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  • 1.
    Arzpeyma, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Mathematical Modeling of Postcombustion in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)2019Inngår i: METALS, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikkel-id 547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical modeling was used to study the capability of postcombustion in an electric arc furnace (EAF) equipped with virtual lance burners. The CO flow rate at the molten bath surface was estimated using the off-gas data obtained close to the outlet of an EAF. Then, the effect of the secondary oxygen flow rate on postcombustion was studied. The results show a CO flow rate of 0.6 kgs(-1) and 0.8 kgs(-1) for operation modes of burner and burner + lancing. Increase of the secondary oxygen flow rates of 60% and 70% result in 17% and 7% increase in the postcombustion ratio (PCR) for the burner and burner lancing modes, respectively.

  • 2.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Numerical study of an application of a divergent reverse TurboSwirl nozzle in the billet continuous casting process2019Inngår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 148-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The swirling flow has widely been investigated for liquid steel flowing in the continuous casting process. In this paper, a new design of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) is applied by using a reverse TurboSwirl device with a divergent nozzle. This divergent reverse TurboSwirl nozzle (DRTSN) is shown to gain a more beneficial flow pattern compared to the straight nozzle. A stronger swirling flow can be obtained at the SEN outlet, which leads to a calmer flow field and an appropriately active meniscus flow that could improve the heat and mass transfer near the meniscus. The swirl number in the SEN is independent of the casting speed, while a lower casting speed yields a lower maximum wall shear stress. The DRTSN is connected to the tundish by an elbow and a horizontal runner. A longer horizontal runner supplies a more uniform velocity profile and a more symmetrical flow pattern.

  • 3.
    Bai, Haitong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    Northeastern Univ, Sch Met, Key Lab Ecol Met Multimet Intergrown Ores, Educ Minist, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning, Peoples R China.;Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Dept Mat & Mfg Sci, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan..
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Zhang, Tingan
    Northeastern Univ, Sch Met, Key Lab Ecol Met Multimet Intergrown Ores, Educ Minist, Shenyang 110819, Liaoning, Peoples R China..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Effect of swirling flow tundish submerged entry nozzle outlet design on multiphase flow and heat transfer in mould2019Inngår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effect of a swirling flow SEN (submerged entry nozzle) outlet design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mould was investigated by using numerical simulation. It was found that different SEN outlet designs could form different flow patterns and temperature distributions on the upper of the mould. The enlarged outlet SEN design had an effect to decrease the horizontal velocity of liquid steel flowing out the SEN outlet, reducing the steel flow velocity towards the solidification front. Although a higher velocity was found near the slag/steel interface with the enlarged outlet SEN, but the turbulent kinetic energy was lower. The reason was that less circulation flows were formed in the region of the mould top. The weak horizontal flow towards the solidification front with the enlarged outlet SEN induced lower wall shear stresses, at the same time it also formed a lower temperature distribution near the solidified shell.

  • 4.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Andersson, Nils A. I.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Imris, Matej
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Experimental Determinations of Mixing Times in the IronArc Pilot Plant Process2019Inngår i: METALS, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IronArc is a newly developed technology and an emerging future process for pig iron production. The long-term goal with this technology is to reduce the CO2 emissions and energy consumption compared to existing technologies. The production rate of this process is dependent on the stirring, which was investigated in the pilot plant process by measuring the mixing time in the slag bath. Moreover, slag investigations were done both based on light optical microscope studies as well as by Thermo-Calc calculations in order to determine the phases of the slag during operation. This was done because the viscosity (which is another important parameter) is dependent on the liquid and solid fractions of the slag. The overall results show that it was possible to determine the mixing time by means of the addition of a tracer (MnO2 powder) to the slag. The mixing time for the trials showed that the slag was homogenized after seconds. For two of the trials, homogenization had already been reached in the second sample after tracer addition, which means <= 8 s. The phase analysis from the slag indicated that the slag is in a liquid state during the operation of the process.

