation of the OLC model, the impact of a longer train length on the operation of LC is not recognised. The OLC model can be used to estimate the real-time operation time of LC under different traffic conditions as well as the impact of different changes and extensions of LC.

  • 5.
    Djordjevic, Boban
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ståhlberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Krmac, Evelin
    Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mane, Ajinkya S.
    Transport, World Resources Institute, Mumbai, India.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Efficient use of European rail freight corridors: current status and potential enablers2023In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 62-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hallesius, Hanns
    et al.
    Tructric AB.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Nordmark, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    A pre-study for a new efficient transshipment technology for combined transports2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The project addresses the need for green end-to-end long-distance transportation over land and the need to shift more cargo from road to rail. The overarching target is to shift a considerable part of present long-distance road transports to combined transportation, by providing seamless transshipment between road and rail, with the aim to accelerate the shift from energy-consuming fossil transportation to a combination of energy-efficient and fossil-free long-distance transportation on rail and flexible and fossil-free short-distance trucking.

    Combined transport (CT) of semi-trailers combines the sustainability (electrification & energy efficiency) of rail with the flexibility of road, enabling green transport chains. The availability and competitiveness of CT is however limited by inefficiencies related to the transshipment, as most trailers cannot be managed by present methods, as CT terminals are capital intensive and therefore typically few and far apart, and as large part of transport costs and time are related to the transshipment.

    The proposed solution “Assisted RoRo Transshipment” is an innovative & competitive way for loading trailers onto railway wagons at terminals, through horizontal loading of trailers onto flat railway wagons by the use of assisted precision driving (Ro-Ro). The trailer can be pushed onto the railway wagon directly by the tractor bringing it to the terminal, or alternatively by a terminal tractor.

    One objective of the pre-study project has been to achieve a deeper understanding of the fit within the transport system in Sweden, including relevant market, and the needs of all relevant stakeholders. Another objective has been to review the feasibility of the technology in different implementations. A further objective has been to identify relevant use cases, and propose an actionable project plan for a full scale demo project.

    The following general research questions were addressed:

    • How well does the concept fit in the present system and market? 
    • How feasible is the concept in relation to risks and regulations? 
    • How should a suitable full scale demo project (FSDP) be designed and planned and what should be considered regarding technology?

    To review the fit of the new concept in present systems and market, a review has been made from the perspectives system, behaviour and application. A thorough review on the market mechanics has been made and the different components of the intermodal transport system have been addressed. Simulations of effects by the introduction of the Assisted RoRo Transshipment concept in various environments was carried out.

    As a summary, the conclusion is that Assisted RoRo Transshipments have the potential of bringing relevant improvements to the marked in various situations. The costs for transshipment are estimated to be considerably lower than present alternatives and new opportunities are created for the establishment of intermediate terminals along the railway line. Faster transshipments together with the possibility to use also non-liftable trailers in CT provides opportunities or growing the CT market. Based upon these conclusions, further development and demonstrations are suggested, as well as further research.

    In the study regarding the feasibility of the concept, various risks related to CT and an implementation of Assisted RoRo Transshipments were reviewed and analysed. Applicable legislation and requirements related to intermodal railway transports were also reviewed and analysed in view of various levels of implementation. The main conclusions from the feasibility study are that the Assisted RoRo Transshipment concept appears to be feasible for implementation in an FSDP as well as in large scale and that the risks involved in transshipments and transportation call for focus on safety and reliability in all implementations. 

    Various alternatives for an FSDP were simulated and analysed. The technology concept has been tested from different perspectives. The conclusions were that there is a number of variations as to how a demonstration and pilot project can be set up in various stages of the development of the concept. The suggestion is however to set up a limited FSDP, with one or a few wagons in commercial pilot traffic between two terminals as part of an existing intermodal shuttle. The railway wagon should be adapted for Assisted RoRo Transshipments. Temporary platforms for Assisted RoRo Transshipments should be arranged on or close to the terminals. The project also proposes a project plan for such FSDP.

    Download full text (pdf)
    2023-00040_A pre-study for a new efficient transshipment technology for combined transports
  • 7.
    Joubert, Johan W.
    et al.
    University of Pretoria.
    Trenta, Nadia M.
    University of Pretoria.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    A matching algorithm to study the evolution of logistics facilities extracted from GPS traces2020In: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 46, no 2020, p. 237-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquity of anonymous GPS data has opened the door to a promising data source in the field of city logistics modelling. From this data the locations of logistics facilities can be extracted and their evolution studied over time. The minimum edge coverproblem, weighted by the Hausdorff distance, is used as a basis for a matching algorithm to study the location of facilities acrosslongitudinal datasets. The efficacy and validity of the algorithm is assessed through the visual inspection of results in three urbanareas across five time instances. Prevalent errors are unpacked and algorithm modifications suggested. This paper makes amethodological contribution to the handling of GPS data for the purpose of city logistics modelling.

  • 8.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Aronsson, Martin ()
    RISE.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Trafikverket.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE.
    Lengu, Roald
    Hitachi Rail.
    Nordmark, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rius García, Guillermo
    Indra.
    Salvitti, Giorgio
    Hitachi Rail.
    Vilabella, Santiago
    Indra.
    Wohlrath, Rico
    DB Cargo AG.
    Deliverable 3.3 Demonstration and Evaluation including Best Usage of the Data Capture2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Intelligent Video Gate (IVG) consists of a gate system installed at relevant railway nodes equipped with cameras and RFID readers for automatic identification of wagons and intermodal loading units (ILU; for example, containers, swap bodies, and semi-trailers) as well as damages, through image recognition and detection of wagon numbers, loading unit codes, placards and RFID units. The IVG is to be located at, or nearby, railway facilities where it can lead to significant improvements for processes within the supply chain, related to time, planning, work safety, maintenance and claims.

