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  • 1. He, Wang
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Ying, Zhinong
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    RF Compliance Study of Temperature Elevation in Human Head Model Around 28 GHz for 5G User Equipment Application: Simulation Analysis2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crowdedness of current cellular bands and the demand for higher transmission speed prompt the use of the millimeter-wave spectrum for the next-generation mobile communication. In the millimeter-wave frequencies, the dosimetric quantity for human exposure to electromagnetic fields changes from the specific absorption rate to incident power density. In this paper, we used 28-GHz beam-steering patch arrays, a dipole antenna, and plane waves to investigate the temperature elevation in a multi-layer model of human head and its correlation with power density metrics. The power density averaged over one square-centimeter in free space and the peak temperature elevation in tissue at 28 GHz have good correlation. The peak temperature elevation indicated by the power density averaged one square-centimeter also agrees well with the peak temperature elevation induced by the plane waves. The results show that the averaging area of a few square-centimeters may be a good candidate for the spatial-average power density. The findings provide valuable input to the ongoing revision and updating of relevant safety standards and guidelines.

  • 2.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cheng, Ming
    Jungstedt, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Optically Transparent Wood Substrate for Perovskite Solar Cells2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 6061-6067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent wood is a candidate for use as an energy-saving building material due to its low density (ca. 1.2 g/cm(3)), high optical transmittance (over 85% at 1 mm thickness), low thermal conductivity (0.23 W m(-1) K-1), and good load-bearing performance with tough failure behavior (no shattering). High optical transmittance also makes transparent wood a candidate for optoelectronic devices. In this work, for the first time, perovskite solar cells processed at low temperature (<150 degrees C) were successfully assembled directly on transparent wood substrates. A power conversion efficiency up to 16.8% was obtained. The technologies demonstrated may pave the way for integration of solar cells with light transmitting wood building structures for energy-saving purposes.

  • 3.
    Liu, Peng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wang, Linqin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Karl Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gao, Jiajia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalian Univ Technol, Inst Artificial Photosynth, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molecular Engineering of D-pi-A Type of Blue-Colored Dyes for Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells through Co-Sensitization2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 42, p. 35946-35952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel blue-colored organic donor-pi-acceptor sensitizer, the so-called MKA16 dye, has been employed to construct solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). Using 2,2',7-,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine) 9,9'-spirobifuorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) as hole-transport material, a good conversion efficiency of 5.8% was recorded for cells based on the MKA16 dye and a high photovoltage of 840 mV in comparison with 5.6% efficiency using the known (Dyenamo Blue) dye. By co-sensitization using the orange-colored D35 dye and MKA16 together, the solid-state solar cells showed an excellent efficiency of 7.5%, with a high photocurrent of 12.41 mA cm(-2) and open-circuit voltage of 850 mV. The results show that the photocurrent of ssDSSCs can be significantly improved by co-sensitization mainly attributed to the wider light absorption range contributing to the photocurrent. In addition, results from photo-induced absorption spectroscopy show that the dye regeneration is efficient in co-sensitized solar cells. The current results possible routes of improving the design of aesthetic and highly efficient ssDSSCs.

  • 4.
    Safdari, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Div Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer, Andreas C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Div Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Div Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gardner, James M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Div Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Erratum to: Structure and function relationships in alkylammonium lead(II) iodide solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 17, p. 9317-9317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Scialacqua, L.
    et al.
    Foged, L. J.
    Scannavini, A.
    Herbiniere, F.
    Mioc, F.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Ying, Z.
    Bolin, T.
    Advanced measurement post-processing by equivalent currents on small 5G antennas2018In: 12th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2018), Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018, no CP741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifth-Generation (5G) mobile communication demands a wide use of multi beam scanning array antennas, providing effective coverage performances at millimeter waves [1-3]. In particular, when the telecommunication channel is characterized by a reduced signal to noise ratio, an omni like radiation pattern could be generated by the beam scanning antenna system. The testing of the AUT (Antenna Under Test), in such conditions, is typically performed with low directive reference antennas. These antennas can suffer of the interaction with the feeding cable. The measurement post-processing by the equivalent currents approach (EQC) [4-7], implemented in the MVG software INSIGHT [8], can be used for diagnostic investigations on this kind of reference antennas and to filter undesired currents on the feeding cable. In this paper the EQC approach is applied, for the first time, on diagnostic and filtering of feeding cable on a measurement of a low directive antenna for 5G tests.

  • 6.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Network Technol Lab Res & Technol, Lund, Sweden..
    Shi, Shuai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Ying, Zhinong
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Network Technol Lab Res & Technol, Lund, Sweden..
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Upper Bound Study of 5G RF EMF Exposure2018In: 2018 IEEE ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION & USNC/URSI NATIONAL RADIO SCIENCE MEETING, IEEE , 2018, p. 397-398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power density emitted by 5G user equipment should not exceed the power density limits set by compliance guidelines. When the amplitude of each port of millimeter-wave array antennas is uniform, the power density maximization problem can be relaxed to a semi-definite program. In this paper, the effect of sampling widths is considered for the maximum power density calculation. The results show that when the sampling distance is less than a half wavelength, the sampling rate should be higher than the Nyquist rate.