  • 5.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Imris, Matej
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH.
    Importance of the Penetration Depth and Mixing in the IRONARC Process2018Inngår i: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 58, nr 7, s. 1210-1217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important parameters for gas injection into liquid baths is the penetration depth of the gas into the bath. This is due to that it strongly influences the flow structure and hence the stirring and plume behavior in metallurgical processes. The IRONARC process is a new energy efficient process for reduction of iron oxide to produce pig iron. The future goal is to continuously scale up the process to an industrial scale from the current pilot scale. In this process, gas is injected horizontally through a submerged nozzle into a slag bath. Hence, the penetration depth is of great importance since it greatly affect several parameters in this process. Moreover, this information is essential when scaling up the reactor from a pilot scale to an industrial scale. In this work, the penetration depth of gas injection into water in a small scale side blown converter was studied numerically. Two different approaches with different multiphase models were tested, namely the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model and Eulerian multiphase model (EE). The penetration depth could be accurately determined for both numerical models, with a small expected deviation of 13.9% from the physical experiment results. Also, the simulation time was shorter for the Eulerian multiphase model. The penetration depth was then determined for the IRONARC pilot plant process. The results show that the plume is detached from the nozzle wall, which in turn results in a better energy usage of the gas along with a small refractory wear.

  • 6.
    Bölke, Kristofer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Swartling, Maria
    ScanArc Plasma Technol AB, SE-81321 Hofors, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Physical Modeling Study on the Mixing in the New IronArc Process2018Inngår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, nr 7, artikkel-id 1700555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IronArc is a newly developed technology for pig iron production with the aim to reduce the CO2 emission and energy consumption, compared to a conventional blast furnace route. In order to understand the fluid flow and stirring in the IronArc reactor, water modeling experiments are performed. Specifically, a down scaled acrylic plastic model of the IronArc pilot plant reactor is used to investigate the mixing phenomena and gas penetration depth in the liquid bath. The mixing time is determined by measuring the conductivity in the bath, after a sodium chloride solution is added. Moreover, the penetration depth is determined by analyzing the pictures obtained during the experimental process by using both a video camera and a high speed camera. The results show that the bath movements are strong and that a circular movement of the surface is present. The mixing in the model for the flow rate of 282 NLmin(-1) is fast. Specifically, the average mixing times are 7.6 and 10.2s for a 95% and a 99% homogenization degree, respectively. This is 15% and 18% (per degree of homogenization) faster compared to the case when using 3 gas inlets and the same flow rate.

  • 7.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Colocated pressure-velocity coupling in finite difference methods2019Inngår i: Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, ISSN 1468-4349, E-ISSN 1741-5233, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 273-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple method to be used for colocated pressure-velocity coupling in incompressible flows is presented with a full derivation. A number of standard test cases are shown that demonstrate the ability of the method to produce accurate results. The method avoids spurious pressure oscillations while keeping the pressure Poisson equation stencil compact. This is obtained by discretising the continuity and pressure derivatives with first order differences with opposite directions, i.e., backward difference for continuity and forward difference for pressure (BCFP). The equations are also approximated using a forward difference for continuity and a backward difference for pressure (FCBP). In order to obtain a second order approximation the mean between BCFP and FCBP is used, i.e., a central difference. The paper gives a useful alternative to existing methods for pressure-velocity coupling in finite difference methods in which a staggered arrangement is not desirable.

  • 8.
    Ersson, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Review on CFD Simulation and Modeling of Decarburization Processes2018Inngår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 89, nr 1, artikkel-id UNSP 1700108Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, a number of CFD models have been dedicated to increasing the understanding of the decarburization processes in steelmaking. However, these processes are highly complex with large variations in time and length, and this makes the systems extremely demanding to simulate. Several reports have been published where parts of the processes have been investigated numerically, but to date no models have been presented that can handle the entire complexity of the processes. Here, a review of the research performed on the subject from 1998 to 2016 is given. A table summarizing the models used and the key focus of the studies is given, and it can be concluded that the effort put in so far to investigate the decarburization in steelmaking is substantial, but not complete. The currently available numerical models give an insight into process parameters such as reactions, mixing time, temperature distribution and thermal losses, off-gas post combustion and de-dusting, and also nozzle configuration. With the recent developments in numerical modeling and the increase in hardware capability, the future of simulation and modeling of the decarburization processes in steelmaking seems bright.