    The aim of this deliverable is to describe a demonstrator of the IVG, a technique to enhance optimization of a fully operational terminal or yard, and with data management to enable fast and reliable detection of incoming and outgoing assets. Through automatic detection by an IVG of wagon numbers and intermodal loading units (ILU) handled, including recognition of dangerous goods, their sequence as well as visible damages, processes at terminals and yards can be optimized to achieve efficient dwell times and handling, as well as facilitate processes at other actors in the supply chain.

    The R&I highlighted in this report are related to three tasks; Task 3.3: AI for images processing, Task 3.4: Data sharing and exploitation and Task 3.5: Demonstration and Evaluation. Task 3.3 and Task 3.4 have partially been reported in (D3.2, 2021) and further elaborated in this deliverable, Chapters 3 and 4. Task 3.5 entails the use cases considered in the exploitation plan, described in Chapter 5 and evaluated in Chapter 6.

    Use cases evaluated in this deliverable are dependent on correct extraction of information from the images produced by the IVG, as well as on reliable storage and sharing of the resulting data. The current accuracy levels for the IVG of Trafikverket in Gothenburg, Sweden have been demonstrated in this deliverable. The evaluations that have been performed show that there is room for improvements of the information extraction, but also that the concept works well and that the extracted information has been successfully made available and makes several important use cases possible. The uses cases have also been demonstrated in the final event of FR8RAIL III on 2022/12/09.

    It can be concluded that the IVG concept shows potential of automation and digitalization regarding reduction of time and speed-up of the technical checks on departure and arrival, use of image processing combined with machine learning as well as sharing and exploitation of data along the supply chain. However there are potentials for further improvements of the image processing and data sharing, to achieve accuracy levels above 95% through e.g. ability to recognize more code types (mainly national), using colour cameras and exploring common format for data sharing and semantics.

  • 9.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Evaluation and Modelling of Short Haul Intermodal Transport Systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional intermodal rail freight transport systems have proved themselves competitive and able to offer cost-leadership on long distances and in endpoint relations between two nodes. Several studies within intermodal transports have made contributions in finding the minimum distance, the “break-even” distance that an intermodal door-to-door shipment can compete with unimodal road. The results for European conditions are found in the range 300-800 km. The main aim of this doctoral thesis has been to analyse under which conditions a short haul transport system with the railway as a base can be considered a feasible solution.

    This has been conducted within the framework of two research projects. In the main research project of this thesis; REGCOMB (Regional Combined Transport System – A system study in the greater Stockholm-Mälaren region), the feasibility is evaluated in a bi-sectional manner; first a quantitative assessment is carried out where costs and CO2 emission are estimated for a set of transport alternatives in the greater Stockholm region, Sweden. The project involves a case study of a shipper’s distribution of daily consumables in the Stockholm-Mälaren region. The case study evaluates the concept of an intermodal liner train, which differs from other conventional rail freight systems, as it similar to a passenger train makes stops along the route for loading and unloading. The quantitative assessment has been accomplished by the development of a cost model, Intermodal Transport Cost Model (ITCM). The most critical parameters are the train’s loading space utilization and the transshipment. The time and cost spent for transshipment of unit loads restrict the competitiveness of intermodal services on shorter distances as these parameters are not proportional to transported distance but rather to the utilization rate of resources. Hence, the concept of cost-efficient small scale (CESS) terminals is introduced and evaluated in this study. Second, a qualitative assessment of the socio-technical system is carried out regarding stakeholders’ perspectives and requirements; based on the participative research i.e. experts involved in in-depth interviews, workshops and a survey. The system must satisfy broader policy objectives of local authorities and commercial corporate interests in order to be adopted. The business model that represents the conceptual idea of the study is identified as ‘the local cooperation model’, where the intermodal transport service is organized by several local actors along a transport route. Regions where cost-leadership coincides with a strong will from local authorities to implement regulations in the freight transport market that promote intermodal transports have created a foundation for implementing short haul intermodal rail freight services. Two operational examples are presented in this thesis; the E&S system in Japan and the Innovatrain system in Switzerland.

    In the minor research project of the thesis; BIOSUN (Sustainable Intermodal Supply Systems for Biofuel and Bulk Freight), an evaluation is carried out regarding rail-based multimodal transportation of wood biofuels. In essence, it is the factors affecting rail transportation of biofuel and the inherent capability of the rail mode that are addressed. The qualitative evaluation consists of STEEP analysis for the external factors influencing the transport system and sustainability analysis for the internal factors. These methods are complemented by quantitative analysis of a case study, which offered an opportunity to model a rail-based multimodal transport chain for the supply of a heating plant in Gothenburg, Sweden. The results of the case study show that the break-even distance is considerably lower for biofuel transport chains than for other commodities; 180-250 km, which is mainly due to the requirement of road-road transshipment as well as the fact that intermodal terminals can be combined with wood processing facilities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Evaluation of Rail-based Multimodal Transportation ofBiofuels2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis, Tokyo, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyse the internal and external factors influencing rail-basedmultimodal transportation of wood biofuel i.e. wood raw materials e.g. chips and branchesthat are used for production of energy. The analysis is conducted for the Swedish marketand by using a bi-sectional qualitative framework. First, a STEEP analysis is conducted inorder to analyse the external factors affecting railway transportation of biofuel. STEEP isan acronym for: Social, Technological, Economical, Environmental and Political and it isused as a strategic tool to analyse external factors that influence a business. Second, theinternal factors are evaluated through the three main dimensions of sustainability:environmental, economic and social. In essence, it is the factors affecting railtransportation of biofuel and the inherent capability of the rail mode that are addressed.Albeit the two methods are to their nature qualitative approaches, the evaluation iscomplemented by quantitative analysis of the niche market as well as a case study.A main conclusion from the qualitative analysis is that rail transportation of biofuelfaces a number challenges that in many cases are related to a relatively high share of fixedcosts and operational inflexibility. The main drivers for it are commonly associated witheconomies of scale and the relatively low environmental impact. Estimates from the casestudy show that the break-even distance i.e. when the cost for intermodal transports equalsunimodal road, is 50-55% lower for biofuel transport chains than for other commoditiesand significantly decreases CO2 emissions compared to unimodal road.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Intermodal Liner Freight Trains: Opportunities and Limitations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and qualitatively evaluate the opportunities, limitations and prerequisites that are associated with intermodal liner trains within a larger urbanized region. As the Liner train makes stops at intermediate stations along the route, it enables covering a larger market area than conventional rail freight systems do. The Liner train aims to increase the proportion of rail in intermodal road-rail transport, hence it can reduce the high cost that the feeder transports by trucks constitute, the congestion on the road network and the external costs generated by road transport. However, there are several prerequisites that need to be fulfilled in order to get the liner train system competitive on short and medium distances e.g. optimized loading utilization along the route and efficient transshipments at terminals. Although the concept is quite untested, an example of a liner train system, the Light Combi, will be presented.

