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  • 1.
    Carlson, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Speech and music performance. Parallels and contrasts1987In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 007-023Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Carlson, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granström, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Speech and music performance: parallels and contrasts1989In: Contemporary Music Review, ISSN 0749-4467, E-ISSN 1477-2256, Vol. 4, p. 389-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and music performance are two important systems for interhuman communication by means of acoustic signals. These signals must be adapted to the human perceptual and cognitive systems. Hence a comparitive analysis of speech and music performances is likely to shed light on these systems, particularly regarding basic requirements for acoustic communication. Two computer programs are compared, one for text-to-speech conversion and one for note-to-tone conversion. Similarities are found in the need for placing emphasis on unexpected elements, for increasing the dissimilarities between different categories, and for flagging structural constituents. Similarities are also found in the code chosen for conveying this information, e.g. emphasis by lengthening and constituent marking by final lengthening. 

  • 3.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance Rules for Computer-Controlled Contemporary Keyboard Music1991In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer program for synthesis of music performance, originally developed for traditional tonal music by means of an analysis-by-synthesis strategy, is applied to contemporary piano music as well as to various computer-generated random music. The program consists of rules that manipulate the durations and sound levels of the tones in a contextdependent way. When applying the rules to this music, the concept harmonic charge, which has been found useful for generating crescendi and diminuendi in performance of traditional tonal music for example, is replaced by chromatic charge. The music is performed on a Casio sampler controlled by a Macintosh II microcomputer. A listening panel of five experts on contemporary piano music or electroacoustic music clearly preferred performances processed by the performance program to "deadpan" performances mechanically replicating the durations and sound levels nominally written in the music score. 

  • 4.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L-G
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance rules for computer controlled performance of contemporary keyboard music1987In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 079-085Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Iwarsson, JennyKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Jansson, ErikKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Sundberg, JohanKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 19931994Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A Lisp Environment for Creating and Applying Rules for Musical Performance1986In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference 1986, 1986, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Comparing runners« decelerations and final ritards1997In: Proc of 3rd Triennial ESCOM Conference, 1997, p. 582-586Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Just Noticable Difference in duration, pitch and sound level in a musical context1994In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, Liège 1994, 1994, p. 339-340Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a1992In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 097-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The JND for a perturbation of the timin<g of a tone appearing in a metrical sequencewas examined in an experiment where 30 listeners of varied musical backgroundwere asked to adjust the timing of thefourth tone in a sequence of six suchthat they heard the sequence as perfectly regular. The tones were presented at aconstant inter-onset time that was varied between 100 ms and 1000 ms. The averageJND was found to be about 10 ms for tones shorter than about 240 ms durationand about 5% ofthe duration for longer tones. Subjects' musical training didnot appear to affect these values.

  • 10.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a metrical sequence at different tempos1994In: Proc. of SMAC ’93, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 1994, p. 39-43Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Stopping in running and in music performance. Part II. A model of the final ritardando based on runners’ deceleration1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 2-3, p. 033-046Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for describing the change of tempo in final ritardandi is presented. The model was based on the previous finding that runners’ average deceleration can be characterised by a constant brake power. This implies that velocity is as a squareroot function of time or alternatively, a cubic-root function of position. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo is realised by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. To account for the variation observed in individual measured ritardandi and in individual decelerations, two parameters were introduced; (1) the parameter q controlling the curvature with q=3 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and (2) the parameter v(end) corresponding to the final tempo. A listening experiment gave highest ratings for q=2 and q=3 and lower ratings for higher and lower q values. Out of three tempo functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi and individual decelerations. A commonly used function for modelling tempo variations in phrases (duration is a quadratic function of score position) produced the lowest ratings in the listening experiment and the least good fit to the measured individual ritardandi. The fact that the same model can be used for describing velocity curves in decelerations as well as tempo curves in music provides a striking example of analogies between motion and music.

  • 12.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In acoustic communication timing seems to be an exceedingly important aspect. The just noticeable difference ~jnd! for small perturbations of an isochronous sequence of sounds is particularly important in music, in which such sequences frequently occur. This article reviews the literature in the area and presents an experiment designed to resolve some conflicting results in the literature regarding the tempo dependence for quick tempi and relevance of music experience. The jnd for a perturbation of the timing of a tone appearing in an isochronous sequence was examined by the method of adjustment. Thirty listeners of varied musical background were asked to adjust the position of the fourth tone in a sequence of six, such that they heard the sequence as perfectly isochronous. The tones were presented at a constant interonset time that was varied between 100 and 1000 ms. The absolute jnd was found to be approximately constant at 6 ms for tone interonset intervals shorter than about 240 ms and the relative jnd constant at 2.5% of the tone interonsets above 240 ms. Subjects’ musical training did not affect these values. Comparison with previous work showed that a constant absolute jnd below 250 ms and constant relative jnd above 250 ms tend to appear regardless of the perturbation type, at least if the sequence is relatively short.

