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  • 1.
    Alevanau, Aliaksandr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Kuznechik, Olgerd
    Belarussian State University.
    Vyhoniailo, Oleksandr
    Mechanically assisted low temperature pyrolysis of hydrocarbons2014In: Proceedings of the XVII International Conference Foundations & Advances in Nonlinear Science, September 29 - October 3, Minsk 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report experimental setups and conditions leading to pyrolysis (cracking) of such gaseous hydrocarbons as methane, mixed propane and butane, at the temper-atures of the heater below 200oC. The process was mechanically assisted by putting the substances being decomposed into a dynamic interaction with the tin and bismuth alloy. The alloy had periodically changing phase state thus creating fractal interfaces between its surface and the gases. Interaction of the gases with mechanically produced fractal surfaces of the alloy made possible gas decomposition even at lower temperatures of the heater (150oC). At this temperature the heater couldn't melt the alloy in the heated volume with the gas.

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  • 2.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Mathematical Modeling of Postcombustion in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)2019In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling was used to study the capability of postcombustion in an electric arc furnace (EAF) equipped with virtual lance burners. The CO flow rate at the molten bath surface was estimated using the off-gas data obtained close to the outlet of an EAF. Then, the effect of the secondary oxygen flow rate on postcombustion was studied. The results show a CO flow rate of 0.6 kgs(-1) and 0.8 kgs(-1) for operation modes of burner and burner + lancing. Increase of the secondary oxygen flow rates of 60% and 70% result in 17% and 7% increase in the postcombustion ratio (PCR) for the burner and burner lancing modes, respectively.

  • 3.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Modeling of post combustion inside the off-gas duct system of the Ovako electric arc furnace2014In: CDF 2014: 10th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 17-19 June 2014, Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the post combustion (PC) inside the duct system of an electric arc furnace (EAF), a three-dimensional computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) model was developed. The reactions between the off gas species (oxygen and hydrogen) and oxygen which leaked into the duct, through the air gap, was considered. The off-gas composition, the off –gas velocity and the outlet pressure were considered as parameters affecting the PC. The results showed that there was a considerable amount of the uncombusted CO to be captured. The highest CO concentration was found at the central part of the duct. The results also showed that a higher off-gas mass flow rate and a higher power of the outlet fan led to a higher combustion of CO and H2. An off-gas analysis probe was then installed after the air gap, where the tip of the probe was placed according to the predicted high CO concentration area found in the simulations. Thereafter, the measured off-gas composition was used to predict the off-gas composition at the outlet of the EAF.

  • 4.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Widlund, Ola
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mathematical Modeling of Scrap Melting in an EAF Using Electromagnetic Stirring2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling has been used to investigate the influence of electromagnetic stirring on melting of a single piece of scrap in an eccentric bottom tapping (EBT) electric arc furnace (EAF). The heat transfer and fluid flow in the melt for both conditions with and without electromagnetic stirring were studied. The buoyancy and electromagnetic forces were considered as the source terms for momentum transfer in the studied conditions. The enthalpy-porosity technique was applied to track the phase change of a scrap piece defined in the EBT region of the furnace. Different scrap sizes, preheating temperatures, stirring directions and force magnitudes were considered, and the heat transfer coefficient was estimated from the heat transfer rate at the melt-scrap interface. The results showed that electromagnetic stirring led to a reduced melting time and an increased heat transfer coefficient by a factor of four. The results for Nusselt number versus Grashof number for natural convection and Reynolds number for electromagnetic stirring were compared with those obtained through correlations from previous studies.

  • 5.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Par
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Effect of TurboSwirl Structure on an Uphill Teeming Ingot Casting Process2015In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 2652-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To produce high-quality ingot cast steel with a better surface quality, it would be beneficial for the uphill teeming process if a much more stable flow pattern could be achieved in the runners. Several techniques have been utilized in the industry to try to obtain a stable flow of liquid steel, such as a swirling flow. Some research has indicated that a swirl blade inserted in the horizontal and vertical runners, or some other additional devices and physics could generate a swirling flow in order to give a lower hump height, avoid mold flux entrapment, and improve the quality of the ingot products, and a new swirling flow generation component, TurboSwirl, was introduced to improve the flow pattern. It has recently been demonstrated that the TurboSwirl method can effectively reduce the risk of mold flux entrapment, lower the maximum wall shear stress, and decrease velocity fluctuations. The TurboSwirl is built at the elbow of the runners as a connection between the horizontal and vertical runners. It is located near the mold and it generates a tangential flow that can be used with a divergent nozzle in order to decrease the axial velocity of the vertical flow into the mold. This stabilizes flow before the fluid enters the mold. However, high wall shear stresses develop at the walls due to the fierce rotation in the TurboSwirl. In order to achieve a calmer flow and to protect the refractory wall, some structural improvements have been made. It was found that by changing the flaring angle of the divergent nozzle, it was possible to lower the axial velocity and wall shear stress. Moreover, when the vertical runner and the divergent nozzle were not placed at the center of the TurboSwirl, quite different flow patterns could be obtained to meet to different requirements. In addition, the swirl numbers of all the cases mentioned above were calculated to ensure that the swirling flow was strong enough to generate a swirling flow of the liquid steel in the TurboSwirl.

  • 6.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Numerical study of an application of a divergent reverse TurboSwirl nozzle in the billet continuous casting process2019In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The swirling flow has widely been investigated for liquid steel flowing in the continuous casting process. In this paper, a new design of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) is applied by using a reverse TurboSwirl device with a divergent nozzle. This divergent reverse TurboSwirl nozzle (DRTSN) is shown to gain a more beneficial flow pattern compared to the straight nozzle. A stronger swirling flow can be obtained at the SEN outlet, which leads to a calmer flow field and an appropriately active meniscus flow that could improve the heat and mass transfer near the meniscus. The swirl number in the SEN is independent of the casting speed, while a lower casting speed yields a lower maximum wall shear stress. The DRTSN is connected to the tundish by an elbow and a horizontal runner. A longer horizontal runner supplies a more uniform velocity profile and a more symmetrical flow pattern.

  • 7.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The physical and mathematical modelling of swirling flow by turboswirl in an uphill teeming ingot casting process2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, ICS 2015, Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, p. 473-476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ingot casting is widely used to produce some certain specialty steel grades. During the process of teeming the liquid steel from the ladle to the mould for a final solidification, the high velocity of the liquid steel can result in an uneven flow pattern either in the vertical and horizontal runners or in the mould. This can cause some serious problems, such as a high erosion of refractory walls or a mould flux entrapment. Here, some research indicate that a swirling flow is beneficial for making the flow pattern even and for reducing turbulence in the runners. Recently, a new swirling flow generation component, TurboSwirl, was applied to improve the flow pattern of the liquid steel as it flows into the mould so that a more stable flow could be obtained. The TurboSwirl is located on the intersection of the horizontal and vertical runners near the mould. It generates a tangential flow that can be used with an expanding nozzle with a flaring angle in order to decrease the vertical flow velocity. Moreover, a mathematical model has been developed to optimize the geometry of the physical model. The results shows that a much more beneficial flow pattern can be obtained by reducing the flaring angle or moving the vertical runner to an off-center position of the TurboSwirl, according to the numerical models. Therefore, a water modelling experiment was built, including the TurboSwirl, one mould and the runners. Tracers will be mixed into the water to detect the flow pattern and the velocity of the fluid would be recorded by a digital motion analysis recorder for later analysis. Firstly, different flaring angles of the expanding nozzle were simulated and compared. The results could supply a good support to the following water modelling experiments and to prove that the TurboSwirl setup produces a much calmer initial filling of the mould, compared to a conventional setup.