  • 12.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Intermodal Transport Chain Structures and Competitiveness for Combined Transports2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Intermodal Transport Cost Model and Intermodal Distribution in Urban Freight2014In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on City Logistics, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to model a regional rail based intermodal transport system and to examine the feasibility of it through a case study for a shipper of daily consumables distributing in an urban area and to evaluate it regarding cost and emissions. The idea of an intermodal line train is that of making intermediate stops along the route thus enabling the coverage of a larger market area than conventional intermodal services, hence reducing the high cost associated with feeder transports, the congestion on the road network and generated externalities. The results of the case study indicate that the most critical parameters for the feasibility of such a system are the loading space utilization of the train and the cost for terminal handling.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Intermodal Transport Cost Model and Intermodal Distribution in Urban Freight
  • 14.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Marknad för regional kombitrafik: En delrapport inom forskningsprojektet ”Regionalt kombitransportsystem i Mälardalen”2012Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Regional Intermodal Transport Systems: Analysis and Case Study in the Stockholm-Mälaren Region2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global trend of urbanization is evident and also valid in Sweden and for the Stockholm-Mälaren region, also referred to as the Mälaren valley, a region consisting of metropolitan Stockholm and areas around the lake of Mälaren. In this context, efficient urban freight transportation has emerged as essential for sustainable development of urban areas. Geographic regions are being expanded due to the fact that rapid transport options have expanded the range of action of people and businesses. Metropolitan regions require freight transports that are often categorized by an inflow of consumables and an outflow of waste and recyclable material. Within urban areas there are ports, terminals and storage facilities that require incoming and outgoing transport. Altogether, these shipments have led to increased congestion on the road network within urban areas, which is a contributing factor to why a shift to intermodal land transports have been advocated both in Europe and in Sweden, thus encouraging more freight to be moved from road to rail. Another contributing factor is the relatively low impact on the environment generated by rail transportation. Efficient use of resources and low emissions of greenhouse gases are factors that are in favor of the train as a transport mode.

    Furthermore, conventional rail freight is commonly competitive on long distances and in end-point relations between two nodes. However, an intermodal liner train, as a transport system for freight differs from conventional rail freight transport systems, as it similar to a passenger train makes stops along the route for loading and unloading. Due to the stops made at intermediate stations it enables the coverage of a larger market area. For regional or inter-regional relations, the concept has the potential of reducing drayage by truck to and from intermodal terminals and to make rail freight competitive also over medium and short distances.

    The main aim of this thesis project has been to analyze under which conditions a combined transport system with the railway as a base can be implemented in the Stockholm-Mälaren region. Based on a case study for a shipper distributing daily consumables in the region, the feasibility of creating a regional rail freight transport system has been evaluated.

    This study provides a methodology for evaluating the feasibility, regarding costs and emissions, of concepts and technologies within freight transportation chains. This has been accomplished by the development of a cost modal, Intermodal Transport Cost Model (ITCM). From the results of the case study one can conclude that a regional rail based intermodal transport system regarding costs is on the threshold of feasibility in the studied region. As for emissions, all evaluated intermodal transport chains contribute to a significant decrease in CO2 emissions compared to unimodal road haulage. The loading space utilization of the train and the transshipment cost are the most critical parameters. The latter restricting the competitiveness of intermodal services to long distances as it is not proportional to transported distance but rather to the utilization rate of resources. Hence, the concept of cost-efficient small scale (CESS) terminals is introduced in this study.

    A main prerequisite in order to make the intermodal liner train efficient is a stable and balanced flow of goods with optimized loading space utilization along the route. As the objective is to consolidate small flows, imbalances along the route will constitute an obstacle for the liner train to be competitive. Thus regarding loading space utilization it is necessary to consolidate other freight flows in the train in order to achieve high loading space utilization and a balanced flow along the route. The third parameter which is critical for the results are the fuel prices, where a sensitivity analysis of the results shows that if diesel prices would increase so would the feasibility of the intermodal option. The same is also valid for train length increase as long as the loading space utilization is maintained.

    The results of the feasibility study indicate that the evaluated transshipment technologies are closing the gap for intermodal transport to unimodal road haulage regarding transport cost over short- and medium distances and that they contribute to a substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. However, it is essential that also the transport quality is ensured, especially regarding reliability and punctuality. Thus a demonstration project is recommended as these aspects require operational testing. This is particularly crucial regarding novel transshipment technologies.

