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  • 1.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE.
    Interfacial and material aspects of powders with relevance to pharmaceutical tableting performance2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tablets are the most common forms of drug administration. They are convenient to administer and easy to manufacture. However, problems associated with the adhesion of the powders to the tableting tools are common. This phenomenon is known as sticking and even though it has been well documented and studied, it remains poorly understood. The many factors that contribute to good performance of the powders make the sticking problem difficult to solve.

    The goal of this study is to establish a relationship between the properties measured at the nanoscale to the overall tablet mechanical properties, tablet performance and powder pre-processing induced modifications. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we aim to develop an analytical method to characterize the mechanical and adhesive properties of the pharmaceutical powders at the nanoscale. Other methodologies such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analyses (DSC, TGA) and tablet strength test were also used. The materials used in this study are commonly used excipients, a sticky drug and magnesium stearate (MgSt). Two different approaches offered by AFM were employed: sharp tip imaging and colloidal probe force measurements. Nano-mechanical properties of the materials were evaluated with a sharp tip cantilever showing that higher adhesion correlates with higher tablet cohesion and that both are significantly affected by the presence of MgSt. AFM characterization of the particle surface mechanical properties at the nanoscale was also used to detect the crystallinity and amorphicity levels of the materials. New approaches to presenting such data considering the particle heterogeneity and to track the dynamics of surface recrystallization are revealed. Adhesive interactions between a steel sphere and sticky and non-sticky powders were performed with the colloidal probe technique. Sticky materials presented a higher adhesion against the steel surface, and reveal the mechanism of stickiness.

    This work thus contributes to the provision of predictability of the performance of formulations at an early stage of the development process.

  • 2.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Swede.
    Nordgren, N.
    Schuleit, M.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Swede.
    Millqvist-Fureby, A.
    Tablet mechanics depend on nano and micro scale adhesion, lubrication and structure2015In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 486, no 1-2, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tablets are the most convenient form for drug administration. However, despite the ease of manufacturing problems such as powder adhesion occur during the production process. This study presents surface and structural characterization of tablets formulated with commonly used excipients (microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose, mannitol, magnesium (Mg) stearate) pressed under different compaction conditions. Tablet surface analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated with a tablet hardness test. Local adhesion detected by AFM decreased when Mg stearate was present in the formulation. Moreover, the tablet strength of plastically deformable excipients such as MCC was significantly decreased after addition of Mg stearate. Combined these facts indicate that Mg stearate affects the particle-particle bonding and thus elastic recovery. The MCC excipient also displayed the highest hardness which is characteristic for a highly cohesive material. This is discussed in the view of the relatively high adhesion found between MCC and a hydrophilic probe at the nanoscale using AFM. In contrast, the tablet strength of brittle materials like lactose and mannitol is unaffected by Mg stearate. Thus fracture occurs within the excipient particles and not at particle boundaries, creating new surfaces not previously exposed to Mg stearate. Such uncoated surfaces may well promote adhesive interactions with tools during manufacture.

  • 3.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    Schuleit, Michael
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    AFM Colloidal Probe Measurements Implicate Capillary Condensation in Punch-Particle Surface Interactions during Tableting2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 46, p. 13180-13188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of the powders to the punches is a common issue during tableting. This phenomenon is known as sticking and affects the quality of the manufactured tablets. Defective tablets increase the cost of the manufacturing process. Thus, the ability to predict the tableting performance of the formulation blend before the process is scaled-up is important. The adhesive propensity of the powder to the tableting tools is mostly governed by the surface surface adhesive interactions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is a surface characterization technique that allows the measurement of the adhesive interactions between two materials of interest. In this study, AFM steel colloidal probe measurements were performed on ibuprofen, MCC (microcrystalline cellulose), alpha-lactose monohydrate, and spray-dried lactose particles as an approach to modeling the punch particle surface interactions during tableting. The excipients (lactose and MCC) showed constant, small, attractive, and adhesive forces toward the steel surface after a repeated number of contacts. In comparison, ibuprofen displayed a much larger attractive and adhesive interaction increasing over time both in magnitude and in jump-in/jump-out separation distance. The type of interaction acting on the excipient steel interface can be related to a van der Waals force, which is relatively weak and short-ranged. By contrast, the ibuprofen steel interaction is described by a capillary force profile. Even though ibuprofen is not highly hydrophilic, the relatively smooth surfaces of the crystals allow "contact flooding" upon contact with the steel probe. Capillary forces increase because of the "harvesting" of moisture due to the fast condensation kinetics leaving a residual condensate that contributes to increase the interaction force after each consecutive contact. Local asperity contacts on the more hydrophilic surface of the excipients prevent the flooding of the contact zone, and there is no such adhesive effect under the same ambient conditions. The markedly different behavior detected by force measurements clearly shows the sticky and nonsticky propensity of the materials and allows a mechanistic description.