  • 7.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Lund Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Technol, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Shi, Shuai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Zhao, Kun
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Res & Technol, Network Technol Lab, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden..
    Ying, Zhinong
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Res & Technol, Network Technol Lab, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden..
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Radio Frequency Exposure Compliance of Multiple Antennas for Cellular Equipment Based on Semidefinite Relaxation2019In: IEEE transactions on electromagnetic compatibility (Print), ISSN 0018-9375, E-ISSN 1558-187X, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields should not exceed the exposure limits set by the relevant regulatory guidelines. In this paper, we provide approaches to determine upper bounds of maximum exposure from multiple antennas. When the total transmitted power is fixed, the maximum exposure can be determined by an eigenvalue decomposition. If an individual antenna has additional power constraint, the exposure maximization problem can be relaxed to a semidefinite program. Two case studies are given to demonstrate the approaches to the maximum exposure of cellular equipment using multiple antennas. The methods and the obtained results provide valuable insights into RF compliance procedures of cellular equipment.

  • 8.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scialacqua, L.
    Scannavini, A.
    Foged, L. J.
    Ying, Z.
    Bolin, T.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Antenna diagnosis and power density calculation of 5G millimeter-wave mobile terminal using inverse source technique2018In: 12th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2018), Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018, no CP741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millimeter-wave antennas may suffer from stronger effects of surface waves in 5G mobile terminals. In this paper, printed 28 GHz antennas are implemented in a mobile handset mock-up. The influence of surface waves is examined by the reconstructed equivalent currents obtained through the inverse source technique. The obtained equivalent currents are reused for the power density calculation for the purpose of millimeter-wave exposure assessment. The results provide valuable insight into 5G millimeter-wave mobile antenna design and measurement.

  • 9.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Ying, Z.
    Gustafsson, M.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Effective beam-scanning efficiency of millimeter-wave subarrays for 5G user equipment application2018In: IET Conference Publications, Institution of Engineering and Technology , 2018, no CP741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forthcoming 5G communication system is expected to adopt millimeter-wave bands in order to satisfy the ever-growing traffic explosion. The coverage efficiency was proposed in earlier works to evaluate the beam-scanning capability and coverage performance of array antennas implemented in 5G user equipment. However, when multi-subarray configurations are introduced into user equipment, the coverage efficiency fails to reflect the coverage performance of each subarray under the influence of housing. In this paper, we use the effective beam-scanning efficiency to evaluate the coverage performance of a subarray covered by a superstrate. The results provide valuable insight into 5G mobile antenna design.

  • 10.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. Ericsson AB, Ericsson Res, SE-16480 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ying, Zhinong
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Network Technol Lab Res & Technol, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden..
    Scialacqua, Lucia
    Microwave Vis Italy, I-00040 Pomezia, Italy..
    Scannavini, Alessandro
    Microwave Vis Italy, I-00040 Pomezia, Italy..
    Foged, Lars Jacob
    Microwave Vis Italy, I-00040 Pomezia, Italy..
    Bolin, Thomas
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Network Technol Lab Res & Technol, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden..
    Zhao, Kun
    Sony Mobile Commun AB, Network Technol Lab Res & Technol, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden.;Aalborg Univ, Dept Elect Syst, Antennas Propagat & Radio Networking Sect, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark..
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Lund Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Technol, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Radiation Performance Analysis of 28 GHz Antennas Integrated in 5G Mobile Terminal Housing2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 48088-48101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation from printed millimeter-wave antennas integrated in mobile terminals is affected by surface currents on chassis, guided waves trapped in dielectric layers, superstrates, and the user's hand, making mobile antenna design for 5G communication challenging. In this paper, four canonical types of printed 28-GHz antenna elements are integrated in a 5G mobile terminal mock-up. Different kinds of terminal housing effects are examined separately, and the terminal housing effects are also diagnosed through equivalent currents by using the inverse source technique. To account for the terminal housing effects on a beam-scanning antenna subarray, we propose the effective beam-scanning efficiency to evaluate its coverage performance. This paper presents the detailed analysis, results, and new concepts regarding the terminal housing effects, and thereby provides valuable insight into the practical 5G mobile antenna design and radiation performance characterization.

  • 11.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Zhao, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Ying, Zhinong
    RF EMF Exposure of Beam-Steering Slot Array in 5G User Equipment at 15 GHz2017In: 2017 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 177-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Above 6 GHz or 10 GHz, the radio frequency (RF) electro-magnetic field (EMF) exposure of user equipment (UE) is evaluated in terms of free space power density. The RF EMF exposure compliance of the fifth-generation (5G) UE with an 8 x 1 beam-steering slot array is analyzed in this paper. The maximum exposure (ME) and corresponding maximum permissible radiated power (MPRP) are calculated for different regulatory guidelines. The results give a good estimation on the range of compliance distance and MPRP of 5G UE, and provide the insight for the future RF EMF exposure compliance for the 5G communication. More results and comparisons of different sorts of arrays will be presented in the conference.