     

    Download full text (pdf)
    Licentiate Thesis Behzad Kordnejad
  • 16.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Stakeholder Analysis in Intermodal Urban Freight Transport2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 12, p. 750-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of rail based intermodal transportation in urban regions. The feasibility is evaluated in a bi-sectional manner; first a quantitative assessment is carried out where costs and CO2 emission are estimated for a set of transport alternatives in the greater Stockholm region, Sweden. The most critical parameters are the train's loading space utilization and the transhipment. Second, an analysis is made based on the principles of the ‘Delphi’ method i.e. experts involved in in-depth interviews, workshops and a survey; regarding stakeholders’ perspectives for utilizing such systems. The system must satisfy broader policy objectives of local authorities and commercial corporate interests in order to be adopted.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kjellin, Martin
    RISE.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE.
    Rius Garcia, Guillermo
    Indra.
    Castro Vilabella, Santiago
    Indra.
    Wohlrath, Rico
    DB Cargo AG.
    Nordmark, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Lengu, Roald
    Hitachi Rail.
    Åkerfeldt, Mats
    Trafikverket.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Trafikverket.
    Intelligent Video Gate -Automated Detection of Wagons and Intermodal Loading Units for Image Processing and Sharing and Exploitation of Data2022In: 13th World Congresson Railway Research, Birminghem, UK, 6–10 June 2022, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging technologies and their applications within intermodal and rail freight terminals enable improvements in efficiency and existing business processes, relieving them of manual activities and enabling higher degree of automation and digitalization. To initiate the next logical step to a higher level of automation at marshalling yards and intermodal terminals and to reduce the lead-time needed for the identification/verification process of freight trains, the concept “Intelligent Video Gates” (IVG) is introduced within the Shift2Rail programme and the project FR8RAIL III WP3. The methodology is based on implementation and evaluation of full-scale demonstration gates that have been installed in Sweden and Germany. The gates capture data through optical character recognition (OCR) and radio-frequency identification (RFID) from wagons and intermodal loading units (ILUs). Use cases such as recognition of damages and dangerous goods placards are investigated. This study deals with two aspects of the concept, namely image processing and the sharing and exploitation of data. Image processing requires two main components: a physical architecture composed of devices that can acquire the images and a software architecture that is able to analyse the information contained within the image and interpret its content. For the software component, one way to accomplish the understanding of the image is the use of Deep Learning methods that learn representations and features through a sequence of transformations to the input image. An architecture is presented for how to retrieve data from the image processing. The data should then preferably be shared with stakeholders in the transportation chain. Within the project, a data sharing system called Deplide is used. The system is based on experience from similar platforms in several large-scale projects within the maritime sector, which is adapted to intermodal and rail transportation requirements. 

  • 18.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Mitrovic, Branko
    Aronsson, Martin
    Bergstrand, Jan
    Åkerfeldt, Mats
    Nordmark, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Intelligent Video Gate – A Conceptual Application of Emerging Technologies in Rail Freight Transports2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, April 27-30, 2020, Helsinki, Finland, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of new technologies and their corresponding applications within intermodal and rail freight terminals enable improvements in efficiency in existing business processes, relieving them of manual activities and enabling higher degree of automation and digitalization. To initiate the next logical step to a higher level of automation in terminals and to reduce the lead-time needed for the identification and verification processes of freight trains, the concept “Intelligent Video Gates” (IVG) is introduced within the framework of the H2020 Shift2Rail initiative and FR8HUB project. The project has been bi-sectional, first describing functional and technical requirements and the selection of components and secondly carrying out a technical proof of concept (PoC) and introducing a roll-out and implementation plan (RIP) within a Swedish and German context. This paper presents the main findings from the project, literature review, survey of similar studies and a case study simulating the expected effects of the concept.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Hinder och möjligheter för överföring av godstransporter från väg till järnväg2020Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Nordmark, Ingrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Wolrath, Rico
    DB Cargo AG.
    Klein, Christopher
    DB Cargo AG.
    D25.3 Report on the basic functional and technical specifications regarding CMS as relevant input for FP32023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document constitutes the basic functional and technical specifications regarding CMS as relevant input for Flagship Project FP3 – IAM4RAIL. The term Condition monitoring systems (CMS) here refers to wayside monitoring systems and in particular the Intelligent Video Gate (IVG) concept developed within the Shift2Rail programme and the projects FR8HUB and FR8RAIL III. The concept is now further developed in a concept called “Standardised European Checkpoints” within Flagship Project FP5 – TRANS4M-R. As these checkpoints will also be developed within FP3 WP7, the main purpose of this deliverable is to provide FP3 basic functional and technical specifications developed previously for the concept within Shift2Rail as well as the vision for the further development of the concept within FP5. Moreover, as CMS also includes other wayside monitoring systems (WMS) than the IVG concept, previous work within Shift2Rail regarding these technologies will also be addressed in this deliverable. 

    The IVG concept was first described and showcased on a model train within Shift2Rail and the project FR8HUB and the full scale demonstrated within FR8RAIL III, including installation of gate in Gothenburg, Sweden for terminal purposes, while for yard purposes the gate in Nurnberg yard in Germany was used. The work will now continue within FP5 with extending the concept with further functionalities for terminals, yards and borders and to further European countries, both on a local/national and a European level. 

    Challenges experienced during the Shift2Rail projects regard first of all installation challenges; one should consider all the required steps i.e. finding a suitable location, contracting sub provider, obtaining all permissions for installation, purchasing components, transportation of equipment, construction, fine tuning while estimating costs and effort for each step. As for the technical challenges and the image processing, hit rates over 95% for character recognition (codes) are required i.e. ability to recognize more code types e.g. domestic ILU codes differs and are hard to recognize, as well as improved damage detection abilities. Regarding the technical challenges with data exchange, it is particularly worth considering that handling information of dangerous goods is strictly regulated. 

    Regarding Wayside monitoring systems based on other detection technologies, the industry is already providing sensors to monitor a large number of freight wagon conditions. However, there are still areas of freight wagons that are difficult or impossible to monitor with stationary or on-board sensors. However, it will not be possible to deploy a comprehensive condition detection solution at one time but step by step. The gradual integration of domestic and international data will also present economic, technical and legal challenges.