  • 8.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    An Experimental and Numerical Study of Swirling Flow Generated by TurboSwirl in an Uphill Teeming Ingot Casting Process2016In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 1404-1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A swirling flow has been demonstrated to be beneficial for making the flow pattern even and to reduce turbulence during filling in ingot casting. A new swirling flow generation device, TurboSwirl, was applied to improve the flow pattern of the liquid steel as it flows into the mold so that a more stable flow could be obtained. A water model was built including the TurboSwirl with different flaring angles of the divergent nozzle, according to a former numerical study indicating that a much more beneficial flow pattern could be obtained by reducing the flaring angle. To validate the mathematical model, the air-core vortex formed in the water model experiment was used, and the length of the vortex was measured and compared to the numerical predictions. Different turbulence models including the standard k-epsilon, realizable k-epsilon and Reynolds stress model were tested. It was found that only the Reynolds stress model could most accurately simulate the high swirling flow including a vortex. In addition, the radial velocity of the water around the vortex was measured by an ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP). The experimental results revealed a high turbulence of the swirling flow and strong fluctuations of the vortex. The radial velocity of the water around the upper part of the vortex could be predicted well compared to the experimental results by the UVP measurements.

  • 9.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Experimental Validation and Numerical Analysis of the Swirling Flow in a Submerged Entry Nozzle and Mold by using a Reverse TurboSwirl in a Billet Continuous Casting Process2016In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to some traditional methods to generate a swirling flow in the continuous casting process, the use of a new swirling flow generator, TurboSwirl, was studied. Specifically, a reversed TurboSwirl device was designed as part of a submerged entry nozzle (SEN) for a round billet continuous casting process. Mathematical modelling was used to investigate this new design and a water model experiment was carried out to validate the mathematical model. The predicted velocities by the turbulence models: realizable k-ε model, Reynold stress model (RSM) and detached eddy simulation (DES) were compared to the measured results from an ultrasound velocity profile (UVP) method. The DES model could give the best prediction inside the SEN and had a deviation less than 3.1% compared to the measured results. Moreover, based on the validated mathematical model and the new design of the SEN, the effect of the swirling flow generated by the reverse TurboSwirl on the flow field of the SEN and mold was compared to the design of the electromagnetic swirl flow generator (EMSFG). A very strong swirling flow in the SEN and a stable flow pattern in the mold could be obtained by the reverse TurboSwirl compared to the EMSFG. 

  • 10.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Numerical Study of the Application for the Divergent Reverse TurboSwirl Nozzle in the Billet Continuous Casting ProcessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The swirling flow is demanded from the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) to the mold for the continuous casting process. A new design of the SEN is applied by using the reverse TurboSwirl. The TurboSwirl has been proved that it can provide a more stable flow pattern of the liquid steel in the mold. It also can supply a strong enough swirling flow compared to other swirling flow generation methods. Furthermore, a divergent nozzle is added to replace the bottom part of the straight SEN. This new divergent reverse TurboSwirl nozzle (DRTSN) could gain a more beneficial flow pattern in the mold compared to the straight nozzle. The numerical results reveals that a stronger swirling flow can be gained at the SEN outlet with a calmer flow field and active meniscus flow. It is also found that the swirl intensity in the SEN is independent of the casting speed. Lower casting speed is more desired due to a lower maximum wall shear stress. The DRTSN is connected to the tundish by an elbow and a horizontal runner. Longer horizontal runner can supply a more uniform velocity profile and symmetrical flow pattern in the mold. 

  • 11.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    Northeastern Univ, Sch Met, Key Lab Ecol Met Multimet Intergrown Ores, Educ Minist, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning, Peoples R China.;Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Dept Mat & Mfg Sci, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan..
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, Tingan
    Northeastern Univ, Sch Met, Key Lab Ecol Met Multimet Intergrown Ores, Educ Minist, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Effect of swirling flow tundish submerged entry nozzle outlet design on multiphase flow and heat transfer in mould2019In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effect of a swirling flow SEN (submerged entry nozzle) outlet design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mould was investigated by using numerical simulation. It was found that different SEN outlet designs could form different flow patterns and temperature distributions on the upper of the mould. The enlarged outlet SEN design had an effect to decrease the horizontal velocity of liquid steel flowing out the SEN outlet, reducing the steel flow velocity towards the solidification front. Although a higher velocity was found near the slag/steel interface with the enlarged outlet SEN, but the turbulent kinetic energy was lower. The reason was that less circulation flows were formed in the region of the mould top. The weak horizontal flow towards the solidification front with the enlarged outlet SEN induced lower wall shear stresses, at the same time it also formed a lower temperature distribution near the solidified shell.

  • 12.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Andersson, Nils A. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Imris, Matej
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Experimental Determinations of Mixing Times in the IronArc Pilot Plant Process2019In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IronArc is a newly developed technology and an emerging future process for pig iron production. The long-term goal with this technology is to reduce the CO2 emissions and energy consumption compared to existing technologies. The production rate of this process is dependent on the stirring, which was investigated in the pilot plant process by measuring the mixing time in the slag bath. Moreover, slag investigations were done both based on light optical microscope studies as well as by Thermo-Calc calculations in order to determine the phases of the slag during operation. This was done because the viscosity (which is another important parameter) is dependent on the liquid and solid fractions of the slag. The overall results show that it was possible to determine the mixing time by means of the addition of a tracer (MnO2 powder) to the slag. The mixing time for the trials showed that the slag was homogenized after seconds. For two of the trials, homogenization had already been reached in the second sample after tracer addition, which means <= 8 s. The phase analysis from the slag indicated that the slag is in a liquid state during the operation of the process.

  • 13.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Imris, Matej
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Importance of the Penetration Depth and Mixing in the IRONARC Process2018In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1210-1217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important parameters for gas injection into liquid baths is the penetration depth of the gas into the bath. This is due to that it strongly influences the flow structure and hence the stirring and plume behavior in metallurgical processes. The IRONARC process is a new energy efficient process for reduction of iron oxide to produce pig iron. The future goal is to continuously scale up the process to an industrial scale from the current pilot scale. In this process, gas is injected horizontally through a submerged nozzle into a slag bath. Hence, the penetration depth is of great importance since it greatly affect several parameters in this process. Moreover, this information is essential when scaling up the reactor from a pilot scale to an industrial scale. In this work, the penetration depth of gas injection into water in a small scale side blown converter was studied numerically. Two different approaches with different multiphase models were tested, namely the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model and Eulerian multiphase model (EE). The penetration depth could be accurately determined for both numerical models, with a small expected deviation of 13.9% from the physical experiment results. Also, the simulation time was shorter for the Eulerian multiphase model. The penetration depth was then determined for the IRONARC pilot plant process. The results show that the plume is detached from the nozzle wall, which in turn results in a better energy usage of the gas along with a small refractory wear.