  • 12.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Zhao, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Ying, Zhinong
    Understandings of Maximum Spatially-Averaged Power Density in 5G RF EMF Exposure Study2017In: 2017 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY: SMALL ANTENNAS, INNOVATIVE STRUCTURES, AND APPLICATIONS (IWAT), IEEE , 2017, p. 115-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the millimeter-wave (mmW) frequency band, radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure is evaluated in terms of free space power density rather than the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) used in current cellular communications. In this study, we investigated RF EMF exposure of user equipment (UE) mock-ups employing a patch array operating at 15 GHz. Different understandings of maximum spatially-averaged power density to comply with different regulatory requirements are studied. Based on free space power density, the maximum permissible transmitted power (MPTP) of UE is calculated to compare the influence of different understandings. The analysis and results suggest that there is 1-2.6 dB MPTP difference for the ICNIRP limits and 0.1-1 dB MPTP difference for the proposed FCC limits depending on the varying compliance distance.

  • 13.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang University, China.
    Zhao, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Thors, Björn
    Colombi, Davide
    Lundberg, Oscar
    Ying, Zhinong
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang University, China.
    Power Density Measurements at 15 GHz for RF EMF Compliance Assessments of 5G User Equipment2017In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 6584-6595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, different measurement schemes are studied in order to investigate the possibilities and limitations of scalar-and vector-based measurement systems for radio frequency electromagnetic fields compliance assessments of fifth generation mobile communication user equipment (UE). Two UE antenna array designs, transmitting at 15 GHz and employing patch and notch antenna elements, are considered for different phase excitations. Using free space power density as the exposure metric, the maximum permissible transmitted power of UE, compliant with the maximum permissible exposure limits specified by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, is determined. The accuracy of different measurement schemes is assessed using numerical simulation. Verifying measurements is carried out in a semiane-choic chamber. The results indicate that, for UE employing array antennas and intended to be used in immediate vicinity of the human body, scalar measurement systems used in combination with straightforward field combination techniques will lead to overly conservative results. A more accurate and less conservative approach for these products is to conduct separate measurements for different excitations in order to span the space of possible excitations. This will result in a more complicated measurement setup and increase the measurement time, which points to a need for very fast measurement systems.

  • 14.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Kun
    Sony Mobile Commun, Network Technol Lab, Res & Technol, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden.;Aalborg Univ, Dept Elect Syst, Antennas Propagat & Radio Networking Sect, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Ying, Zhinong
    Sony Mobile Commun, Network Technol Lab, Res & Technol, SE-22188 Lund, Sweden..
    Sjoberg, Daniel
    Lund Univ, Dept Elect & Informat Technol, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    He, Wang
    Zhejiang Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    He, Sailing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. Zhejiang Univ, Ctr Opt & Electromagnet Res, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Analysis of Impacts of Expected RF EMF Exposure Restrictions on Peak EIRP of 5G User Equipment at 28 GHz and 39 GHz Bands2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 20996-21005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Above 6 GHz, radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from the mobile communication user equipment (UE) should be assessed in terms of incident power density, rather than specific absorption rate as below 6 GHz. Such regulatory RF EMF restrictions will constrain the transmit power of the UE and its peak equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). This paper provides an analysis of the peak EIRP levels of UE containing code-book-based beamforming arrays at 28 GHz and 39 GHz. Different types of antenna elements, incremental element spacing, 4- and 8-element array configurations, and realistic housing integration are considered. The analysis and results show that in realistic housing integration, the 3GPP requirements on minimum peak EIRP can be generally met under the expected RF EMF exposure restrictions.

  • 15. Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Yang, Li
    Mingorance, Alba
    Ruan, Changqing
    Hua, Yong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Linqin
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Lira-Cantu, Monica
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Incorporation of Counter Ions in Organic Molecules: New Strategy in Developing Dopant-Free Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells2017In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 7, no 14, article id 1602736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hole transport matertial (HTM) as charge selective layer in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) plays an important role in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE). It is known that the dopants and additives are necessary in the HTM in order to improve the hole conductivity of the HTM as well as to obtain high efficiency in PSCs, but the additives can potentially induce device instability and poor device reproducibility. In this work a new strategy to design dopant-free HTMs has been presented by modifying the HTM to include charged moieties which are accompanied with counter ions. The device based on this ionic HTM X44 dos not need any additional doping and the device shows an impressive PCE of 16.2%. Detailed characterization suggests that the incorporated counter ions in X44 can significantly affect the hole conductivity and the homogeneity of the formed HTM thin film. The superior photovoltaic performance for X44 is attributed to both efficient hole transport and effective interfacial hole transfer in the solar cell device. This work provides important insights as regards the future design of new and efficient dopant free HTMs for photovotaics or other optoelectronic applications.

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