  • 21.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    A departure delay estimation model for freight trains2020In: Proceedings of TRA2020, the 8th Transport Research Arena 2020: Rethinking transport – towards clean and inclusive mobility / [ed] Toni Lusikka, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a macroscopic delay estimation model for freight trains departing from the marshalling yard. Freight trains are made up in large marshalling yards comprising three yards (arrival, classification, departure). On time operations in marshaling yards enhances reliability of rail freight services compared to other modes of freight transport. Currently, freight trains encounter most of their delays in marshalling yards even before entering the railway network. Therefore, it is needed to estimate the departure delay of freight trains from the marshaling yard. So far, studies have mainly focused on classification yard operations to estimate departure delay, whereas a proper delay estimation model should be able to consider processes of all three yards. We have developed our model considering main factors (yard congestion, railcar availability and locomotive availability) from all three yards. Hallsberg and Malmö Marshalling yards in Sweden were used as case study.

  • 22.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Analysis of Railyard Congestion and Departure Delay Relationship: a Case Study from Swedish Railways2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a macroscopic model framework for departure delay prediction from railyards. The railyard is a large area comprising three sub-yards (arrival, classification, departure). In fact, timely operation at railyard is dependent on coordinated operations in these sub-yards. More importantly, punctual functioning of railyards is crucial for increasing competitiveness of rail freight services throughout the network. Despite previous models, we considered railyard congestion at the arrival yard, time availability of each wagon at the classification yard, and time availability of locomotive at the departure yard. The core part of this paper analyzes the effect of congestion at arrival yard on departure delays. Punctuality data from two Swedish railyards for a seven-year period is used. The congestion is defined as the number of arriving trains three hours before each departure. The results showed that the highest number of delayed departures occur at congestion levels of 4-10, while correlation coefficient is around zero. Analysing the whole dataset reveals that these congestion levels are common for all departures not just the delayed ones. Therefore, we conclude that as three sub-yards are interrelated, a comprehensive definition of congestion at railyard level is required. An elaborate definition of congestion can make it a proper predictor for further delay prediction models.

  • 23.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Lund Univ, Div Transport & Rd, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    The Application of Tree-Based Algorithms on Classifying Shunting Yard Departure Status2021In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2021, article id 3538462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shunting yards are one of the main areas impacting the reliability of rail freight networks, and delayed departures from shunting yards can further also affect the punctuality of mixed-traffic networks. Methods for automatic detection of departures, which are likely to be delayed, can therefore contribute towards increasing the reliability and punctuality of both freight and passenger services. In this paper, we compare the performance of tree-based methods (decision trees and random forests), which have been highly successful in a wide range of generic applications, in classifying the status of (delayed, early, and on-time) departing trains from shunting yards, focusing on the delayed departures as the minority class. We use a total number of 6,243 train connections (representing over 21,000 individual wagon connections) for a one-month period from the Hallsberg yard in Sweden, which is the largest shunting yard in Scandinavia. Considering our dataset, our results show a slight difference between the application of decision trees and random forests in detecting delayed departures as the minority class. To remedy this, enhanced sampling for minority classes is applied by the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to improve detecting and assigning delayed departures. Applying SMOTE improved the sensitivity, precision, and F-measure of delayed departures by 20% for decision trees and by 30% for random forests. Overall, random forests show a relative better performance in detecting all three departure classes before and after applying SMOTE. Although the preliminary results presented in this paper are encouraging, future studies are needed to investigate the computational performance of tree-based algorithms using larger datasets and considering additional predictors.

  • 24.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Division of Transport and Roads, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Statistical Analysis of Departure Deviations from Shunting Yards: Case study from Swedish Railways2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departure deviations from shunting yards impact the reliability of rail freight services and the punctuality of a railway network. Therefore, the statistical analysis of these deviations are necessary for improving the operation of trains in mixed-traffic networks. In our paper, we conduct a detailed statistical analysis of departure deviations considering individual shunting yards characteristics. We use a large freight train delay dataset comprising 250,000 departures over seven years for the two largest shunting yards in Sweden, comparable to other medium-sized shunting yards in Europe. To find the probability distribution of departure deviations, we compare four distribution functions including the exponential, the log-normal, the gamma, and the Weibull according to the maximum likelihood estimates and results of the Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test. In our experiments, we show that the log-normal distribution fits best for delayed departures across both shunting yards, and for early departures at one of them, whereas the gamma distribution fits best for early departures at the other yard. For the temporal delay distribution, we find that fluctuations in the network usage impact the percentage of delayed departures across hours and weekdays, but not across months or years. In addition, we find that freight trains are mostly delayed in the winter.  In the case of hourly delayed departures, we demonstrate that a shunting yard involved with domestic traffic showed a negative correlation between delayed departures and the network usage, whereas an international shunting yard did not, which indicates individuality in shunting yard operations impact shunting yard-network interactions. Our findings mainly contribute to better understanding of departure deviations from shunting yards, thus enhancing the operations and capacity utilization of shunting yards. Moreover, delay distributions can be beneficial in handling delays in traffic management models as well as enhancing the outputs of freight train simulation models

  • 25.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Sipilä, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Machine learning-assisted macro simulation for yard arrival prediction2023In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 25, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the modal share of the single wagonload transport in Europe requires improving the reliability and predictability of freight trains running between the yards. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-assisted macro simulation framework to increase the predictability of yard departures and arrivals. Machine learning is applied through a random forest algorithm to implement a yard departure prediction model. Our yard departure prediction approach is less complex compared to previous yard simulation approaches, and provides an accuracy level of 92% in predictions. Then, departure predictions assist a macro simulation network model (PROTON) to predict arrivals to the succeeding yards. We tested this framework using data from a stretch between two main yards in Sweden; our experiments show that the current framework performs better than the timetable and a basic machine learning arrival prediction model by R2 of 0.48 and a mean absolute error of 35 minutes. Our current results indicate that combination of approaches, including yard and network interactions, can yield competitive results for complex yard arrival time prediction tasks which can assist yard operators and infrastructure managers in yard re-planning processes and yard-network coordination respectively.