  • 14.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Swartling, Maria
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Physical Modeling Study on the Mixing in the New IronArc Process2018In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, no 7, article id 1700555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IronArc is a newly developed technology for pig iron production with the aim to reduce the CO2 emission and energy consumption, compared to a conventional blast furnace route. In order to understand the fluid flow and stirring in the IronArc reactor, water modeling experiments are performed. Specifically, a down scaled acrylic plastic model of the IronArc pilot plant reactor is used to investigate the mixing phenomena and gas penetration depth in the liquid bath. The mixing time is determined by measuring the conductivity in the bath, after a sodium chloride solution is added. Moreover, the penetration depth is determined by analyzing the pictures obtained during the experimental process by using both a video camera and a high speed camera. The results show that the bath movements are strong and that a circular movement of the surface is present. The mixing in the model for the flow rate of 282 NLmin(-1) is fast. Specifically, the average mixing times are 7.6 and 10.2s for a 95% and a 99% homogenization degree, respectively. This is 15% and 18% (per degree of homogenization) faster compared to the case when using 3 gas inlets and the same flow rate.

  • 15.
    Chanouian, Serg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Ahlin, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    A Fundamental Investigation of Decarburization Reactions in the Argon–Oxygen Decarburization Converter Using Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Databases2022In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 93, no 12, article id 2200156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallurgical converters such as the argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) converter generally utilize gas blowing for the mixing and refinement of liquid steel. Due to the harsh environment of the complex and opaque system, it is common practice to study the stirring of the process through physical and numerical models. Effective mixing in the bath has an important role in refinement such as decarburization and has been vividly studied before. However, high-temperature chemical reactions that also play a major role are sparsely investigated. With the help of modeling, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with chemical reactions is developed, allowing the study of both dynamic fluid transport and chemical reactions. Herein, the chemical reactions for a single gas bubble in the AOD are investigated. The study shows that a 60 mm oxygen gas bubble rapidly reacts with the melt and is saturated with carbon in 0.2–0.25 s at low-pressure levels. The saturation time is affected by the pressure and the composition of the injected gas bubble. The impact of ferrostatic pressure on the reactions is more significant at larger depth differences. 

  • 16.
    Chanouian, Serg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Ahlin, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Inclination Effect on Mixing Time in a Gas–Stirred Side–Blown Converter2021In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 92, no 10, p. 2100044-, article id 2100044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale physical models are commonly used to investigate gas-stirred processes in steelmaking practice. The argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) converter is among various processes widely used in the metallurgy field and utilizes side blowing of oxygen and inert gas for mixing in the bath. Herein, the effect of the converter inclination on mixing time and jet-penetration length with a side-blown physical model is investigated. Scaling with the modified Froude number is applied on data from a real industrial AOD converter to achieve a system with reasonable gas flow rates. During the experiments, water is used to simulate liquid steel and air is blown through side-mounted nozzles for stirring. A NaCl tracer is added and subsequent conductivity measurements are used to measure mixing time. Overall, the penetration length is shown to be independent of inclination angle. The mixing time is found to be influenced by the change of bath height to diameter ratio, change of geometry in the bath volume, gas flow rate, and the intensified wave motion at the interface caused by the inclination of the vessel. The mixing time increase with 14% when 14° angle is applied.

  • 17.
    Chanouian, Serg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Larsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    The Importance of Mixing Time in Intensely Stirred Metallurgical Reactors: Applied on Decarburization Reactions2023In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Metals, E-ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 10, article id 1694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In metallurgical converter processes, numerical modeling is a useful tool for understanding the complexity of the systems. In this paper, we present a practical model that couples fluid dynamics and chemical reactions to explore the impact of mixing time on decarburization. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), in this study, we investigate an arbitrary metallurgical reactor with continuous oxygen supply, focusing on the Fe–C–O system. The model employs local equilibrium, a turbulence limiter, and finite volume method for mass, momentum, and energy transfer. Tracer injection points in the gas plume’s rising region exhibit faster mixing, and a comparison of reaction cases reveals distinct decarburization rates based on oxygen injection distribution and the influence of turbulence on reactions. Overall, while mixing time matters, the results show that this system is primarily governed by thermodynamics and oxygen supply, and a 270% increase in mixing time increase had a small impact on the end carbon content.

  • 18.
    Chanouian, Serg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Pitkala, Jyrki
    Outokumpu Stainless AB.
    Larsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Structures.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Modelling Decarburization in the AOD Converter: A Practical CFD-Based Approach with Chemical ReactionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas blowing technology is widely used in converter steelmaking to homogenize liquid steel and accelerate chemical reactions, with Argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) being the dominant process for stainless steelmaking. Due to the harsh environment, it is advisable to study the phenomenon using small-scale physical models and numerical simulations before conducting industrial-scale trials. This paper presents a practical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach for simulating the AOD process, with chemical reactions considered. This approach can simulate the entire process in a reasonable time using a standard workstation. The simulation employs a Finite Volume Method CFD approach to handle mass, momentum and energy transfer, and a local equilibrium assumption is utilized. The study shows that a practical approach can be used to model the initial stage of decarburization in the AOD process with a reduced accuracy in mass transport calculations. The accuracy of the simulation is validated using industrial data, and good agreement is found.

  • 19.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Colocated pressure-velocity coupling in finite difference methods2019In: Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, ISSN 1468-4349, E-ISSN 1741-5233, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method to be used for colocated pressure-velocity coupling in incompressible flows is presented with a full derivation. A number of standard test cases are shown that demonstrate the ability of the method to produce accurate results. The method avoids spurious pressure oscillations while keeping the pressure Poisson equation stencil compact. This is obtained by discretising the continuity and pressure derivatives with first order differences with opposite directions, i.e., backward difference for continuity and forward difference for pressure (BCFP). The equations are also approximated using a forward difference for continuity and a backward difference for pressure (FCBP). In order to obtain a second order approximation the mean between BCFP and FCBP is used, i.e., a central difference. The paper gives a useful alternative to existing methods for pressure-velocity coupling in finite difference methods in which a staggered arrangement is not desirable.

