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  • 1.
    Holmstedt, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Mäkivierikko, Arman
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Stockholm Royal Seaport moving towards the goals—Potential and limitations of dynamic and high resolution evaluation data2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 169, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cites have been identified as one key arena to meet future sustainability challenges. However, if cites are to be part of the transition it must become possible to confirm results of ongoing actions. By the introduction information and communication technologies, it has become easier to collect performance parameters from the built environment, thereby enable more detailed evaluation. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the potential and limitation of using dynamic and high resolution meter data for evaluation of energy consumption in buildings and households. The novelty of this approach is that dynamic and high resolution meter data can increase the level of detail in evaluation results and ease detection of deviations in the structures performance. However, most benefits are found from the occupant perspective, as more detailed evaluation information enable better inclusion of this stakeholder group. Furthermore this study has shown that the commonly used indicator energy use per heated floor area is an insufficient communication tool when taking holistic approach to building energy evaluation. Limitation to full use of dynamic and high resolution meter data have been identified to data collection and management, preservation of personal integrity and incentives to react on the given evaluation information.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Proposing an Hourly Dynamic Wind Signal as an Environmental Incentive for Demand Response2017In: ADVANCES AND NEW TRENDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS: STABILITY, CONTINUITY, INNOVATION, Springer, 2017, p. 153-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand Response (DR) is expected to play a crucial role in balancing supply and demand in future smart grids with increased proportion of electricity from renewable sources. However, previous studies on price-based DR programs have shown that there is a substantial need to strengthen the incentive models in order to achieve sufficient end-user response. In addition, recent studies are starting to explore alternative incentives based on environmental performance as a support to dynamic pricing tariffs. In this paper, we investigate in the potential of using a dynamic wind signal, reflecting the hourly variations in wind power generation, as an environmental incentive for load shift in DR programs. A wind signal is constructed based on Swedish electricity generation data for 2014, and intraday and seasonally patterns of wind power generation are analyzed with respect to hourly electricity spot prices. The results show that a wind signal is supportive to the economic incentive of a dynamic price signal to stimulate intraday load shift by end-use customers; shifting electricity consumption from hours of high price and low wind power generation to hours of low price and high wind power generation, leading to both consumer cost-savings and reduced climate impact in the long term.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Environm Policy Ctr, PL 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kordas, Olga (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Household responsiveness to residential demand response strategies - Results and policy implications from a Swedish field study2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To realize the benefits of smart grids, residential demand response (DR) aims to increase demand flexibility by influence household electricity consumption. Although price-based DR programs have shown potential, there is a need to further investigate the effectiveness of DR in energy strategy and policy development. The evaluation of DR has focused on the impact on overall power demand, assuming that consumers are economically rational decision-maker. However, recent findings suggest that consumer responses have been insufficient and calls have been made to identify novel evaluation approaches that better reflect the human dimension of energy consumption. Continuing this line of enquiry, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of DR and explore the potential of environmental incentives for increased consumer engagement. We propose an interdisciplinary evaluation framework to understand variations in household responsiveness to DR strategies, which is tested in a Swedish DR field trial covering 136 households during 2017. Results suggest that the effectiveness of DR varies widely across household type; ranging from substantial reductions in overall consumption and during peak periods, to increases in consumption during peak periods. Furthermore, a clear favor of price incentives, compared to environmental incentives, as the most efficient strategy to increase demand flexibility was observed.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Stoll, Pia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, costs, and carbon emissions2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of smart grid projects, with demand side management as an integral part, has led to an increased interest of households’ willingness to react to different types of demand response programs. This paper presents a pilot study assessing the impact of real-time price visualization on residential electricity consumption, and its effects on electricity costs and carbon (CO2eq) emissions. We analyze changes in electricity consumption based on a test group and a reference group of 12 households, respectively. To allow for analysis on load shift impact on CO2eq emissions, hourly dynamic CO2eq intensity of the Swedish electricity grid mix is calculated, using electricity generation data, trading data, and fuel-type specific emission factors. The results suggest that, on average, the test households shifted roughly 5% of their total daily electricity consumption from peak hours (of high electricity price) to off-peak hours (of low electricity price) as an effect of real-time price visualization. However, due to the mechanisms of the Swedish electricity market, with a negative relation between spot price and CO2eq intensity, the load shift led to a split effect; electricity costs modestly decreased while CO2eq emissions increased. In addition, any indication of the contribution of real-time spot price visualization to a reduction in overall household electricity consumption level could not be found, as the relative difference in consumption level between the test households and the reference households remained constant during both the baseline period and the test period. 

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Wester, Misse
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Smart homes, home energy management systems and real-time feedback- Lessons for influencing household energy consumption from a Swedish field study2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 179, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Home energy management systems (HEMS), providing energy feedback and smart features through in-home displays, have the potential to support more sustainable household decisions concerning energy consumption. However, recent findings from European smart metering trials have reduced the optimism, suggesting only modest savings from energy feedback. In this paper, we investigate the potential of HEMS to foster reductions in energy use, focusing on a population segment of particular relevance; high-income and highly educated households, considered as early adopters of smart grid technologies. Covering 154 households participating in a field trial in a sustainable city district in Stockholm, Sweden during one year, this study draws on the analyses of smart meter electricity and hot tap water data and in-depth interviews to provide an increased understanding of how feedback and features are perceived, used, and acted upon, and resulting effects on awareness, behavior, and consumption. Our results show that impact on energy consumption varies widely across individual households, suggesting that households respond to energy feedback highly individually. Although HEMS may lead to increased awareness of energy consumption, as well as increased home comfort, several obstacles for energy consumption behavioral change are identified. Drawing from these findings, we suggest policy implications and key issues for future research.

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