  • 26.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Carillo Zanuy, Armando (Contributor)
    Capodilupo, Luigi (Contributor)
    DICEA.
    Islam, Devan (Contributor)
    UNEW.
    Furió, Salvador (Contributor)
    VPF.
    Conceptual terminals’ design methodology for different markets: Capacity4Rail, Working report in WP 2.3.1. EC Contract No FP7- 605650.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present document is a compilation of 4 different reports that are part of Task 2.3.1: Conceptual terminals’ design methodology for different markets.

    Part 1 (KTH): Description of intermodal transport systems for different markets, terminals and units.

    The first section of this report provides an overview of the evolution of rail transport in Europe, how wagonload and intermodal transportation have developed, pointing out the important evolution of intermodal traffic and specifically the expansion of semi-trailer transport traffic.

    The second section describes the structure of the intermodal markets, providing useful data on train weights, container loads, technologies, units’ utilization and typical train compositions, the kind of traffic present at the terminals to be described. 

    The concluding remarks in this section show the relevance of the decay of wagonload traffic in Europe and the important expansion of intermodal transport. It proposes some ideas for improving rail transport, mentioning the following aspects:

    ·         Advanced wagonload booking system and path allocation

    ·         Automation of terminals

    ·         Automatic coupler 

    ·         Loading gauge extension for intermodal and semitrailer transport 

    ·         Megahubs for intermodal transport 

    ·         Longer Trains and multiple traction

    ·         High-capacity wagons

    In the third section, a picture is given of the different kinds of intermodal terminals to be found in the European networks. Their most important parts and their performance, are described as well as the typical loading units used.

    The fourth section is dedicated to describing the wagonload terminals and their performance, taking in account the severe decline in the utilization of these kinds of terminals and the important decrease in loading places and industrial sidings.

    Part 2 (DICEA):  Development of the assessment methods of innovative measures and technologies based on analytical and simulation tools

    This report illustrates some of the assessment methods of innovative measures and technologies based on analytical and simulation tools for future freight terminals. The aim is to propose adaptable generalised methods for different types of freight terminals such as rail-road, rail-rail, rail-waterways, and small (e.g. liner terminals), medium or large terminals (e.g. hub terminals). This sub-task is divided into two sections: in section 1 a generalized approach based on an analytic method is described and section 2 illustrates the simulation tool. Both sections include concrete examples.

    Analytical methods

    ·         Deterministic methods: every event, including human cognition and behaviour decision and action is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences;

    ·         Stochastic methods: a state’s next state is determined both by the process's predictable actions and by a random element.

    Simulation methods

    ·         Simulation tools: each process has a bounded time between its execution steps. The process’s local clocks may drift either from each other or from global physical time only by a bounded time.

    Part 3 (UNEW): Development of the stepwise approach for designing and evaluating the rail freight terminal of the future.

    This subtask has tow inter-related components: a) Develop a stepwise approach for designing the rail freight terminal of the future and b) stepwise approach for evaluating the rail freight terminal of the future.   

    The following terminal typologies are used in this report. 

    ·         Intermodal terminals

    o   Rail-road

    o   Rail-rail

    o   Rail-waterways

     

    ·         Wagonload terminals

    o   Rail-industry

    o   Rail-truck

    o   Rail-ship

     

    ·         Trainload terminals

    o   Timber

    o   Coal 

    o   Oil

    o   ...

    ·         Internal rail system

    o   Marshalling yards

    o   Shunting areas

    o   Stations

    o   Sidings

    The report ends with a definition of key performance indicators of the terminals and the interdependence between them.

    Part 4  (VPF): Methodology for the conceptual design of innovative sea-rail interfaces.

    This paper presents a conceptual methodology for designing the future rail-sea interfaces. It is divided into 3 parts.

    ·         Identifying the requirements and challenges of the terminals in terms of types of cargo, vehicles and operations taking place there.

    ·         Review of the state-of-the-art on this type of terminal and gap identification

    ·         Research on design possibilities following an innovative approach

    ·         Utilization of specific tools for design, which provide help in understanding the dimensioning of rail-sea interfaces

     

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Karl, Jürgen (Contributor)
    DB.
    Furio, Salvador (Contributor)
    VPF.
    Thunborg, Michael (Contributor)
    Trafikverket.
    Economic evaluation of intermodal terminals and marshalling yards: Capacity4Rail WP2.3.5 EC, Contract No FP7- 6056502016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the costs for investments, maintenance and operations for different terminal typologies with different capacity. The normal price for lifting containers and trailers in an intermodal terminal is often a market price, mostly taken operational costs into account. The total costs including capital costs for the investments in the track infrastructure is often not known because the basic investments has been made by the state long time ago.

    The aim of this project has been to make economic models for investments and operation of terminals and marshalling yards and to estimate the actual costs for different terminal typologies. By these models it is also possible to estimate costs for building new terminals and develop terminal types with different automation levels.

    Business economic calculations for conventional terminals, with reach-stackers and gantry cranes, show that the cost is in the range of 20-30 €/TEU, also a common market price for terminal handling. This includes both the operating costs and the capital costs for the technical equipment, which often the terminal operator is responsible for. The total cost including basic investments is in the range of 30-50 €/TEU, which is the long-term cost for building new terminals. 

    Linear traffic makes it possible to have more terminals to cover a larger market. Horizontal transfer of loading units makes it possible to have terminals on an electrified siding so the train can make short stops on intermediate stations. This means that there will be no need for shunting with diesel and parking of wagons and full automation of transfer of loading units will be possible. The total cost for a small-scale automatic linear terminal on an existing siding has been calculated to 14 €/TEU. The low cost for the linear terminal is mainly due to the absence of shunting engine and personnel meaning that it has a very high benefit/cost ratio.

    The operating cost for handling wagons at a marshalling yard in Sweden is about 15 € per wagon, but adding the maintenance cost for the infrastructure manager increases this to 50 € per wagon. The whole cost, including building the yard, for this example would be 100 € per wagon.

