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  • 1. Berends, Sönke
    et al.
    sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    The Socio-Economic Benefits of Off-Peak Hour Distribution: The case of Stockholm2018In: Urban Logistics. : Management, Policy and Innovation in a Rapidly Changing Environment , Kogan page, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Chee, Pei Nen
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Wong, Yiik Diew
    Investigating the willingness of use autonomous bus as a last-mile travel mode: First evidence from public trial in Kista, Stockholm2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Engholm, Albin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    System-level impacts of self-driving vehicles: terminology, impact frameworks and existing literature syntheses2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention with this report is to contribute toward the development of systemic and holistic studies of impacts of self-driving vehicles. The report is targeting system-level impacts of self-driving vehicles on the transportation system but also wider societal impacts on factors such as: land-use, public health, energy and emissions, etc. This report is complimentary to two papers that are focused on in-depth literature review of simulation studies  (Pernestål Brenden and Kristoffersson 2018) and future scenario studies of impacts of self-driving vehicles (Engholm, Kristoffersson, and Pernestål Brenden 2018).

    The first aim of the report is to summarize knowledge to enable future design of a high-level conceptual framework for impacts from self-driving vehicles from a systems perspective. The second aim is to summarize knowledge on impacts from self-driving vehicles in a selection of the available literature. The main contributions of the report are the following:

    • A terminology for different types of automated vehicles, connected vehicles and mobility concepts for automated vehicles is presented
    • Frameworks for classifying system-level impacts from SDVs in the existing literature are summarized and analyzed
    • Existing literature studies on system-level impacts from SDVs are synthesized and common themes and gaps in current research are analyzed

    The terminology proposed in this report distinguishes between different types of automated and connected vehicles and is primarily intended as a tool to enable stringent analysis in this report when analyzing literature that apply different terminologies. Two frameworks for classifying system-level impacts are identified and compared. The analysis of the frameworks covers their scope, specification of mechanisms generating system impacts and briefly reviews their applicability as a starting point for developing a systems model of impacts from self-driving vehicles. The review of existing literature syntheses shows that there is a large variation in availability on literature for different system impacts. Impacts on road safety, road capacity and vehicle ownership forms are well studied. Examples of less studied impacts are costs of ownership, public health, infrastructure, air pollution and accessibility. The review identifies several contractionary mechanisms and effects that can affect various system-level impacts. The results of the review highlight the need to approach impact assessments of self-driving vehicles from a systemic and holistic point of view.

  • 4.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Sjöman, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Understanding user practices in mobility service systems: Results from studying large scale corporate MaaS in practice2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a Service (MaaS), where different shared modes of transportation are bundled into one easily accessible service, plays an important role in the shift towards more sustainable transport systems. In this article, we present empirical research with the aim to understand how the barriers to increased shared travel with MaaS can be lowered. The concept of corporate MaaS (CMaaS) is introduced, and empirical results are presented from a study of CMaaS at a workplace of 14,000 employees in Sweden. The findings are based on 77 interviews with CMaaS users, performed in four iterative rounds using service design methods. Social practice theories are used as analytical lens to attempt to understand travel practices in the context of CMaaS. As CMaaS (and MaaS) are socio-technical systems, several perspectives need to be integrated in order to reach this understanding; all system components, including materials (e.g. the user application, the transport modes), competences (knowledge of how to use the materials), and meanings (understandings of travel habits, lifestyle choices, and employer relations) need to be analysed. Through this analytical lens, three barriers to adoption of CMaaS and sustainable transport were identified: inadequate integration of the internal transport system with external transport systems; corporate policy, culture and norms that conflict with using the services; and system limitations due to laws and regulations. All these barriers are also relevant for understanding MaaS services in general.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-03 14:46
  • 5.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Institute for Road and Transport Research, SE - 102 15 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Scenarios for the development of self-driving vehicles in freight transport2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends previous research by developing future scenarios for self-driving vehicles and their societal impacts in freight transport using Sweden as a case study. Freight experts from vehicle manufacturers, agencies, universities and hauliers were recruited for a workshop where they assessed the benefits, costs, possibilities and barriers for self-driving vehicles in freight transport. The paper shows that reduction in driver and vehicle costs, reduced number of incidents and more fuel-efficient driving are seen as the main benefits of self-driving vehicles in freight transport, and increased vehicle costs, lost jobs, reduced degree of filling and more transport as the main costs. Furthermore, reduced drivers’ costs, more hours-of-service and new business models are identified as the main drivers of the development and traffic management, small hauliers, loading and unloading and cross-border transport as the main barriers. The paper also integrates the description of possible developments of self-driving vehicles in freight transport into the four future scenarios developed for passenger transport in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Possibilities and barriers in ride-sharing in work commuting – a case study in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand possibilities and barriers for ride-sharing in work commuting, 451 persons living in the same suburban area and working at the same site were invited to join a ride-sharing program and use a mobile application. Two quantitative web surveys and 16 in-depth interviews have been performed. The results have been analysed using social practice theories as an analytical lens. The participants understood the benefits with the ride-sharing practice, but out of the 451 invited participants, only 8 downloaded the required mobile application for the ride-sharing program. Different to previous results in the literature, trust and security were not seen as issues in this case. Instead the expected loss of flexibility was seen as the main barrier. The participants found a meaning in “being a green commuter” and understood that ride-sharing could contribute to decrease challenges of congestion, environmental impact, and overfull parking places. However, they rated their own current flexibility and convenience in commuting higher than the expected benefits from ride-sharing.