  • 9.
    Khodabandeh, Erfan
    et al.
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Tehran Polytech, Mech Engn Dept, 424 Hafez Ave,POB 15875-4413, Tehran, Iran..
    Akbari, Omid Ali
    Islamic Azad Univ, Young Researchers & Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Khomeinishahr, Iran..
    Toghraie, Davood
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Khomeinishahr Branch, Khomeinishahr 84175119, Iran..
    Saffari Pour, Mohsen
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processvetenskap. Sharif Univ Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Tehran, Iran..
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Numerical investigation of thermal performance augmentation of nanofluid flow in microchannel heat sinks by using of novel nozzle structure: sinusoidal cavities and rectangular ribs2019Inngår i: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, ISSN 1678-5878, E-ISSN 1806-3691, Vol. 41, nr 10, artikkel-id UNSP 443Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a numerical simulation of a laminar, steady and Newtonian flow of f-graphene nanoplatelet/water nanofluid in a new microchannel design with factors for increasing heat transfer such as presence of ribs, curves to enable satisfactory fluid mixing and changing fluid course at the inlet and exit sections. The results of this study show that Nusselt number is dependent on nanoparticles concentration, inlet geometry and Reynolds number. As the nanofluid concentration increases from 0 to 0.1% and Reynolds number from 50 to 1000, the Nusselt number enhances nearly up to 3% for increase in fluid concentration and averagely from 15.45 to 54.1 and from 14.5 to 55.9 for geometry with and without rectangular rib, respectively. The presence of ribs in the middle section of microchannel and curves close to hot walls causes a complete mixing of the fluid in different zones. When the nanoparticles concentration is increased, the pressure drop and velocity gradient will become higher. An increased concentration of nanoparticles in contribution with higher Reynolds numbers only increases the fraction factor slightly. (The fraction factor increases nearly 37% and 35% for Re = 50 and 1000, respectively.) The highest uniform temperature distribution can be found in the first zones of fluid in the microchannel and by further movement of fluid toward exit section, because of decreasing difference between surface and fluid temperature, the growth of temperature boundary layer increases and results in non-uniformity in temperature distribution in microchannel and cooling fluid. With decrease in the concentration from 0 to 0.1%, the average outlet temperature and FOM decrease nearby 0.62% and 6.15, respectively.

  • 10.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Liu, H.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Gan, Y.
    Comparison of Euler-Euler Approach and Euler–Lagrange Approach to Model Gas Injection in a Ladle2019Inngår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 90, nr 5, artikkel-id 1800494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas injection in a ladle using a porous plug is simulated using both the Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange approaches. The effects of various forces, bubble sizes, and bubble injection frequencies on the flow pattern are modeled. For predicting axial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy, the Euler-Lagrange approach fits better than Euler-Euler approach with the measured data. In the Euler-Euler approach, differences in axial velocities and turbulent kinetic energies for various bubble sizes mainly appears in the plume zone. In the Euler-Lagrange approach, different bubble sizes with the same injection frequency have a small impact on the turbulence dissipation. Furthermore, the turbulent dispersion from the gas phase to the liquid phase has an important effect on the plume structure and spout eye formation. For both modeling, the smaller the bubble diameter is, the larger the axial velocity and turbulent kinetic dissipation are in the central zone. For the bubble coalescence and breakup, according to the comparison of two modeling approaches, the Euler-Lagrange approach is more accurate in predicting the flow pattern for gas injection with a porous plug in the ladle.

