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  • 1.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Norling, Rikard
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret.
    Exposure of 304L and 310S in chlorinating gasification environments2015In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret.
    Corrosion and deposit formation on four steels exposed in the syngas section after a biomass gasifier2016In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret.
    Effect of Addition of 4% Al on the High Temperature Oxidation and Nitridation of a 20Cr-25Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel2014In: Oxidation of Metals, ISSN 0030-770X, E-ISSN 1573-4889, Vol. 82, p. 469-490Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Swerea KIMAB.
    Viklund, Peter
    DEKRA Industrial AB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret.
    Laboratory testing to evaluate candidate alloys for superheaters in waste-fired boilersIn: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Review—Passive Film Properties and Electrochemical Response of Different Phases in a Cu-Alloyed Stainless Steel after Long Term Heat Treatment2016In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 163, no 7, p. C377-C385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the influence of copper (0–4 wt%) on the microstructure, passive film properties and local electrochemical response of 25Cr7Ni-type duplex stainless steel is investigated after long term heat-treatment at 800◦C for 6 months. This heat-treatment was done to promote the formation of different phases which could be studied in terms of passive film properties and electrochemical response. The unique microstructures of the alloys comprise austenite, sigma phase, Cr2N nitrides and, for the 2 wt% and 4 wt% Cu alloys, epsilon-Cu phase. The results show that alloying with Cu increases slightly the amount of isothermal Cr2N nitrides and epsilon-Cu phase, but decreases the sigma phase fraction. The location of pitting corrosion as well as the Electrochemical Potential (EP), or electron work function, measured with Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKPFM) show that the epsilon-Cu phase has the lowest corrosion resistance. The EP appears to depend more on the composition of the underlying phase than on the thickness of the passive film. Cr-nitrides have the highest EP followed by sigma phase, austenite and epsilon-Cu phase. There is a clear decrease of EP of the austenitic phase when 2 wt% Cu is added in the alloy.

  • 6.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Rohwerder, Michael
    Max-Planck Institute .
    Use of SVET to evaluate corrosion resistance of heat tinted stainless steel welds and effect of post-weld cleaningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of heat tints on the corrosion resistance of a 2507 duplex stainless steel Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded joint was assessed. The Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET) was used to study oxide dissolution, initiation and propagation of corrosion on the weld at the open circuit potential (OCP) and at applied potentials. Small spot X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the composition and thickness of the heat tints. Both heat tinted and post-weld cleaned conditions were tested. Post-weld cleaning methods investigated were brushing, brushing plus polishing and brushing plus pickling paste. The results from the 2507 weld were also compared with results from a TIG 316L weld. SVET was shown to be an appropriate technique for characterising in-situ the activity of heat tints. It was seen that heat tints dissolve by electrochemical reactions that can be mapped with the SVET and correlated with the level of discoloration of the oxides, with the purple-brown oxide being the most active. The slow dissolution of the oxide gave a gradual decrease in current density over longer immersion times, leading to establishment of a passive state. The mechanical post-weld cleaning methods proved to be insufficient to remove the anodic activity in the heat tint. The most efficient process was brushing followed by pickling which resulted in a totally passive surface measured with SVET and a higher critical pitting temperature.

  • 7.
    Fuertes, Nuria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    French Corrosion Institute.
    Thierry, Dominique
    French Corrosion Institute.
    Vucko, Fabien
    French Corrosion Institute.
    Influence of Mechanical Stress on the Potential Distribution on a 301 LN Stainless Steel Surface2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, p. C465-C472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of the stress on the electrode potential of the austenitic stainless steel301LN using Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP). It was found that elastic deformation reversibly ennobles the potential whereas plasticdeformation decreases the potential in both tensile and compressive deformation mode and this decrease is retained even 24 h afterremoval of the load. To interpret the stress effects, different surface preparations were used and the composition and thickness ofthe passive film were determined by GDOES. Slip steps formed due to plastic deformation were observed using AFM. The effect ofplastic strain on the potential is explained by the formation of dislocations, which creates more a defective passive film.