    Automation of terminals and terminal functions seems to be the most efficient way to reduce costs and increase benefits in future terminals. There are many ideas how to implement this, but not many of the systems are ready for market use today.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Line capacity and train capacity for future rail freight corridors: Capacity4Rail WP32.2 Appendix 1, EC Contract No FP7- 6056502017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of freight rail must have as its starting point optimised freight transportation on the basis of a system view of the railways: from the customer’s transportation needs that put demands on the wagons – the wagons are coupled together into trains where available tractive power is taken into account – the train utilises the infrastructure with a certain performance along a link and ultimately in a network from origin to destination. 

    In SP3 simulations and models to evaluate enhanced capacity has been investigated. The aim of this report is to analyse the possibilities to increase capacity for future freight trains 2030/2050. The capacity will be described in terms of

    •  Line capacity – the infrastructure described in

                   - The track system

                   - The signalling system

    • The train capacity – described in

                   - The locomotives and the tractive effort

                   - The wagon performance

    Capacity has then been evaluated for some scenarios and combinations of infrastructure and train performance and with examples of parameters from a rail freight corridor.

    The capacity of a single-track is highly dependent on the distance between the crossing stations and the trains’ speed. The shorter the distance between the crossing stations, the higher the capacity and faster trains means also higher capacity because they can reach the crossing stations faster.

    On a double-track line, the mix of trains operating at different speeds is of great importance as regards capacity. If slow trains, such as freight trains or regional trains, are mixed with express trains, capacity falls because the trains cannot overtake randomly. The trains can be slow because they stop at many stations (regional trains) or because they have a lower top speed (freight trains). 

    In practice, capacity for different track systems will be in the order of:

    • 2 trains/h single track with crossing stations every 20 km
    • 4 trains/h single track with crossing stations every 10 km
    • 10 trains/h double track with heterogeneous traffic
    • 15 trains/h High Speed Rail with stops and passing trains
    • 20 trains/h Double track with homogenous speed
    • 30 trains/h Metro or commuter trains with ideal operation
    • 40=20+20 trains/h four track or double track + high speed line

    Capacity can never be greater than the weakest link. Stations or nodes are often dimensioning factors when trains are to stop or brake to change tracks. The capacity will fall if there are many delays or disruptions in the operation.

    The signalling system is also important for capacity, especially on double track. The block lengths and the speed and acceleration and braking performance are important. In general, shorter block lengths will increase the capacity. Introduction of the European signalling system ERTMS level 2 can increase the capacity substantially only if the block lengths are shortened and optimized, se figure 2. The best solution is ERTMS level 3 with continuous blocks but this is not on the market yet.

    The capacity of the trains can be improved by:

    • Improved Locomotives

                   - Higher tractive effort

                   - Higher axle load and adhesive weight

    •  Improved wagons by

                   - Higher axle load and meter load

                   - Extended gauge

                   - Better length utilization

                   - Lighter wagons

                   - Higher speed

                   - Better braking systems

    • Longer trains and a combination of infrastructure and train performance

    Heavier trains can be operated if the fully potential of modern locomotives will be used with higher axle load and thereby adhesive weight. Many locomotives are optimized for fast passenger trains with low axle load. With track friendly bogies it will be possible to have the same axle load on the locomotives as for the wagons, 22.5 tonnes.

    Faster freight trains can increase capacity on day-time to get more slots between faster passenger trains and minimize overtaking. Even if faster trains are more costly the total cost can be lower with increased productivity when it is possible to get one more turn of a trainset or locomotive per day.

    Some calculations for different infrastructure and train scenarios for 2030/2050 for different train types are shown in figure 3. Train load has the biggest potential to increase capacity if infrastructure and trains can be adapted to the actual needs from the market. Wagon load also have a big potential but need implementation of an automatic couple if it shall develop instead of decrease. Inter modal trains have also a potential especially with longer trains but is restricted by the size of containers and trailers and also by the transferring costs at terminals.

    Longer trains are one of the most promising measures which can improve capacity rather much. In combination with improved locomotives, wagons and heavier trains the train capacity can be doubled. The line capacity will increase a little bit less because a longer train will block the line longer time, even with short block sections.

    Infrastructure investments as double track and new High Speed Lines are very costly and take long time to realize. Improvement of train performance as heavier and longer trains, maybe in combination with higher axle load and extended gauge, seems to have a big potential if we really will improve capacity for freight in a medium term perspective.

    Higher axle load in combination with extended gauge adapted to the actual needs on the market can improve capacity in the order of 10-20%, wagon improvements in the same order. Longer trains have the biggest potential a full step from 630 to 1050m will improve the line capacity with approximately 50%. ERTMS L-2 can improve capacity with approximately 40% with optimized block sections, more with continuous blocks as in ERTMS L-3. Because it is costly to shorten block lengths when introducing L-2 it is important to develop and introduce L-3 on the market.

    By combining these measures it is possible to double the freight transport capacity on given line or freight transport corridor if needed.

     

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Ricci, Stefano (Contributor)
    DICEA.
    Measurements for Intermodal Transport Chains: Capacity4Rail WP2.3.2, EC Contract No FP7- 6056502015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general framework will be based on infrastructure systems able to affect the demand behavior towards the stepwise satisfaction of EU targets for 2050.

    General and specific WP2.3 objectives will be the conceptual design of transshipment technologies and interchanges of the future (rail yards, intermodal terminals, shunting facilities, rail-sea ports, etc.), according to their role in co-modal transshipment to influence freight demand distribution, both by operation improvements and logistic leverages.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Idéstudie Citylogistik med Tomteboda som pilot: Ett långsiktigt hållbart transporsystem för Stockholmsregionen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholmsregionen har, och förväntas de närmaste decennierna få, en stark befolknings-tillväxt, varför trycket på att exploatera centrala områden blir allt större. En storstadsregion kräver också ett väl fungerande godstransportsystem. Det finns dock en tendens att terminaler lokaliseras allt längre ut från städerna med längre transportavstånd och ökad energiåtgång och utsläpp som följd.