  • 7.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Self-driving shuttles as a complement to public transport – a characterization and classification2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transportation is a top priority challenge for many cities and urban regions. To reach that, an attractive public transport plays a key role. In this paper an analysis of how the technology of self-driving vehicles, and in particular shuttles for about 6-20 passengers, can complement and improve attractively in public transport. Self-driving shuttles provide a new component to public transport, as smaller vehicles can operate on a higher frequency to a cost of the same order of magnitude as conventional larger buses. Six types of applications of self-driving shuttles in public transport are identified: Feeder line, Truncation of high capacity line, Cross connections, Center line, On-demand feeder line, and Within-area service (line or on demand). The application types are exemplified by two potential cases in Stockholm, and implementation barriers and strategies are discussed. The classification, together with examples from on-going applications, suggests that SD shuttles can contribute to public transport already without being fully self-driving everywhere.

  • 8.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Självkörande fordon som komplement till kollektivtrafiken – en förstudie för Stockholm2017Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Koutoulas, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Fu, Jiali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Rumpler, Romain
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Behrends, Sönke
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Glav, Ragnar
    Scania CV AB.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    Volvo AB.
    Brolinsson, Märta
    Stockholms Stad.
    Off-peak City Logistics – A Case Study in Stockholm2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two heavy trucks have been operated in Stockholm city center during night time for e period of one and a half years. New technology has been tested: one the trucks was an electric hybrid with zone management and one was a PIEK certified biogas truck. The two trucks have been operated in different delivery schemes: on dedicated and one consolidated. The off-peak trial has been assessed in from four different perspectives: noise, transport efficiency, users and policy, and socioeconomic aspects. In addition, a literature survey has been performed.  

    Noise produced while travelling with the two trucks tested is not disturbing. The main challenge is noise produced during unloading, and in particular in areas where the background noise is low.

    Transportation efficiency is improved from several perspectives compared with daytime deliveries: transport speed increased, fuel consumption decreased and service times decreased. However, one conclusion from the project is that it is challenging to compare daytime deliveries with off-peak deliveries for an individual truck, since the routing will be different depending on the time of the day even if the delivery points are the same. The reason is that the routing during daytime will be optimized to take congestion into account. Therefore, if general conclusions are to be drawn, data from more different trucks in different delivery schemes need to be collected and analyzed.

    Stakeholder interviews showed that the most important benefits are increased efficiency, shorter travel and deliver times, higher productivity both for carriers and receivers, less environmental impacts and fuel cost savings, as well as better working conditions when trucks are moved from rush hours to off-peak hours. The most important social costs are increased noise levels and noise disturbances, additional staff, equipment and wage costs as well as higher risks in handling goods deliveries at night times, especially in the case of unassisted deliveries. In general, the benefits exceed the costs.

    From the socio-economic analysis it is clear that the dominating type of external cost for daytime deliveries is contribution to congestion. This cost is reduced is nearly eliminated during off-peak deliveries. In addition, off-peak deliveries reduces CO2 emissions, but even more the emissions of air pollutants and can therefore contribute significantly to improving local air quality. The cost of noise is more than twice as big as for daytime deliveries.

    From the city’s perspective the most important remaining challenges are related to 1) Noise measurements and surveillance, 2) general requirements and surveillance, for example concerning vehicles, fuels, and emission levels that are to be allowed, 3) The responsibility for potential additional costs related to infrastructural changes needed. 

    The overall conclusion from the project is that the benefits from off-peak deliveries exceed the costs. The results from the project suggest that the concept of off-peak deliveries is beneficiary in the Stockholm region, and the off-peak delivery program is suggested to continue and be scaled up to involve more vehicles and other types of goods. During the upscaling it is relevant to continue to study effects on transport efficiency, noise levels, and potential business barriers that may arise.

  • 10.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Box 55685, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Effects of driverless vehicles - Comparing simulations to get a broader picture2019In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driverless vehicles have the potential to significantly affect the transport system, society, and environment. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding what the development will look like, and there are several contradictory forces. This paper addresses the effects of driverless vehicles by combining the results from 26 simulation studies. Each simulation study focuses on a particular case, e.g. a certain mobility concept or geographical region. By combining and analysing the results from the 26 simulation studies, an overall picture of the effects of driverless vehicles is presented. In the paper, the following perspectives are considered: what types of application of driverless vehicles have been studied in literature; what effects these simulation studies predict; and what research gaps still exist related to the effects of driverless vehicles. The analysis shows that it is primarily driverless taxi applications in urban areas that have been studied. Some parameters, such as trip cost and waiting time, show small variations between the simulation studies. Other parameters, such as vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT), show larger variations and depend heavily on the assumptions concerning value of time and level of sharing. To increase the understanding of system level effects of driverless vehicles, simulations of more complex applications and aspects such as land use, congestion and energy consumption are considered.