  • 8.
    Lindell, David
    et al.
    Swerea Kimab AB, Sweden.
    Ekman, T.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Fast and Efficient Annealing of Stainless Steel Strip Using Oxyfuel Burners2015In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 557-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot plant and annealing experiments have been conducted to study the effect of the higher water content in oxyfuel annealing on oxidation and pickling of cold rolled stainless steel. The experiments were conducted on the austenitic grade AISI 304 in a propane-fired furnace using air and pure oxygen as oxidizers. The experiments were conducted at 1050-1200 degrees C for typically less than 60 s, in order to simulate industrial annealing of thin strip. Supplementary laboratory annealing trials were made to study the evolution of the microstructure during fast heating rates and short hold times. Increasing the water content from 15 to 50 mol% did not alter the oxidation kinetics or the chemistry of the oxide. Since the oxidation is not altered significantly, the pickling performance of the material remains unchanged. The presence of spalled areas increased the pickling efficiency significantly but this was only seen for material annealed at higher temperature compared to industrial practice. Oxyfuel combustion allows higher heat input and therefore faster heating. The 304 grade recrystallizes readily even at moderate cold rolling reductions so the total annealing time can be reduced substantially if the heating rate can be increased. The present work suggests that this can be done without any downstream effects.

  • 9.
    Lindell, David
    et al.
    Swerea Kimab AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Crystallographic effects in corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 316L2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron backscatter diffraction and confocal laser microscopy have been used to quantify the degree of crystallographic anisotropy during corrosion of AISI 316L in two test solutions. Corrosion in 30 vol% H2SO4 sulphuric acid shows pronounced crystallographic anisotropy in which the corrosion rate increases in the order {111} < {110} ≲ {100}. The ratio between the slowest corroding {111} and the fasting corroding {100} surfaces is about 3. Pitting corrosion in a solution of FeCl3 and AlCl3 in ethanol/glycerol agrees with other reported observations that high-atomic density surfaces {111} and {100} are less prone to pit nucleation, however the effect was relative small.

  • 10.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Depletion effects at phase boundaries in 2205 duplex stainless steel characterized with SKPFM and TEM/EDS2009In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1850-1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2205 duplex stainless steel, which had undergone two different heat treatments, was characterized by means of SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). In general, paramagnetic austenite was found to exhibit the highest Volta potential, followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite. The local Volta potential drop at the phase boundaries is clearly visible in the slowly cooled sample with sigma phase precipitate while it is not notable in the solution-annealed reference sample. Chemical composition line analyses with TEM/EDS showed the depletion of Cr and Mo at the phase boundaries.

  • 11.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wessman, Sten
    Kivisäkk, Ulf
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    SKPFM Study of Chromium Nitrides in 2507 Super Duplex Stainless Steel: Implications and Limitations2011In: ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, ISSN 0013-4686, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 1792-1798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chromium nitrides on localized corrosion resistance of 2507super duplex stainless steel was investigated in this study. The Voltapotential difference measured with scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy(SKPFM) indicates that chromium nitrides with the size range of 80‐230 nmprecipitated isothermally at the ferrite/austenite phase boundaries maydetrimentally affect the corrosion resistance due to the observed local Voltapotential drop at the phase boundaries. Small quenched‐in nitrides with thesize range of 50‐100 nm formed in the centre of the ferrite phase, on theother hand, may have small or no adverse effect on the corrosion resistancesince they showed no difference in Volta potential relative to the matrix.

  • 12.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Wessman, Sten
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Study of nobility of chromium nitrides in isothermally aged duplex stainless steels by using SKPFM and SEM/EDS2010In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative nobility of Cr2N in duplex stainless steels (DSSs) was investigated in isothermally aged 2205 and 2507 DSSs using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and SEM/EDS. The specimens contained nitrides, austenite and sigma phase but no ferrite. In these materials, Cr2N exhibits a higher Volta potential than sigma phase and austenite, implying the highest practical nobility of Cr2N compare to the surrounding phases. The composition and alloying effect can explain the relative nobility of the phases. The apparent "size effect" of small Cr2N on the measured Volta potential difference is probably due to the influence of surrounding matrix.