  • 20.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Fundamental Experimental and Numerical Investigation Focusing on the Initial Stage of a Top-Blown Converter Process2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis work is to increase the knowledge of phenomena taking place during the initial stage in a top blown converter. The work has been done in a few steps resulting in four different supplements. Water model experiments have been carried out using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology. The system investigated was a fundamental top blown converter where an air jet was set to impinge on a water surface. The flow field of the combined blown case, where an air jet was introduced through a bottom nozzle, was also captured by the PIV. The work clearly showed that the flow field caused by an impinging top blown jet alone could not match that of the bottom blown case. The main re-circulation loop (or vortex) was investigated with respect to position and it was found that an increased flow rate pushes the center of the re-circulation loop downwards into the bath. However, for the top-blown case there is a point when the flow rate is too large to cause a distinguishable re-circulation loop since the jet becomes more plunging (i.e. penetrates deep into the bath) than impinging, with large surface agitation and splashing as a result.A numerical model with the same dimensions as the experimental system was then created. Three different turbulence models from the same family were tested: standard-, realizable- and a modified-(slight modification of one of the coefficients in order to produce less spreading of the air jet) k-ε turbulence model. It could be shown that for the family of k-ε turbulence models the difference in penetration depth was small and that the values corresponded well to literature data. However, when it comes to the position of the re-circulation loop it was shown that the realizable k-ε model produced better results when comparing the results to the experimental data produced from the PIV measurements, mentioned earlier.It was then shown how the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model could be coupled to thermodynamics databases in order to solve for both reactions and transport in the system. Instead of an air-water system, a gas-steel-slag system was created using the knowledge obtained in the previous simulation step described above. Reactions between gas-steel, gas-slag, steel-slag and gas-steel-slag were considered. Extrapolation of data from a few seconds of simulation was used for comparison to experimental data from the literature and showed reasonable agreement. The overall conclusion was that it is possible to make a coupling of the Thermo-Calc databases and a CFD software to make dynamic simulations of metallurgical processes such as a top-blown converter.A parametric study was then undertaken where two different steel grades were tested; one with high initial carbon content (3.85 mass-%) and one with lower carbon content (0.5 mass-%). The initial silicon content was held constant at 0.84 mass-%. Different initial temperatures were tested and also some variation in initial dissolved oxygen content was tried. It was found that the rate of decarburization/desiliconization was influenced by the temperature and carbon concentration in the melt, where a high temperature as well as a high carbon concentration favors decarburization over desiliconization. It was also seen that the region affected by a lower concentration of alloys (or impurities) was quite small close to the axis where the impinging jet hits the bath. Add the oscillating nature of the cavity and it was realized that sampling from this region during an experiment might be quite difficult.

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  • 21.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Höglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Dynamic Coupling of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Software: Applied on a Top Blown Converter2008In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel modeling approach is presented where a computational fluid dynamics software is coupled to thermodynamic databases to obtain dynamic simulations of metallurgical process phenomena. The modeling approach has been used on a fundamental model of a top-blown converter. Reactions between gas-steel, gas-slag, steel-slag and gas-steel-slag have been considered. The results show that the mass transport in the surface area is totally controlled by convection. Also, that a large amount of CO produced during the decarburization might slow down the rate of decarburization in droplets ejected from the bath. For the present simulation conditions reflecting laboratory experiments, it was also seen that the amount of slag (FeO and/or SiO2) created is close to zero, i.e. only gas (CO+CO2) is created as the oxygen jet hits the steel bath. It was also illustrated how an extrapolation of the decarburization rate, sampled from a few seconds of simulation, could be done to get a rough estimate of the carbon content at a later stage in the process as long as the carbon content is relatively high. The overall conclusion is that it is possible to make a dynamic coupling of the Thermo-Calc databases and a CFD software to make dynamic simulations of metallurgical processes such as a top-blown converter.

  • 22.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Höglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Dynamic Modeling of Steel, Slag and Gas Reactions during Initial Blowing in a Top-Blown Converter2008In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic modeling approach is presented where a computational fluid dynamics software is coupled to a thermodynamics software to obtain simulations of reactions between steel, slag and gas in a top-blown converter. For each simulation the transport of momentum, energy and mass of species as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium in each cell containing at least two phases was treated. The overall conclusion is that the present calculation procedure is successful for dynamic simulations of interaction between an oxygen gas jet with a melt and a slag. The predicted rate of decarburization was found to agree well with experimental data from laboratory trials. In addition, four cases where simulated for which the temperature, the dissolved carbon content and the dissolved oxygen content were varied. The most important findings from these comparisons were that: i) a higher initial oxygen concentration in the melt yields a larger decarburization rate, ii) carbon content also plays a big role for the desiliconization where a low carbon content is required for desiliconization to take place, iii) decarburization and desiliconization is largely influenced by the temperature at which reactions take place, where low temperature favors desiliconization and iv) the region affected by a lower carbon/silicon concentration (hot-spot region) directly below the jet was approximately 10 mm for the current setup.

  • 23.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Höglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Dynamic modelling of steel, slag and gas during initial blowing in a top-blown converter2011In: Steel Grips - Journal of Steel and Related Materials, ISSN 1611-4442, E-ISSN 1866-8453, no 9, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermodynamics has recently been done. In the current model improvement, a more realistic model was developed, where the numbers of gas species and slag phases were increased. For each simulation the transport of momentum, energy and mass of species as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium in each cell containing at least two phases was treated. Read how this calculation procedure can handle dynamic simulations of interaction between an oxygen gas jet, a melt and a slag. How is the agreement between the predicted rate of decarburization and experimental data? Which findings were achieved from the simulation of four cases varying the temperature, the dissolved carbon content and the dissolved oxygen content?

  • 24.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Review on CFD Simulation and Modeling of Decarburization Processes2018In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, no 1, article id UNSP 1700108Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, a number of CFD models have been dedicated to increasing the understanding of the decarburization processes in steelmaking. However, these processes are highly complex with large variations in time and length, and this makes the systems extremely demanding to simulate. Several reports have been published where parts of the processes have been investigated numerically, but to date no models have been presented that can handle the entire complexity of the processes. Here, a review of the research performed on the subject from 1998 to 2016 is given. A table summarizing the models used and the key focus of the studies is given, and it can be concluded that the effort put in so far to investigate the decarburization in steelmaking is substantial, but not complete. The currently available numerical models give an insight into process parameters such as reactions, mixing time, temperature distribution and thermal losses, off-gas post combustion and de-dusting, and also nozzle configuration. With the recent developments in numerical modeling and the increase in hardware capability, the future of simulation and modeling of the decarburization processes in steelmaking seems bright.

  • 25.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Iguchi, Manabu
    Hokkaido Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Div Mat Sci & Engn.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Fluid Flow in a Combined Top and Bottom Blown Reactor2006In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1137-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical modeling was done to study the flow field in a cylindrical bath agitated by bottom purging, top lance blowing and a combination of both injection types. A particle image velocimetry (PIV) system has been used to capture the velocity field of all three cases mentioned above. Special attention was paid to the recirculation loop. Top blowing creates a re-circulation loop in a relatively small volume close to the surface, compared to bottom- and combined-blowing. Increasing bottom flow rate moves the center of the re-circulation loop downwards into the liquid. When top blowing is combined with bottom blowing the center of the re-circulation loop is moved downwards into the liquid with increasing top lance flow rate.

  • 26.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    A Mathematical Model of an Impinging Air Jet on a Water Surface2008In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental mathematical model of the flow field and surface deformation caused by an impinging jet in a top blown reactor has been developed. The results have been validated against water model experiments. More specifically, the predicted penetration depth has been found to agree well with surface deformation measurements and predictions using analytical equations. Furthermore, the predictions of the location of a vortex have been found to agree fairly well with PIV measurements. Calculations were also done to compare the widely used standard k-ε model against the realizable extension of the standard k-ε model to calculate the turbulent conditions of the flow. It was found that the penetration depth caused by the impinging jet on the liquid surface is relatively unaffected by the choice of turbulence model employed. However, when the main re-circulation loop in the bath was investigated there was a clear distinction in the flow fields produced when the two different turbulence models were used.