  • 11.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi. Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Liu, Heping
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Gan, Yong
    Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy2019Inngår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 555-577Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a review of the research into gas stirring in ladle metallurgy carried out over the past few decades. Herein, the physical modeling experiments are divided into four major areas: (1) mixing and homogenization in the ladle; (2) gas bubble formation, transformation, and interactions in the plume zone; (3) inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface and in the molten steel; and (4) open eye formation. Several industrial trials have also been carried out to optimize gas stirring and open eye formation. Approaches for selecting criteria for scaling to guarantee flow similarity between industrial trials and physical modeling experiments are discussed. To describe the bubble behavior and two-phase plume structure, four main mathematical models have been used in different research fields: (1) the quasi-single-phase model, (2) the volume of fluid (VOF) model, (3) the Eulerian multiphase (E-E) model, and (4) the Eulerian-Lagrangian (E-L) model. In recent years, the E-E model has been used to predict gas stirring conditions in the ladle, and specific models in commercial packages, as well as research codes, have been developed gradually to describe the complex physical and chemical phenomena. Furthermore, the coupling of turbulence models with multiphase models is also discussed. For physical modeling, some general empirical rules have not been analyzed sufficiently. Based on a comparison with the available experimental results, it is found that the mathematical models focusing on the mass transfer phenomenon and inclusion behaviors at the steel-slag interface, vacuum degassing at the gas-liquid interface, dissolution rate of the solid alloy at the liquid-solid interface, and the combination of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics need to be improved further. To describe industrial conditions using mathematical methods and improve numerical modeling, the results of physical modeling experiments and industrial trials must offer satisfactory validations for the improvement of numerical modeling.

  • 12. Ni, P.
    et al.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Zhang, T. -A
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Effect of immersion depth of a swirling flow tundish SEN on multiphase flow and heat transfer in Mold2018Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikkel-id 910Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the immersion depth of a new swirling flow tundish SEN (Submerged Entry Nozzle) on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied using numerical simulation. The RSM (Reynolds Stress Model) and the VOF (Volume of Fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow phenomena. The results show that the SEN immersion depth can significantly influence the steel flow near the meniscus. Specifically, an increase of the SEN immersion depth decreases the interfacial velocity, and this reduces the risk for the slag entrainment. The calculated Weber Number decreases from 0.8 to 0.2 when the SEN immersion depth increases from 15 cm to 25 cm. With a large SEN immersion depth, the steel flow velocity near the solidification front, which is below the mold level of SEN outlet, was increased. The temperature distribution has a similar distribution characteristic for different SEN immersion depths. The high temperature region is located near the solidification front. Temperature near the meniscus was slightly decreased when the SEN immersion depth was increased, due to an increased steel moving distance from the SEN outlet to the meniscus.

  • 13.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    A study on the nonmetallic inclusion motions in a swirling flow submerged entry nozzle in a new cylindrical tundish design2018Inngår i: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 723-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different sizes and shapes of nonmetallic inclusions in a swirling flow submerged entry nozzle (SEN) placed in a new tundish design were investigated by using a Lagrangian particle tracking scheme. The results show that inclusions in the current cylindrical tundish have difficulties remaining in the top tundish region, since a strong rotational steel flow exists in this region. This high rotational flow of 0.7 m/s provides the required momentum for the formation of a strong swirling flow inside the SEN. The results show that inclusions larger than 40 µm were found to deposit to a smaller extent on the SEN wall compared to smaller inclusions. The reason is that these large inclusions have Separation number values larger than 1. Thus, the swirling flow causes these large size inclusions to move toward the SEN center. For the nonspherical inclusions, large size inclusions were found to be deposited on the SEN wall to a larger extent, compared to spherical inclusions. More specifically, the difference of the deposited inclusion number is around 27 pct. Overall, it was found that the swirling flow contains three regions, namely, the isotropic core region, the anisotropic turbulence region and the near-wall region. Therefore, anisotropic turbulent fluctuations should be taken into account when the inclusion motion was tracked in this complex flow. In addition, many inclusions were found to deposit at the SEN inlet region. The plotted velocity distribution shows that the inlet flow is very chaotic. A high turbulent kinetic energy value of around 0.08 m2/s2 exists in this region, and a recirculating flow was also found here. These flow characteristics are harmful since they increase the inclusion transport toward the wall. Therefore, a new design of the SEN inlet should be developed in the future, with the aim to modify the inlet flow so that the inclusion deposition is reduced.