  • 13.
    Sathirachinda, Namurata
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wessman, Sten
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta Research Centre.
    Evaluation of corrosion behaviour in a 317L stainless steel strip welding using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy2011In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 1092-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy have been used in combination with SEM/EDS and immersion tests to study a 317L electroslag strip weld which contains austenite and interdendritic ferrite and sigma phase. The individual phases can easily be recognized from the compositional contrast, magnetic pattern and Volta potential variation. Austenite, which is paramagnetic, exhibits the highest Volta potential followed by non-magnetic sigma phase and ferromagnetic ferrite, respectively. Corrosion testing in acidic chloride solutions indicates that the Volta potential measured in air can be related to the tendency to uniform corrosion, while pitting corrosion shows different dependence. In both cases ferrite and sigma phase behaved in a similar manner, indicating that there was no specific detrimental effect of sigma phase on corrosion properties in this material.

  • 14.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Peng, R. L.
    Schönning, M.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel-microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  • 15.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH. Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Surface characterization of austenitic stainless steel 304L after different grinding operations2017In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING, ISSN 1823-0334, Vol. 12, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The austenitic stainless steel 304L is widely used as a structural material for which the finished surface has significant effect on the service performance. A study of the grinding process with regard to the quality of the ground surfaces is therefore interesting from the point of view of both industrial application and scientific research. Method: This work investigates the influence of grinding parameters including abrasive grit size, machine power, and grinding lubrication on the surface integrity of the austenitic stainless steel 304L. The induced normal grinding force, grinding surface temperature, metal removal rate, and surface property changes have been investigated and compared. Results and Conclusion: Using grinding, lubrication significantly enhanced the metal removal rate. Surface defects (deep grooves, smearing, adhesive chips, and indentations), a highly deformed thin surface layer up to a few microns in thickness, and high surface tensile residual stresses parallel to the grinding direction have been observed as the main damage induced by the grinding operations. Surface finish and deformation were found to be improved by using smaller abrasive grits or by using lubrication during grinding. Increasing the machine power increased surface deformation while reducing surface defects. The results obtained can provide a reference for choosing appropriate grinding parameters when machining 304L; and can also help to understand the failure mechanism of ground austenitic stainless steel components during service.

  • 16.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Department of Material Science, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Jernkontoret, SE-11187 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Surface integrity of 2304 duplex stainless steel after different grinding operations2016In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 229, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface integrity has significant effect on service performance of a component. In this study, the evolution of the surface and sub-surface changes induced by grinding duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2304 was studied with regard to the residual stress, the microstructure, surface roughness and surface defects. The results provide insights into the effect of abrasive grit size, grinding force and lubrication on the surface integrity. The abrasive grit size was found to have the largest influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction have been found to be the main types of damage induced by the grinding operation. Residual stresses induced by mechanical effects dominate over thermal effects in this study. The results obtained can be used to understand the contribution of surface condition and residual stress on failure of duplex stainless steels in service by fatigue or stress corrosion cracking.

  • 17.
    Zhou, Nian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Schönning, Mikael
    Lin Peng, Ru
    Influence of surface grinding on corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels in boiling magnesium chloride solution2018In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of grinding operations on surface properties and corrosion behavior of a ferritic stainless steel (FSS), EN 1.4509, has been investigated and limited comparisons also made to the grade EN 1.4622. Surface grinding was performed along the rolling direction of the material. Corrosion tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride solution according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and under four‐point bend loading. The surface topography and cross‐section microstructure before and after exposure were investigated, and residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after corrosion tests using X‐ray diffraction. In addition, in situ surface stress measurements were performed to evaluate the actual surface stresses of specimens subject to four‐point bend loading according to ASTM G39. Micro‐pits showing branched morphology initiated from the highly deformed ground surface layer which contained fragmented grains, were observed for all the ground specimens but not those in the as‐delivered condition. Grain boundaries under the surface layer appeared to hinder the corrosion process. No macro‐cracking was found on any specimen after exposure even at high calculated applied loads.

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