  • 27.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Coupled thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of a top-blown bath2006In: Sohn International Symposium Advanced Processing of Metals and Materials, Vol 2: Thermo And Physicochemical Principles: Iron And Steel Making / [ed] Kongoli, F; Reddy, RG, 2006, p. 271-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental mathematical model of lance blowing on a bath surface has been developed with a purpose to increase the understanding of various phenomena in top blown oxygen converters. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence is predicted using the k-epsilon model. In the present model the deformation of the liquid surface, caused by the impinging gas jet, is described using a VOF formulation. The mathematical model results have been verified by comparing predicted penetration-depth data with experimental results from physical model trials. The fluid dynamic modeling has also been coupled with the thermodynamic modeling to predict the reaction rate/distribution occurring in the vessel. The focus has been on carbon and a qualitative comparison of the predicted carbon content in the hot spot area and in droplets with experimental data from laboratory trials has been done.

  • 28. Khodabandeh, E.
    et al.
    Akbari, O. A.
    Akbari, S.
    Taghizadeh, A.
    Saffari Pour, Mohsen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    The effects of oil/MWCNT nanofluids and geometries on the solid oxide fuel cell cooling systems: a CFD study2020In: Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry (Print), ISSN 1388-6150, E-ISSN 1588-2926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this numerical study, the variations in the surface area of the cooling channels in a solid oxide fuel cell with different cross sections and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oil/MWCNT nanofluid volume fractions are considered. Rectangular, trapezoidal and elliptical cross sections, and nanofluid volume fractions of 0–6% for the fluid are chosen as the studied parameters as well as the mass flow rates. In this research, a 3D model is developed by the finite volume method using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Then, the flow field and the heat transfer rate are predicted. The results show that the dissipated heat in the fuel cell is dependent on the mass flow rate of the fluid. That increased heat increases the heat transfer rate. The presence of the solid particles can also reinforce the heat conduction of the coolant fluid and consequently improve the heat transfer performance. The pumping power is maximum for the highest mass flow rate and the highest solid nanoparticle volume fractions. Additionally, the pumping power is dependent on the route in which the sections with lowest momentum changes and lowest pressure drops have the least amount of the pumping power. The ratio of the dissipated heat by the nanofluid over the base fluid is compared to a pressure drop. The movement of flow with the lower mass flow rates will result in penetrations of the thermal boundary layers into different flow regions, which can increase the optimum temperature in the solid part of the fuel cell. By increasing the mass flow rate of the fluid passing through the channels from 0.002 to 0.004 kg s−1, the maximum temperature is decreased by 6.13, 3.34 and 6.35% for rectangular, trapezoidal and elliptical channels, respectively. 

  • 29. Khodabandeh, E.
    et al.
    Moghadasi, H.
    Saffari Pour, Mohsen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Rosen, M. A.
    Rahbari, A.
    CFD study of non-premixed swirling burners: Effect of turbulence models2020In: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1004-9541, E-ISSN 2210-321X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1029-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates a numerical simulation of swirling turbulent non-premixed combustion. The effects on the combustion characteristics are examined with three turbulence models: namely as the Reynolds stress model, spectral turbulence analysis and Re-Normalization Group. In addition, the P-1 and discrete ordinate (DO) models are used to simulate the radiative heat transfer in this model. The governing equations associated with the required boundary conditions are solved using the numerical model. The accuracy of this model is validated with the published experimental data and the comparison elucidates that there is a reasonable agreement between the obtained values from this model and the corresponding experimental quantities. Among different models proposed in this research, the Reynolds stress model with the Probability Density Function (PDF) approach is more accurate (nearly up to 50%) than other turbulent models for a swirling flow field. Regarding the effect of radiative heat transfer model, it is observed that the discrete ordinate model is more precise than the P-1 model in anticipating the experimental behavior. This model is able to simulate the subcritical nature of the isothermal flow as well as the size and shape of the internal recirculation induced by the swirl due to combustion. 

  • 30.
    Khodabandeh, Erfan
    et al.
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Tehran Polytech, Mech Engn Dept, 424 Hafez Ave,POB 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran..
    Akbari, Omid Ali
    Islamic Azad Univ, Young Researchers & Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Khomeinishahr, Iran..
    Toghraie, Davood
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Khomeinishahr Branch, Khomeinishahr 84175119, Iran..
    Saffari Pour, Mohsen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science. Sharif Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Numerical investigation of thermal performance augmentation of nanofluid flow in microchannel heat sinks by using of novel nozzle structure: sinusoidal cavities and rectangular ribs2019In: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 41, no 10, article id UNSP 443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a numerical simulation of a laminar, steady and Newtonian flow of f-graphene nanoplatelet/water nanofluid in a new microchannel design with factors for increasing heat transfer such as presence of ribs, curves to enable satisfactory fluid mixing and changing fluid course at the inlet and exit sections. The results of this study show that Nusselt number is dependent on nanoparticles concentration, inlet geometry and Reynolds number. As the nanofluid concentration increases from 0 to 0.1% and Reynolds number from 50 to 1000, the Nusselt number enhances nearly up to 3% for increase in fluid concentration and averagely from 15.45 to 54.1 and from 14.5 to 55.9 for geometry with and without rectangular rib, respectively. The presence of ribs in the middle section of microchannel and curves close to hot walls causes a complete mixing of the fluid in different zones. When the nanoparticles concentration is increased, the pressure drop and velocity gradient will become higher. An increased concentration of nanoparticles in contribution with higher Reynolds numbers only increases the fraction factor slightly. (The fraction factor increases nearly 37% and 35% for Re = 50 and 1000, respectively.) The highest uniform temperature distribution can be found in the first zones of fluid in the microchannel and by further movement of fluid toward exit section, because of decreasing difference between surface and fluid temperature, the growth of temperature boundary layer increases and results in non-uniformity in temperature distribution in microchannel and cooling fluid. With decrease in the concentration from 0 to 0.1%, the average outlet temperature and FOM decrease nearby 0.62% and 6.15, respectively.

  • 31.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bai, Haitong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Liu, Heping
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Gan, Yong
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Physical and Numerical Modelling on the Mixing Condition in a 50 t Ladle2019In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bubbly flow and mixing conditions for gas stirring in a 50t ladle were investigated by using physical modelling and mathematical modelling. In the physical modelling, the effect of the porous plugs' configurations on the tracer homogenization was studied by using a saturated NaCl solution to predict the mixing time and a color dye to show the mixing pattern. In the mathematical modelling, the Euler-Lagrange model and species transport model were used to predict the flow pattern and tracer homogenization, respectively. The results show that, for a +/- 5% homogenization degree, the mixing time with dual plugs using a radial angle of 180 degrees is shortest. In addition, the mixing time using a radial angle of 135 degrees decreases the most with an increased flow rate. The flow pattern and mixing conditions predicted by mathematical modelling agree well with the result of the physical modelling. For a +/- 1% homogenization degree, the influence of the tracer's natural convection on its homogenization pattern cannot be neglected. This is especially true for a 'soft bubbling' case using a low gas flow rate. Overall, it is recommended that large radial angles in the range of 135 degrees 180 degrees are chosen for gas stirring in the present study when using dual porous plugs.

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  • 32.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Glaser, Bjoern
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Nils A. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Decarburization in an Electric Arc Furnace using Coupled Fluid dynamics and ThermodynamicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled method of Fluid dynamics and Thermodynamics, named as Multi-zone Reaction Model, was established to simulate the flow pattern with bottom oxygen injection in a 145t electric arc furnace. The simulated maximum hot spot temperature and decarburization rate in the refining phase were compared against the data measured in the industrial operation. Moreover, the physical modeling was carried out to study the effect of nozzle size on the flow characteristics in the reaction zone. The results show, under high flow rates, the effect of nozzle size on the flow field in the reaction zone of the plume area can be neglected. The decarburization rate and hot spot temperature predicted by the modeling are consistent with the industrial measurements. The maximum hot spot temperature gradually decreases during the refining phase. The oxygen flow rate has a significant influence on the decarburization rate, hot spot temperature and average steel temperature. In terms of combined injection of O2 and inert argon gas, for a certain O2 flow rate, the decarburization rate increases due to the efficient mass transfer of carbon in the molten steel. Furthermore, for the replacement of argon using CO2, it is demonstrated that as the ratio of CO2 mass fraction increases from 0% to 40%, the maximum hot spot temperature decrease with the value of 570K, and the increment rate of average steel temperature, and the decarburization rate in the molten steel decrease with the ratio of 68%, and 81%, respectively. The endothermic reaction of CO2 with the molten steel results in a temperature drop in the plume above the hot spot zone.

  • 33.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Heping, Liu
    Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Beijing 100081, P. R. China..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yong, Gan
    Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Beijing 100081, P. R. China..
    Influence of Plug Design on Bubble Injection Characteristics in Ladle MetallurgyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bubble characteristic created during bottom injection in a ladle has been studied using physical modeling and mathematical modeling. The width of central plume, statistical number of bubbles, and the periodic behavior of bubble injection have been compared using a slot plug and three porous plugs with various porosities. Furthermore, the effect of the plug’s permeability on the plume structure and bubble size distribution has been predicted using the Eulerian Multiphase Model and Population Balance Model. The results show that, for the bottom blowing using a slot plug, an increased flow rate will not change the gas-liquid plume width significantly, but lead to an increased periodic behavior of bubble’s statistic amount. For the bottom blowing using porous plug, an increased flow rate results in a wider central plume, but no obvious change of the periodic characteristic of bubbles. The effect of porosity on the bubble behavior was also studied. As the porosity increases, the volume fraction of gas and the average size of bubbles at the central plume zone increases, and the width of two-phase plume decreases. Moreover, the results predicted by the mathematical modeling are consistent with those from the physical modeling. The difference between a slot plug and a porous plug in industrial applications has been analyzed theoretically. The results show that it is more beneficial to use the slot plug to create strong stirring and to reach beneficial desulfurization condition nearby the open eye, and to use the porous plug for the inclusion removal.

  • 34.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hulme-Smith, Christopher
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Heping
    Central Iron & Steel Research Institute, 76 Xueyuan Nanlu, Beijing 100081, P. R. China..
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    An Experimental and Mathematical Work on Single Bubble Behavior under Reduced PressureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During secondary steelmaking, argon bubbles are often passed through molten steel to ensure a clean and homogeneous product. The behavior of the bubbles and the capacity of the bubbles to stir the melt and remove impurities depends on their size, shape, and velocity. These factors depend on the ambient pressure of the melt, the temperature and flow rate of the gas and the geometry of the gas nozzles. There have been many studies that investigate the behavior of bubbles when the melt is under atmospheric pressure, but few when the melt is held under vacuum. This makes it difficult to optimize the argon blowing process. The current study addresses this lack of knowledge by studying bubble behavior when the melt is under vacuum. Physical modeling was used to analyze the effects of the reduced pressure and nozzle diameter on the bubbles’ initial diameter and ascent behavior in a molten steel. Moreover, a multiphase fluid dynamics solver for compressible fluids called ‘compressibleInterFoam’ was validated and used. Increasing the flow rate leads to larger initial bubble diameters and more frequent bubble formation, and increasing the nozzle diameter leads to larger initial bubble diameters and less frequent bubble formation. Decreasing the subjected pressure causes the bubble diameter to increase substantially but bubbles to form less frequently. For flow rates in the range of 5.0(mL·min-1)STP to 2000(mL·min-1)STP, the bubble diameter ranges from 6.0mm to 20.0mm. The frequency of bubble generation initially increases with flow rate before reaching a constant value. During the ascent, a bubble will shed several small bubbles at the bottom to reach a constant shape. In the steel-argon system, under laminar flow conditions, the maximum bubble width under a pressure of 0.2bar is 65mm and is 58mm under a pressure of 2.0bar. As the surrounding pressure increases, the maximum size of the bubble under the steady condition will decrease. These findings can be used to determine the bubble behaviors and to optimize the conditions of argon blowing to produce steel that is sufficiently clean, while minimizing argon usage.

  • 35.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Liu, H.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Gan, Y.
    Reply to the Discussion on “A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy”2020In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 1847-1850Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Liu, Heping
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Gan, Yong
    Comparison of Euler-Euler Approach and Euler–Lagrange Approach to Model Gas Injection in a Ladle2019In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 90, no 5, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas injection in a ladle using a porous plug is simulated using both the Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange approaches. The effects of various forces, bubble sizes, and bubble injection frequencies on the flow pattern are modeled. For predicting axial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy, the Euler-Lagrange approach fits better than Euler-Euler approach with the measured data. In the Euler-Euler approach, differences in axial velocities and turbulent kinetic energies for various bubble sizes mainly appears in the plume zone. In the Euler-Lagrange approach, different bubble sizes with the same injection frequency have a small impact on the turbulence dissipation. Furthermore, the turbulent dispersion from the gas phase to the liquid phase has an important effect on the plume structure and spout eye formation. For both modeling, the smaller the bubble diameter is, the larger the axial velocity and turbulent kinetic dissipation are in the central zone. For the bubble coalescence and breakup, according to the comparison of two modeling approaches, the Euler-Lagrange approach is more accurate in predicting the flow pattern for gas injection with a porous plug in the ladle.

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  • 37.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing. Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Liu, Heping
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Gan, Yong
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy2019In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 555-577Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of the research into gas stirring in ladle metallurgy carried out over the past few decades. Herein, the physical modeling experiments are divided into four major areas: (1) mixing and homogenization in the ladle; (2) gas bubble formation, transformation, and interactions in the plume zone; (3) inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface and in the molten steel; and (4) open eye formation. Several industrial trials have also been carried out to optimize gas stirring and open eye formation. Approaches for selecting criteria for scaling to guarantee flow similarity between industrial trials and physical modeling experiments are discussed. To describe the bubble behavior and two-phase plume structure, four main mathematical models have been used in different research fields: (1) the quasi-single-phase model, (2) the volume of fluid (VOF) model, (3) the Eulerian multiphase (E-E) model, and (4) the Eulerian-Lagrangian (E-L) model. In recent years, the E-E model has been used to predict gas stirring conditions in the ladle, and specific models in commercial packages, as well as research codes, have been developed gradually to describe the complex physical and chemical phenomena. Furthermore, the coupling of turbulence models with multiphase models is also discussed. For physical modeling, some general empirical rules have not been analyzed sufficiently. Based on a comparison with the available experimental results, it is found that the mathematical models focusing on the mass transfer phenomenon and inclusion behaviors at the steel-slag interface, vacuum degassing at the gas-liquid interface, dissolution rate of the solid alloy at the liquid-solid interface, and the combination of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics need to be improved further. To describe industrial conditions using mathematical methods and improve numerical modeling, the results of physical modeling experiments and industrial trials must offer satisfactory validations for the improvement of numerical modeling.