    Tomteboda ligger idealiskt för godstransporter i korsningen mellan Ostkustbanan, Mälarbanan, Värtabanan och strax norr om Stockholm Central och i vägnätet mellan Essingeleden, Norra länken och andra vägar mot Stockholm, Solna och Sundbyberg. Tomteboda är lågt utnyttjat för godstransporter på järnväg i dag men skulle kunna vara en idealisk plats för ett logistikcentrum.

    Syftet med denna idéstudie är att undersöka möjligheterna att utnyttja Tomteboda för citylogistik med järnväg som bas. Genom att använda järnväg för fjärrtransport och köra godset så långt in i Stockholm som möjligt med tåg och sedan distribuera ut det på kortare avstånd med lastbil mot rusningsriktningen minskar såväl energiförbrukning som utsläpp och trängsel. Rätt utformat kan också transportkostnaderna minska i en framtid då vi sannolikt kommer att mötas av stigande energipriser.

    Tomteboda bangård ägs av Trafikverket och är ett riksintresse. Tomteboda har tidigare varit en stor bangård i vagnslastsystemet men är i dag bara en lokalbangård. Vagnslasttrafiken är i dag begränsad till ett par tåg per dag. I Trafikverkets planer ingår att ta bort rangervallen och i stället skapa längre spår för planväxling och tågbildning samt för hantering persontåg.

    Det finns en stor omlastningsterminal med spårhall som tidigare har använts för posthantering, men numera har privata ägare som söker nya hyresgäster. Den skulle vara idealisk för citylogistik. Spåren är numera överasfalterade och området används av lastbilar. Vidare finns områden där det har bedrivits kombiterminal, där det i dag sker lastning och lossning av vagnslaster, främst tunga byggelement. Denna verksamhet är viktig då det inte finns många platser i Stockholmsregionen där det kan göras. Flera industrispår har försvunnit på senare tid i samband med exploatering eller utbyggnad av spårsystemen för persontrafik.

    Det finns många andra anspråk på Tomteboda bangård, och på delar av bangården har spåren tagits bort och vissa områden har börjat användas för lastbilstrafik. Det är viktigt att säkerställa att dessa områden reserveras för framtida järnvägsbaserade transportsystem.

    Det finns också planer på att utnyttja Tomteboda bangård för persontrafik, främst vändning, furnering och uppställning av tåg. Rätt utformat bör det vara möjligt att kombinera med både den ordinarie godstrafiken och med tillkommande godståg för citylogistik. I den regionala utvecklingsplanen RUFS 2050 föreslås Årsta, Lunda/Spånga och Tomteboda som möjliga distributionscentra i Stockholm år 2050.

    En utvärdering av regional kombitrafik Rosersberg-Tomteboda visar en högre kostnad men lägre energiförbrukning och utsläpp än distribution med enbart lastbil. Kostnadsökningen för det bästa alternativet med horisontell överföring av 20 fots-containers med CCT-konceptet är dock bara 10 % samtidigt som energiförbrukning och utsläpp minskar med ca 50 % på den 3 mil långa sträckan. På längre avstånd, som Västerås-Tomteboda som är 10 mil, blir regional kombitrafik företagsekonomiskt lönsam för samtliga alternativ. Kostnaderna minskar med 12 % med konventionell kombi och 40 % med CCT samtidigt som energiförbrukningen minskar med 73 % och utsläppen med 87 %, se figur A. Här finns också ett stort trafikunderlag.

    Mot bakgrund av de analyser som gjorts av dagens och framtida behov av godstransporter i Stockholmsregionen och tillgängliga platser att långsiktigt bedriva terminalverksamhet förslås att Tomteboda utvecklas till en multi-modal terminal med järnvägen som bas. Det innebär att följande funktioner prioriteras:

    ·         Lossning och lastning av vagnslasttrafik för tunga transporter lokalt i Stockholm

    ·         Lastning och lossning av lätta containers för direkt distribution i Stockholm

    ·         Logistikverksamhet i den f.d. spårhallen för distribution i Stockholm

    Dessutom bör bangården utnyttjas som tågbildningspunkt med planväxling av godståg. Med rätt planering och utformning bör också bangården kunna användas för vändning, furnering och uppställning av persontåg. Årsta kan fungera parallellt med Tomteboda med nuvarande funktioner, främst kombiterminalen för tung kombitrafik och cross-dockning av enhetslaster.

    Ett terminalbolag bör bildas med Stockholms kommun som huvudägare som lägger ut terminalhantering och distribution med miljövänliga lastbilar – helst elbilar – på entreprenad. Dessa tjänster tillhandahålls konkurrensneutralt till alla kunder. Kommunen bör överväga att inrikta trängselavgifterna för lastbilar så att miljövänliga lösningar prioriteras. Trafikverket bör överväga att inrikta banavgifter och kapacitetstilldelning så att godståg till centrala terminaler prioriteras.

    Mot bakgrund av utvärderingen föreslås att två linjer utreds närmare med sikte på ett genomförande: Livsmedelspendeln Västerås-Bro-Tomteboda-Årsta och hamnskytteln Norvik-Jordbro-Årsta-Tomteboda-Rosersberg, se figur B. De kan var och en för sig få ett ganska stort trafikunderlag och kan också samverka. Vi tror att de skulle vara möjliga att få lönsamma och ge en betydande minskning av enregiförbrukning, utsläpp och trängsel. På sikt etableras Mälarslingan runt Mälaren med småskaliga helautomatiska terminaler. Då etableras ett system med:

    ·         Eldrivna godståg

    ·         Eldrivna distributionsbilar

    ·         Eldrivna terminaler

    ·         Minimal energiförbrukning

    ·         0-utsläpp

    Därmed är grunden lagd till ett långsiktigt hållbart transportsystem.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 30 of 30
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf