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  • 1. Han, Qichao
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Duration, Pitch, and Loudness in Kunqu Opera Stage Speech2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, article id UNSP 255.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Kunqu is a special type of opera within the Chinese tradition with 600 years of history. In it, stage speech is used for the spoken dialogue. It is performed in Ming Dynasty's mandarin language and is a much more dominant part of the play than singing. Stage speech deviates considerably from normal conversational speech with respect to duration, loudness and pitch. This paper compares these properties in stage speech conversational speech. Method. A famous, highly experienced female singer's performed stage speech and reading of the same lyrics in a conversational speech mode. Clear differences are found. Results. As compared with conversational speech, stage speech had longer word and sentence duration and word duration was less variable. Average sound level was 16 dB higher. Also mean fundamental frequency was considerably higher and more varied. Within sentences, both loudness and fundamental frequency tended to vary according to a low-high-low pattern. Conclusions. Some of the findings fail to support current opinions regarding the characteristics of stage speech, and in this sense the study demonstrates the relevance of objective measurements in descriptions of vocal styles.

  • 2. Havel, Miriam
    et al.
    Becker, Sven
    Schuster, Maria
    Johnson, Thorsten
    Maier, Andreas
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery on the acoustics of the sinonasal tract2017In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nasal and paranasal cavities are supposed to contribute substantially to the vocal tract resonator properties. However, their acoustical effects as well as the effects of sinus surgery on the voice remain unclear. In this work we investigate resonance phenomena of paranasal sinuses prior to and after various rhinosurgical procedures in cadaveric human sinonasal tracts and corresponding 3D casts. Methodology: Nasal and paranasal cavities of formalin-preserved cadavers and corresponding 3D replicas were excited by sine tone sweeps from an earphone placed in the epipharynx.The response was picked up by a microphone at the nostrils. Different FESS procedures were performed and the acoustical responses following excitation were recorded.The measured acoustical changes in the obtained transfer functions were then evaluated. Results: Marked low frequency dips were detected in the transfer functions when sinus cavities were included in the nasal resonator system. These dips showed a significant correlation with sinus volumes. Following FESS procedures they moved upwards in frequency depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. Conclusions: The transfer functions obtained in cadaveric situs and 3D replicas showed dips at the resonance frequencies of the paranasal cavities. Marked acoustic effects in terms of increase in dip frequency following FESS procedures were reproducibly documented.

  • 3. Scherer, K. R.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fantini, B.
    Trznadel, S.
    Eyben, F.
    The expression of emotion in the singing voice: Acoustic patterns in vocal performance2017In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 1805-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little research on the acoustic correlates of emotional expression in the singing voice. In this study, two pertinent questions are addressed: How does a singer's emotional interpretation of a musical piece affect acoustic parameters in the sung vocalizations? Are these patterns specific enough to allow statistical discrimination of the intended expressive targets? Eight professional opera singers were asked to sing the musical scale upwards and downwards (using meaningless content) to express different emotions, as if on stage. The studio recordings were acoustically analyzed with a standard set of parameters. The results show robust vocal signatures for the emotions studied. Overall, there is a major contrast between sadness and tenderness on the one hand, and anger, joy, and pride on the other. This is based on low vs high levels on the components of loudness, vocal dynamics, high perturbation variation, and a tendency for high low-frequency energy. This pattern can be explained by the high power and arousal characteristics of the emotions with high levels on these components. A multiple discriminant analysis yields classification accuracy greatly exceeding chance level, confirming the reliability of the acoustic patterns.

  • 4.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Flow Glottogram and Subglottal Pressure Relationship in Singers and Untrained Voices2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article combines results from three earlier investigations of the glottal voice source during phonation at varying degrees of vocal loudness (1) in five classically trained baritone singers (Sundberg et al., 1999), (2) in 15 female and 14 male untrained voices (Sundberg et al., 2005), and (3) in voices rated as hyperfunctional by an expert panel (Millgard et al., 2015). Voice source data were obtained by inverse filtering. Associated subglottal pressures were estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. Five flow glottogram parameters, (1) maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), (2) peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, (3) level difference between the first and the second harmonics of the voice source, (4) closed quotient, and (5) normalized amplitude quotient, were averaged across the singer subjects and related to associated MFDR values. Strong, quantitative relations, expressed as equations, are found between subglottal pressure and MFDR and between MFDR and each of the other flow glottogram parameters. The values for the untrained voices, as well as those for the voices rated as hyperfunctional, deviate systematically from the values derived from the equations.

  • 5.
    White, Peta
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Spectrum effects of subglottal pressure variation in professional baritone singers2000In: TMH-QPSR, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 41, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The audio signal from five professional operatic baritone singers was analysed by means of spectrum analysis. Each subject sang a sustained diminuendo, from loudest to softest phonation, three times on the vowels [a:] and [ä:] at fundamental frequencies representing 25%, 50% and 75% of his total pitch range as measured in semitones. During the diminuendi the subjects repeatedly inserted the consonant [p] so that associated subglottal pressures could be estimated from the oral pressure during [p]­occlusions. Pooling the three takes of each condition, ten subglottal pressures (PS), equidistantly spaced between highest and lowest, were selected for analysis along with the corresponding production of [a:] and [ä:] vowels. The levels of the first formant and the singer’s formant, L1 and LSF, were measured as a function of increasing subglottal pressure. Averaged across subjects, an increase in PS resulted in (a) an increase in L1 and (b) a decrease in L1-LSF. This implies that a 10 dB increase at or near 600 Hz was, on average, accompanied by an increase of 17 dB of the level near 3 kHz.

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