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  • 38.
    Lu, Yu-Chiao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Pellets by Using CO/CO2 and CO Gases2023In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 95, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas-based direct reduction in a shaft furnace is the dominant process in the world for production of direct reduced iron. As fresh reducing gas passes through the iron ore burden, it is diluted by the gas emitted from the reacted iron ores which decreases the reduction potential of the reducing gas. Previous reduction experiments mostly used single pellet which could not examine this phenomenon. In this study, hematite pellets arranged in multiple layers inside a molybdenum basket are reduced isothermally at 1173–1273 K using 50% CO + 50% CO2% and 100% CO gases under flow rates of 0.2–5.0 NL min−1 to simulate the dilution of CO by CO2 in the shaft. It is discovered that the reduction of pellets in the basket is highly uneven even in pure CO atmosphere. Pellets in the middle layer are reduced ≈2 times less than the pellets in the top and bottom layers. The top side of a pellet is also less reduced than the bottom side facing the gas inlet. During melting of incompletely reduced pellets at 1873 K, intensive interaction between the unreduced iron oxides and the alumina crucible was observed. Thus, smelting of incompletely reduced iron could potentially shorten the refractory lifetime.

  • 39. Ni, P.
    et al.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, T. -A
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Effect of immersion depth of a swirling flow tundish SEN on multiphase flow and heat transfer in Mold2018In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the immersion depth of a new swirling flow tundish SEN (Submerged Entry Nozzle) on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied using numerical simulation. The RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) and the VOF (Volume of Fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow phenomena. The results show that the SEN immersion depth can significantly influence the steel flow near the meniscus. Specifically, an increase of the SEN immersion depth decreases the interfacial velocity, and this reduces the risk for the slag entrainment. The calculated Weber Number decreases from 0.8 to 0.2 when the SEN immersion depth increases from 15 cm to 25 cm. With a large SEN immersion depth, the steel flow velocity near the solidification front, which is below the mold level of SEN outlet, was increased. The temperature distribution has a similar distribution characteristic for different SEN immersion depths. The high temperature region is located near the solidification front. Temperature near the meniscus was slightly decreased when the SEN immersion depth was increased, due to an increased steel moving distance from the SEN outlet to the meniscus.

  • 40.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    A study on the nonmetallic inclusion motions in a swirling flow submerged entry nozzle in a new cylindrical tundish design2018In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 723-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different sizes and shapes of nonmetallic inclusions in a swirling flow submerged entry nozzle (SEN) placed in a new tundish design were investigated by using a Lagrangian particle tracking scheme. The results show that inclusions in the current cylindrical tundish have difficulties remaining in the top tundish region, since a strong rotational steel flow exists in this region. This high rotational flow of 0.7 m/s provides the required momentum for the formation of a strong swirling flow inside the SEN. The results show that inclusions larger than 40 µm were found to deposit to a smaller extent on the SEN wall compared to smaller inclusions. The reason is that these large inclusions have Separation number values larger than 1. Thus, the swirling flow causes these large size inclusions to move toward the SEN center. For the nonspherical inclusions, large size inclusions were found to be deposited on the SEN wall to a larger extent, compared to spherical inclusions. More specifically, the difference of the deposited inclusion number is around 27 pct. Overall, it was found that the swirling flow contains three regions, namely, the isotropic core region, the anisotropic turbulence region and the near-wall region. Therefore, anisotropic turbulent fluctuations should be taken into account when the inclusion motion was tracked in this complex flow. In addition, many inclusions were found to deposit at the SEN inlet region. The plotted velocity distribution shows that the inlet flow is very chaotic. A high turbulent kinetic energy value of around 0.08 m2/s2 exists in this region, and a recirculating flow was also found here. These flow characteristics are harmful since they increase the inclusion transport toward the wall. Therefore, a new design of the SEN inlet should be developed in the future, with the aim to modify the inlet flow so that the inclusion deposition is reduced.

  • 41.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhang, T. -A
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Numerical study on the influence of a swirling flow tundish on multiphase flow and heat transfer in mold2018In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a new cylindrical swirling flow tundish design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied. The RSM (Reynolds stress model) and the VOF (volume of fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow phenomena. The effect of the swirling flow tundish design on the temperature distribution and inclusion motion was also studied. The results show that the new tundish design significantly changed the flow behavior in the mold, compared to a conventional tundish casting. Specifically, the deep impingement jet from the SEN (Submerged Entry Nozzle) outlet disappeared in the mold, and steel with a high temperature moved towards the solidified shell due to the swirling flow effect. Steel flow velocity in the top of the mold was increased. A large velocity in the vicinity of the solidified shell was obtained. Furthermore, the risk of the slag entrainment in the mold was also estimated. With the swirling flow tundish casting, the temperature distribution became more uniform, and the dissipation of the steel superheat was accelerated. In addition, inclusion trajectories in the mold also changed, which tend to stay at the top of the mold for a time. A future study is still required to further optimize the steel flow in mold.

  • 42.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Haglund, Teodor
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Study on Slopping Prevention in the BOF Steelmaking Process2017In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 88, no 8, article id UNSP 1600399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method of preventing slopping is proposed in this paper, by simply blowing gas at the top of the foam surface. The physical experiment results show that the foam height can be effectively decreased by the top blowing air. The maximum decrease of the foam height can reach around 70 mm with an initial foam height of 145 mm in the current setup, around a 48% decrease. The first 40 mm of the foam height is easy to destroy with a low flow rate from the top. However, it is increasingly difficult for a further decrease in the foam height. Different types of nozzles show a large difference in the role of destroying the foam. The air flow velocity from the nozzle outlet is found to be the key factor for a decreased foam height. Overall, three foam destruction mechanisms are proposed. When the top air flow velocity is small, the drag and pressure destruction mechanisms are the main reasons for the decrease in foam height. However, when a large top air flow velocity is used, the coalescence and breakup mechanisms due to a high turbulence and the shear force on gas bubble shape deformation become important.

  • 43.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Deposition of Particles in Liquid Flows in Horizontal Straight ChannelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The Use of an Enhanced Eulerian Deposition Model to Investigate Nozzle Clogging During Continuous Casting of Steel2014In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 2414-2424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nozzle clogging caused by the build-up of non-metallic inclusions on ceramic walls is a serious industrial problem during continuous casting of steel. The current theoretical study uses the extended Eulerian model to predict the inclusion deposition rate in a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). The model considers Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, and thermophoresis as transportation mechanisms. First, the steel flow in a tundish was simulated using a three-dimensional CFD model. The obtained flow parameter in a SEN was then put into the Eulerian deposition model to predict the deposition rate of non-metallic inclusions. Thereafter, the deposition rates of different-size inclusions in the SEN were predicted and compared. The result shows that the steel flow is non-uniform in the SEN of the tundish. This leads to an uneven distribution of the inclusion deposition rates at different locations of the inner wall of the SEN. In addition, large size inclusions among the size of inclusions considered show a large deposition rate, due to the strong effect of turbophoresis.