  • 14.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Zhang, T. -A
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical study on the influence of a swirling flow tundish on multiphase flow and heat transfer in mold2018Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikkel-id 368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a new cylindrical swirling flow tundish design on the multiphase flow and heat transfer in a mold was studied. The RSM (Reynolds stress model) and the VOF (volume of fluid) model were used to solve the steel and slag flow phenomena. The effect of the swirling flow tundish design on the temperature distribution and inclusion motion was also studied. The results show that the new tundish design significantly changed the flow behavior in the mold, compared to a conventional tundish casting. Specifically, the deep impingement jet from the SEN (Submerged Entry Nozzle) outlet disappeared in the mold, and steel with a high temperature moved towards the solidified shell due to the swirling flow effect. Steel flow velocity in the top of the mold was increased. A large velocity in the vicinity of the solidified shell was obtained. Furthermore, the risk of the slag entrainment in the mold was also estimated. With the swirling flow tundish casting, the temperature distribution became more uniform, and the dissipation of the steel superheat was accelerated. In addition, inclusion trajectories in the mold also changed, which tend to stay at the top of the mold for a time. A future study is still required to further optimize the steel flow in mold.

  • 15.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Haglund, Teodor
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Study on Slopping Prevention in the BOF Steelmaking Process2017Inngår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 88, nr 8, artikkel-id UNSP 1600399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method of preventing slopping is proposed in this paper, by simply blowing gas at the top of the foam surface. The physical experiment results show that the foam height can be effectively decreased by the top blowing air. The maximum decrease of the foam height can reach around 70 mm with an initial foam height of 145 mm in the current setup, around a 48% decrease. The first 40 mm of the foam height is easy to destroy with a low flow rate from the top. However, it is increasingly difficult for a further decrease in the foam height. Different types of nozzles show a large difference in the role of destroying the foam. The air flow velocity from the nozzle outlet is found to be the key factor for a decreased foam height. Overall, three foam destruction mechanisms are proposed. When the top air flow velocity is small, the drag and pressure destruction mechanisms are the main reasons for the decrease in foam height. However, when a large top air flow velocity is used, the coalescence and breakup mechanisms due to a high turbulence and the shear force on gas bubble shape deformation become important.

  • 16.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lage T. I.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Application of a swirling flow producer in a conventional tundish during continuous casting of steel2017Inngår i: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 57, nr 12, s. 2175-2184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A swirling flow producer was designed for a conventional tundish in order to produce a swirling flow in the SEN driven by the steel flow potential. CFD simulations were carried out to investigate the flow phenomena in the new tundish system. The results show that a swirling flow in the tundish SEN was successfully obtained. The swirl number of the obtained steel flow inside the SEN can reach a value of 1.34, with a tangential velocity of around 2.8 m/s. The possibility of slag entrainment at the top of the tundish was estimated by analyzing the steel flow characteristics near the top surface. The calculated Weber Number is around 0.3 outside the cylinder, which indicates a low possibility of slag entrainment. A high value of shear stress was found on the SEN wall. This is due to the rotational steel flow in SEN. Also, non-metallic inclusions were tracked in the fully developed steel flow field. It was found that the number of inclusions that touch the top surface increases with an increased inclusion size. Small size inclusions mainly move into the cylinder from the left side of tangential inlet. Therefore, methods like installing a dam at the tundish bottom may be helpful to change the inclusion trajectories to move towards the top of the tundish.