  • 13.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Using Rules to Control the Musical Performance1987In: Actes du Symposium Systèmes Personnels et Informatique Musicale, IRCAM, 1986, 1987Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    How to terminate a phrase. An analysis-by-synthesis experiment on the perceptual aspect of music performance1987In: Action and Perception of rhythm and music / [ed] Gabrielsson, A., 1987, p. 49-55Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred quantities of expressive variation in music performance1989In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 053-062Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Recent musical performance research at KTH1994In: Proceedings of the Aarhus symposium on Generative grammars for music performance 1994, 1994, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Rules for musical performance1994Other (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The KTH rules for musical performance: Overview and recent additions1995In: Proc of 15th Intl Congress on Acoustics (ICA«95), 1995, Vol. 3, p. 431-434Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Han, Qichao
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Duration, Pitch, and Loudness in Kunqu Opera Stage Speech2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, article id UNSP 255.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Kunqu is a special type of opera within the Chinese tradition with 600 years of history. In it, stage speech is used for the spoken dialogue. It is performed in Ming Dynasty's mandarin language and is a much more dominant part of the play than singing. Stage speech deviates considerably from normal conversational speech with respect to duration, loudness and pitch. This paper compares these properties in stage speech conversational speech. Method. A famous, highly experienced female singer's performed stage speech and reading of the same lyrics in a conversational speech mode. Clear differences are found. Results. As compared with conversational speech, stage speech had longer word and sentence duration and word duration was less variable. Average sound level was 16 dB higher. Also mean fundamental frequency was considerably higher and more varied. Within sentences, both loudness and fundamental frequency tended to vary according to a low-high-low pattern. Conclusions. Some of the findings fail to support current opinions regarding the characteristics of stage speech, and in this sense the study demonstrates the relevance of objective measurements in descriptions of vocal styles.

  • 20. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Becker, Sven
    Schuster, Maria
    Johnson, Thorsten
    Maier, Andreas
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery on the acoustics of the sinonasal tract2017In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different FESS procedures were performed and the acoustical responses following excitation were recorded.The measured acoustical changes in the obtained transfer functions were then evaluated. Results: Marked low frequency dips were detected in the transfer functions when sinus cavities were included in the nasal resonator system. These dips showed a significant correlation with sinus volumes. Following FESS procedures they moved upwards in frequency depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. Conclusions: The transfer functions obtained in cadaveric situs and 3D replicas showed dips at the resonance frequencies of the paranasal cavities. Marked acoustic effects in terms of increase in dip frequency following FESS procedures were reproducibly documented.

  • 21. Mathews, M. V.
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bennett, G.
    Sapp, C.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A marriage of the Director Musices program and the conductor program2003In: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden, 2003, Vol. 1, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe an ongoing collaboration between the authors to combine the Director Musices and Conductor programs in order to achieve a more expressive and socially interactive performance of a midi file score by an electronic orchestra. Director Musices processes a “square” midi file, adjusting the dynamics and timing of the notes to achieve the expressive performance of a trained musician. The Conductor program and the Radio-baton allow a conductor, wielding an electronic baton, to follow and synchronize with other musicians, for example to provide an orchestral accompaniment to an operatic singer. These programs may be particularly useful for student soloists who wish to practice concertos with orchestral accompaniments. 

  • 22. Scherer, K. R.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fantini, B.
    Trznadel, S.
    Eyben, F.
    The expression of emotion in the singing voice: Acoustic patterns in vocal performance2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1805-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little research on the acoustic correlates of emotional expression in the singing voice. In this study, two pertinent questions are addressed: How does a singer's emotional interpretation of a musical piece affect acoustic parameters in the sung vocalizations? Are these patterns specific enough to allow statistical discrimination of the intended expressive targets? Eight professional opera singers were asked to sing the musical scale upwards and downwards (using meaningless content) to express different emotions, as if on stage. The studio recordings were acoustically analyzed with a standard set of parameters. The results show robust vocal signatures for the emotions studied. Overall, there is a major contrast between sadness and tenderness on the one hand, and anger, joy, and pride on the other. This is based on low vs high levels on the components of loudness, vocal dynamics, high perturbation variation, and a tendency for high low-frequency energy. This pattern can be explained by the high power and arousal characteristics of the emotions with high levels on these components. A multiple discriminant analysis yields classification accuracy greatly exceeding chance level, confirming the reliability of the acoustic patterns.