  • 45.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Turbulent Flow Phenomena and Ce2O3 Behavior during a Steel Teeming Process2013In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 792-801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel flow phenomena and Ce2O3 inclusion behavior are presented in this paper. A three-dimensional model was developed to describe the steel flow phenomena and the inclusion behavior during a teeming process. The Kim-Chen modified k-ɛ turbulent model was used to simulate the turbulence properties and the Height-of-Liquid model was used to capture the interface between gas and steel. A Lagranian method was then used to track the inclusions and to compare the behaviors of different-size inclusions in the steel flow. In addition, a statistical analysis was carried out by the use of a stochastic turbulence model to investigate the behaviors of different-size inclusions at different nozzle regions. The results show that the steel flow was the most turbulent at the connection part of the straight pipe part and the expanding part of the nozzle. All inclusions with a diameter smaller than 20 μm were found to have a similar trajectory and velocity distribution in the nozzle. However, inertia force and buoyancy force were found to play an important role for the behaviors of large-size inclusions/clusters. The statistical analysis results indicate that the regions close to the connection region between different angled nozzle parts seem to be very sensitive with respect to deposition of inclusions.

  • 46.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jonsson, Lage Lord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    On the deposition of particles in liquid metals onto vertical ceramic walls2014In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 62, p. 152-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deposition of non-metallic particles in liquid-metal flows is a serious industrial problem because the build-up of particles on ceramic walls clogs the flow path and interrupts the production, and this leads to large economic losses. This paper is an effort to extend the current state-of-the-art knowledge of particle deposition in air in order to predict particle deposition rates in liquid-metal flows using an improved Eulerian deposition model and considering Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis and thermophoresis as transportation mechanisms. The model was used to predict the rate of deposition of particles in an air flow, and the predictions were compared to published measurements to demonstrate its performance. The model was then modified to take into account the differences in properties between air and liquid metals and thereafter applied to liquid-metal flows. Effects on the deposition rate of parameters such as steel flow rate, particle diameter, particle density, wall roughness and temperature gradient near the wall were investigated. It is shown that the steel flow rate has a very important influence on the rate of deposition of large particles, for which turbophoresis is the main deposition mechanism. For small particles, both wall roughness and thermophoresis have a significant influence on the particle deposition rate. Particle deposition rates under various conditions were successfully predicted.

  • 47.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The development of an eulerian deposition model in liquid metal flows and its application on nozzle clogging during continuous casting of steel2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking, ICS 2015, Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, p. 439-442Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Eulerian deposition model was developed and used to predict the deposition rates of non-metallic inclusions in liquidmetal flows. Effects of parameters such as particle diameter, wall roughness and temperature gradient near the wall on the deposition rates were investigated. Thereafter, the modified Eulerian model was used to calculate the deposition rate of non-metallic inclusions in a tundish nozzle. Furthermore, the deposition rates of different-size inclusions in the SEN were predicted and compared. The results show that both the wall roughness and thermophoresis have a significant influence on the deposition rate of small particles. For larger inclusions, turbophoresis is the main deposition mechanism. In addition, an uneven distribution of the inclusion deposition rates at the inner wall of the SEN was observed. A large deposition rate was found at the regions near the SEN inlet, the SEN bottom and the upper region of two SEN ports.

  • 48.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Application of a swirling flow producer in a conventional tundish during continuous casting of steel2017In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 2175-2184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A swirling flow producer was designed for a conventional tundish in order to produce a swirling flow in the SEN driven by the steel flow potential. CFD simulations were carried out to investigate the flow phenomena in the new tundish system. The results show that a swirling flow in the tundish SEN was successfully obtained. The swirl number of the obtained steel flow inside the SEN can reach a value of 1.34, with a tangential velocity of around 2.8 m/s. The possibility of slag entrainment at the top of the tundish was estimated by analyzing the steel flow characteristics near the top surface. The calculated Weber Number is around 0.3 outside the cylinder, which indicates a low possibility of slag entrainment. A high value of shear stress was found on the SEN wall. This is due to the rotational steel flow in SEN. Also, non-metallic inclusions were tracked in the fully developed steel flow field. It was found that the number of inclusions that touch the top surface increases with an increased inclusion size. Small size inclusions mainly move into the cylinder from the left side of tangential inlet. Therefore, methods like installing a dam at the tundish bottom may be helpful to change the inclusion trajectories to move towards the top of the tundish.

  • 49.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Transport and Deposition of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel Flows- A Comparison of Different Model Predictions to Pilot Plant Experiment Data2017In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 88, no 12, article id UNSP 1700155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion behavior during a ladle teeming process is investigated. A Lagrangian method is used to track different-size inclusions and to compare their behaviors in steel flows, solved by the realizable k-epsilon model with SWF (Standard Wall Function), realizable k-epsilon model with EWT (Enhanced Wall Treatment), and RSM (Reynolds Stress Model). The results show that inclusion tracking based on the realizable k-epsilon model with SWF to predict the steel flow does not agree with the data fromplant experiments. The predicted number of inclusions touching the wall shows almost no dependence on inclusion size. This is due to that the boundary layer is not resolved. The inclusion deposition predicted using the realizable k-epsilon model with EWT and the RSM model to predict the steel flow generally agrees with the experimental observations. However, the large size inclusion deposition is over-predicted when using the realizable k-epsilon model with EWT. More specifically, the prediction for 20 mu m inclusions is three times larger than that with the RSM. This is due to that this model cannot calculate the anisotropic turbulence fluctuations. In summary, the turbulence properties in the near-wall boundary layer are found to be very important for a good prediction on inclusion deposition.

  • 50.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. Northeastern Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Deposition of particles in liquid flows in horizontal straight channels2016In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 62, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flow in a horizontal channel is an important method for the transport of materials, products and/or waste gases/liquids. The deposition of particles in a horizontal channel may clog the flow path. The purpose of this paper is to extend the use of a developed Eulerian deposition model to liquid flows in horizontal straight channels to predict the particle deposition rate. For a horizontal pipe, the deposition rates may differ greatly along a cross section, due to the influences of gravity and buoyancy. The current deposition model is first applied to air flows to enable a comparison with available experimental data. Then, the model is applied to liquid flows in horizontal straight pipes. The effects of gravity, buoyancy, water flow rates, wall roughness, particle size and temperature difference in the near-wall boundary layer on the deposition rate have been studied and explained. The results show that the deposition rates of particles increase with an increased flow rate. The gravity separation has a large influence on the deposition of large particle at high and low parts of the horizontal pipe in some flows. Moreover, both the wall roughness and thermophoresis have a significant influence on the deposition rate of small particles. In addition, the roughness also shows an important influence on the large particle deposition at the top of the investigated pipe, due to that a large value of roughness can make the deposition location somewhat far away from the wall, where a stronger turbophoresis exists. The intensity of the turbophoresis relative to the gravity separation before a particle is reaching the deposition location is important for the large particle deposition when the gravity separation play a negative role on the deposition rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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