  • 17.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Transport and Deposition of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel Flows- A Comparison of Different Model Predictions to Pilot Plant Experiment Data2017Inngår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 88, nr 12, artikkel-id UNSP 1700155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion behavior during a ladle teeming process is investigated. A Lagrangian method is used to track different-size inclusions and to compare their behaviors in steel flows, solved by the realizable k-epsilon model with SWF (Standard Wall Function), realizable k-epsilon model with EWT (Enhanced Wall Treatment), and RSM (Reynolds Stress Model). The results show that inclusion tracking based on the realizable k-epsilon model with SWF to predict the steel flow does not agree with the data fromplant experiments. The predicted number of inclusions touching the wall shows almost no dependence on inclusion size. This is due to that the boundary layer is not resolved. The inclusion deposition predicted using the realizable k-epsilon model with EWT and the RSM model to predict the steel flow generally agrees with the experimental observations. However, the large size inclusion deposition is over-predicted when using the realizable k-epsilon model with EWT. More specifically, the prediction for 20 mu m inclusions is three times larger than that with the RSM. This is due to that this model cannot calculate the anisotropic turbulence fluctuations. In summary, the turbulence properties in the near-wall boundary layer are found to be very important for a good prediction on inclusion deposition.

  • 18.
    Ni, Peiyuan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap. Northeastern Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Deposition of particles in liquid flows in horizontal straight channels2016Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 62, s. 166-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A flow in a horizontal channel is an important method for the transport of materials, products and/or waste gases/liquids. The deposition of particles in a horizontal channel may clog the flow path. The purpose of this paper is to extend the use of a developed Eulerian deposition model to liquid flows in horizontal straight channels to predict the particle deposition rate. For a horizontal pipe, the deposition rates may differ greatly along a cross section, due to the influences of gravity and buoyancy. The current deposition model is first applied to air flows to enable a comparison with available experimental data. Then, the model is applied to liquid flows in horizontal straight pipes. The effects of gravity, buoyancy, water flow rates, wall roughness, particle size and temperature difference in the near-wall boundary layer on the deposition rate have been studied and explained. The results show that the deposition rates of particles increase with an increased flow rate. The gravity separation has a large influence on the deposition of large particle at high and low parts of the horizontal pipe in some flows. Moreover, both the wall roughness and thermophoresis have a significant influence on the deposition rate of small particles. In addition, the roughness also shows an important influence on the large particle deposition at the top of the investigated pipe, due to that a large value of roughness can make the deposition location somewhat far away from the wall, where a stronger turbophoresis exists. The intensity of the turbophoresis relative to the gravity separation before a particle is reaching the deposition location is important for the large particle deposition when the gravity separation play a negative role on the deposition rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Yin, Jun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Ersson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Mao, Huahai
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Mathematical Modelling of the Initial Mold Filling with Utilization of an Angled Runner2019Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 9, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow pattern plays a crucial role in the uphill teeming process. The non-metallic inclusion generation due to interaction with the mold flux is believed to be influenced by the flow pattern. In this study, a three-dimensional mathematical model of the filling of a gating system for 10, 20, and 30 degrees angled runners was used to predict the fluid flow characteristics. Moreover, a mathematical model with a horizontal runner was applied as a reference. The predictions indicate that the angled-runner-design decreases the hump height during the initial filling stage, which results in less entrapment of mold flux into the mold. Nevertheless, increasing the angle of runner can result in a lower hump height, while the 30 degree angled runner gives a much more stable increase of the hump height during the initial filling stage. Besides CFD calculations, some thermodynamic calculations are taken into account for the chemical reactions between liquid steel and gas. The results show that the bubble shrinks due to the fact that N and O are dissolved into steel. The present findings strongly suggest that changing the horizontal runner to an angled runner would be an effective means of reducing flow unevenness during the initial filling of ingots, if the added steel losses are deemed acceptable.

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