  • 23.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Flow Glottogram and Subglottal Pressure Relationship in Singers and Untrained Voices2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines results from three earlier investigations of the glottal voice source during phonation at varying degrees of vocal loudness (1) in five classically trained baritone singers (Sundberg et al., 1999), (2) in 15 female and 14 male untrained voices (Sundberg et al., 2005), and (3) in voices rated as hyperfunctional by an expert panel (Millgard et al., 2015). Voice source data were obtained by inverse filtering. Associated subglottal pressures were estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. Five flow glottogram parameters, (1) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), (2) peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, (3) level difference between the first and the second harmonics of the voice source, (4) closed quotient, and (5) normalized amplitude quotient, were averaged across the singer subjects and related to associated MFDR values. Strong, quantitative relations, expressed as equations, are found between subglottal pressure and MFDR and between MFDR and each of the other flow glottogram parameters. The values for the untrained voices, as well as those for the voices rated as hyperfunctional, deviate systematically from the values derived from the equations.

  • 24. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Stopping running and stopping a piece of music. Comparing locomotion and music performance1996In: Proc of NAM 96, Nordic Acoustical Meeting / [ed] Riederer, K., & Lahti, T., 1996, p. 351-358Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Common Secrets of Musicians and Listeners - An analysis-by-synthesis Study of Musical Performance1991In: Representing Musical Structure / [ed] Howell, P.; West, R.; Cross, I., London: Academic Press, 1991, p. 161-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Music and locomotion. a study of the perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking1992In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 109-122Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Music listening ofien produces associations to locomotion. This suggests that some patterns in music are similar to those perceived during locomotion. The present investigation tests the hypothesis that the sound level envelope of tones allude to force patterns associated with walking and dancing. Six examples of such force patterns were recorded using a force platform, and the vertical components were translated from kg to dB and used as level envelopes for tones. Sequences of four copies of each of these tones were presented with four different fixed inter-onset times. Music students were asked to characterize these sequences in three tests. In one test, the subjects were free to use any expression, and the occurrence of motion words in the responses was examined. In another test, they were asked to describe, ifpossible, the motion characteristics of the sequences, and the number of blank responses were studied. In the third test, they were asked to describe the sequences along 24 motion adjective scales, and the responses were submitted to a factor analysis. The results from the three tests showed a reasonable degree of coherence, suggesting that associations to locomotions are likely to occur under these conditions, particularly when (1) the inter-onset time is similar to the inter-step time typical of walking, and (2) when the inter-onset time agreed with that observed when the gait patterns were recorded. The latter observation suggests that the different motion patterns thus translated to sound level envelopes also may convey information on the type of motion.

  • 27.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Music and locomotion. Perception of tones with level envelopes replicating force patterns of walking1994In: Proc. of SMAC ’93, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 1994, p. 136-141Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Musicians’ and nonmusicians’ sensitivity to differences in music performance1988In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 077-081Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of ordered context-dependent rules for the automatic transformation of a music score to the corresponding musical performance has been developed, using an analysis-by-synthesis method [Sundberg, J. (1987): "Computer synthesis of music performance," pp. 52-69 in (J. Sloboda, ed.) Generative Processes in Music, Clarendon, Oxford]. The rules are implemented in the LeLisp language on a Macintosh microcomputer that controls a synthesizer via a MIDI interface. The rules manipulate sound level, fundamental frequency, vibrato extent, and duration of the tones. The present experiment was carried out in order to find out if the sensitivity of these effects differed between musicians and nonrnusicians. Pairs of performances of the same examples were presented in different series, one for each rule. Between the pairs in a series, the performance differences were varied within wide limits and, in the first pair in each series, the difference was pat, so as to catch the subject's attention. Subjects were asked to decide whether the two performances were identical. The results showed that musicians had a clearly greater sensitivity. The pedagogical implications of this finding will be discussed. 

  • 29.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Rules for automated performance of ensemble music1989In: Contemporary Music Review, ISSN 0749-4467, E-ISSN 1477-2256, Vol. 3, p. 89-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed parts of a computer program are presented that contain a rule system which automatically converts music scores to musical performance, and which, in a sense, can be regarded as a model of a musically gifted player. The development of the rule system has followed the analysis-by-synthesis strategy; various rules have been formulated according to the suggestions of a professional string quartet violinist and teacher of ensemble playing. The effects of various rules concerning synchronization and timing and also tuning, in performance of ensemble music are evaluated by a listening panel of professional musicians. Further support for the notion of melodic clzarge, previously introduced and playing a prominent rule in the performance rules, is found in a correlation with fine tuning of intervals. 

  • 30.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Rules for automatized performance of ensemble music1987In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 057-078Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently developed parts of a computer program are presented that contain a rule system which automatically converts music scores to musical performance, and which, in a sense, can be regarded as a model of a musically gifted player. The development of the rule system has followed the analysis-by-synthesis strategy; various rules have been formulated after having been suggested by a professional string quartet violinist and teacher of ensemble playing. The effects of various rules concerning synchronization and timing and, also, tuning in performance of ensemble music are evaluated by a listening panel of professional musicians. Further support for the notion of melodic charge, previously introduced and playing a prominent rule in the performance rules, is found in a correlation with fine tuning of intervals. 