  • 11.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Self-Driving Vehicles (SDVs) is fast, and new pilots and tests are released every week. SDVs are predicted to have the potential to change mobility, human life and society.

    In literature, both negative and positive effects of SDVs are listed (Litman 2015; Fagnant and Kockelman 2015). Among the positive effects are increased traffic throughput leading to less congestion, improved mobility for people without a driver’s license, decreased need for parking spaces, and SDV as an enabler for shared mobility. On the other hand, SDVs are expected to increase the consumption of transport which leads to an increase in total vehicle kilometers travelled. This effect is further reinforced by empty vehicles driving around. This will increase the number of vehicles on the streets and lead to more congestion and increased energy usage. Since the SDV technology is expensive, segregation may be a consequence of the development. In addition there are several challenges related to for example legislation, standardization, infrastructure investments, privacy and security. The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how?

    As we are in a potential mobility shift, and decisions made today will affect the future development, understanding possibilities and challenges for the future is important for many stakeholders. To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden. This study will also be used in the ongoing governmental investigation about future regulations for SDVs on Swedish roads (Bjelfvenstam 2016). A third motivation for the study is to shed light on how demography, geography and political landscape can affect the development of new mobility services.

    Since there are many different forces that drive the development, often uncertain and sometimes in conflict with each other, a scenario planning approach was chosen. In previous studies, different types of predictions have been derived. Most of them are made by US scholars and are therefore naturally focused on the development in the US. The culture, both with respect to urban planning and public transport is different in Europe compared to the US.

    The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team. The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme: 1) trend analysis, 2) defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and 3) consequence analysis. The analysis team, consisting of the present three authors and two future strategists, has analyzed, refined and condensed the material from the expert group.

    During the project certain trends and strategic uncertainties were identified by the expert group. The uncertainties that were identified as most important for the development of SDVs in Sweden are: 1) whether the sharing economy becomes a new norm or not, and 2) whether city planners, authorities and politicians will be proactive in the development of cities and societies or not, especially regarding the transportation system. This led to four scenarios: A) “Same, same but all the difference” – a green, individualistic society, B) “Sharing is the new black” – a governmentally driven innovation society based on sharing, C) “Follow the path” – an individualistic society based on development in the same direction as today, and D) “What you need is what you get” – a commercially driven innovation society where sharing is a key.

    In the paper, we describe the scenarios and the process to derive them in more detail. We also present an analysis of the consequences for the development of SDVs in the four scenarios, including predictions concerning pace of development, level of self-driving, fleet size, travel demand and vehicle kilometers travelled. The paper also includes a discussion and comparison with other studies on the development of SDVs in the US, Europe and Asia.

  • 12.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Where will self-driving vehicles take us? Scenarios for the development of automated vehicles with sweden as a case study2019In: Autonomous Vehicles and Future Mobility / [ed] Pierluigi Coppola, Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Elsevier, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Chee, Pei Nen
    Darwish, Rami
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Early Lessons From an Autonomous Bus Deployment on a Public Road in Stockholm2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Svensson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Masson, Lola
    Mohan, Naveen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Ward, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Safe Stop Trajectory Planning for Highly Automated Vehicles:An Optimal Control Problem Formulation2018In: 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 517-522, article id 8500536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated road vehicles need the capabilityof stopping safely in a situation that disrupts continued normaloperation, e.g. due to internal system faults. Motion planningfor safe stop differs from nominal motion planning, since thereis not a specific goal location. Rather, the desired behavior isthat the vehicle should reach a stopped state, preferably outsideof active lanes. Also, the functionality to stop safely needs tobe of high integrity. The first contribution of this paper isto formulate the safe stop problem as a benchmark optimalcontrol problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming.However, this solution method cannot be used in real-time. Thesecond contribution is to develop a real-time safe stop trajectoryplanning algorithm, based on selection from a precomputedset of trajectories. By exploiting the particular properties ofthe safe stop problem, the cardinality of the set is decreased,making the algorithm computationally efficient. Furthermore, amonitoring based architecture concept is proposed, that ensuresdependability of the safe stop function. Finally, a proof of conceptsimulation using the proposed architecture and the safe stoptrajectory planner is presented.

  • 15.
    Wallsten, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Paulsson, Alexander
    VTI.
    Hultén, John
    VTI.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    VTI.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Almlöf, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Statlig styrförmåga i framtider med smart mobilitet2019Report (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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