  • 4.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland..
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden..
    AFM colloidal probe measurements implicate capillary condensation in punch-particle surface interactions during tableting2019In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 257Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. RISE Res Inst Sweden, RISE Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, RISE Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schuleit, Michael
    Novartis Pharma AG, Novartis Inst Biomed Res, Basel, Switzerland..
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Alderborn, Goran
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, RISE Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. RISE Res Inst Sweden, RISE Biosci & Mat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Determination of interfacial amorphicity in functional powders2018In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Badal Tejedor, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Intitutes of Sweden.
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Nordgren, Niklas
    Schuleit, Michael
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. RISE Research Intitutes of Sweden.
    Alderborn, Göran
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    Milling induced amorphisation andrecrystallization of α-lactose monohydrate2018In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 537, no 1-2, p. 140-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preprocessing of pharmaceutical powders is a common procedure to condition the materials for a better manufacturing performance. However, such operations may induce undesired material properties modifications when conditioning particle size through milling, for example. Modification of both surface and bulk material structure will change the material properties, thus affecting the processability of the powder. Hence it is essential to control the material transformations that occur during milling. Topographical and mechanical changes in surface properties can be a preliminary indication of further material transformations. Therefore a surface evaluation of the alpha-lactose monohydrate after short and prolonged milling times has been performed. Unprocessed alpha-lactose monohydrate and spray dried lactose were evaluated in parallel to the milled samples as reference examples of the crystalline and amorphous lactose structure. Morphological differences between un-processed a-lactose, 1 h and 20 h milled lactose and spray dried lactose were detected from SEM and AFM images. Additionally, AFM was used to simultaneously characterize particle surface amorphicity by measuring energy dissipation. Extensive surface amorphicity was detected after 1 h of milling while prolonged milling times showed only a moderate particle surface amorphisation. Bulk material characterization performed with DSC indicated a partial amorphicity for the 1 h milled lactose and a fully amorphous thermal profile for the 20 h milled lactose. The temperature profiles however, were shifted somewhat in the comparison to the amorphous reference, particularly after extended milling, suggesting a different amorphous state compared to the spraydried material. Water loss during milling was measured with TGA, showing lower water content for the lactose amorphized through milling compared to spray dried amorphous lactose. The combined results suggest a surface-bulk propagation of the amorphicity during milling in combination with a different amorphous structural conformation to that of the amorphous spray dried lactose. The hardened surface may be due to either surface crystallization of lactose or to formation of a low-water glass transition.

  • 7.
    Tejedor, Maria Badal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nordgren, Niklas
    Schuleit, Michael
    Pazesh, Samaneh
    Alderborn, Göran
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Determination of Interfacial Amorphicity in Functional Powders2017In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 920-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the surfaces of particles of pharmaceutical ingredients, food powders, and polymers is a determining factor for their performance in for example tableting, powder handling, or mixing. Changes on the surface structure of the material will impact the flow properties, dissolution rate, and tabletability of the 2 powder blend. For crystalline materials, surface amorphization is a phenomenon which is known to impact performance. Since it is important to measure and control the level of amorphicity, several characterization techniques are available to determine the bulk amorphous content of a processed material. The possibility of characterizing the degree of amorphicity at the surface, for example by studying the mechanical properties of the particles' surface at the nanoscale, is currently only offered by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM PeakForce QNM technique has been used to measure the variation in energy dissipation (eV) at the surface of the particles which sheds light on the mechanical changes occurring as a result of amorphization or recrystallization events. Two novel approaches for the characterization of amorphicity are presented here. First, since particles are heterogeneous, we present a methodology to present the results of extensive QNM analysis of multiple particles in a coherent and easily interpreted manner, by studying cumulative distributions of dissipation data with respect to a threshold value which can be used to distinguish the crystalline and amorphous states. To exemplify the approach, which is generally applicable to any material, reference materials of purely crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate and completely amorphous spray dried lactose particles were compared to a partially amorphized alpha-lactose monohydrate sample. Dissipation data are compared to evaluations of the lactose samples with conventional AFM and SEM showing significant topographical differences. Finally, the recrystallization of the surface amorphous regions in response to humidity was followed by studying the dissipation response of a well-defined surface region over time, which confirms both that dissipation measurement is a useful measure of surface amorphicity and that significant recrystallization occurs at the surface in response to humidity.

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