  • 31.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Threshold and preference Quantities of Rules for Music Performance1991In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 71-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an analysis- by-synthesis investigation of music performance, rules have been developed that describe when and how expressive deviations are made from the nominal music notation in the score. Two experiments that consider the magnitudes of such deviations are described. In Experiment 1, the musicians' and nonmusicians' sensitivities to expressive deviations generated by seven performance rules are compared. The musicians showed a clearly greater sensitivity. In Experiment 2, professional musicians adjusted to their satisfaction the quantity by which six rules affected the performance. For most rules, there was a reasonable agreement between the musicians regarding preference. The preferred quantities seemed close to the threshold of perceptibility.

  • 32.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Mathews, M. V.
    Bennett, G.
    Experiences of combining the radio baton with the director musices performance grammar2001In: MOSART project workshop on current research directions in computer music, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Expressive aspects of instrumental and sung performance1994In: Proceedings  of the Symposium on Psychophysiology and Psychopathology of the Sense of Music / [ed] Steinberg, R., Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Expressive aspects of instrumental and vocal performance1995In: Music and the Mind Machine: Psychophysiology and Psychopathology of the Sense of Music / [ed] Steinberg, R., Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1995Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several music computers can now convert an input note file to a sounding performance. Listening to such performances demonstrates convincingly the significance of the musicians’ contribution to music performance; when the music score is accurately replicated as nominally written, the music sounds dull and nagging. It is the musicians’ contributions that make the performance interesting. In other words, by deviating slightly from what is nominally written in the music score, the musicians add expressivity to the music.

  • 35.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Music communication as studied by means of performance1991In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 065-083Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an overview of a long-term research work with a rule system for the automatic performance of music. The performance rules produce deviations from the durations, sound levels, and pitches nominally specified in the music score. They can be classified according to their apparent musical function: to help the listener (I) in the differentiation of different pitch and duration categories and (2) in the grouping of the tones. Apart from this, some rules serve the purpose of organizing tuning and synchronization in ensemble performance. The rules reveal striking similarities between music performance and speech; for instance final lengthening occur in both and the acoustic code used for marking of emphasis are similar.

  • 36.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Monteverdi’s vespers. A case study in music synthesis1988In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 29, no 2-3, p. 093-105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the methods used in synthesizing a performance of the first movement of Monteverdi's Vespers from 1610. The synthesis combines results from studies of singing voice acoustics, ensemble acoustics, and rules for music performance. The emphasis is on the synthesis of choir sounds.

  • 37.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Synthesizing choir singing1988In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 332-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis by synthesis is a method that has been successfully applied in many areas of scientific research. In speech research, it has proven to be an excellent tool for identifying perceptually relevant acoustical properties of sounds. This paper reports on some first attempts at synthesizing choir singing, the aim being to elucidate the importance of factors such as the frequency scatter in the fundamental and the formants. The presentation relies heavily on sound examples.

  • 38. Thompson, W. F.
    et al.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Evaluating rules for the synthetic performance of melodies1986In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 27, no 2-3, p. 027-044Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from a text-to-speech conversion program (Carlson & Granstrom, 1975), a note-to-tone conversion program has been developed (!Xmdberg & ~rydh, 1985). It works with a set of ordered rules af fe&- ing the performance of melodies written into the computer. Depending on the musical context, each of these rules manipulates various tone parameters, such as sound level, fundamental frequency, duration, etc. In the present study the effect of some of the rules developed so far on the musical quality of the performance is tested; various musical excerpts perbrmed according to different combinations an5 versions of nine performance rules were played to musically trained listeners who rated the musical quality. The results support the assumption that the musical quality of the performance is improved by applying the rules. 

  • 39. Thompson, W. F.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The Use of Rules for Expression in the Performance of Melodies1989In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 17, p. 63-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional operatic baritone singers was analysed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang a sustained diminuendo, from loudest to softest phonation, three times on the vowels [a:] and [ä:] at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50% and 75% of his total pitch range as measured in semitones. During the diminuendi the subjects repeatedly inserted the consonant [p] so that associated subglottal pressures could be estimated from the oral pressure during [p]­occlusions. Pooling the three takes of each condition, ten subglottal pressures (PS), equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of [a:] and [ä:] vowels. The levels of the first formant and the singer’s formant, L1 and LSF, were measured as a function of increasing subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, an increase in PS resulted in (a) an increase in L1 and (b) a decrease in L1-LSF. This implies that a 10 dB increase at or near 600 Hz was, on average, accompanied by an increase of 17 dB of the level near 3 kHz.

1 - 40 of 40
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