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  • 1. Ali, A.
    et al.
    Raza, Rizwan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Kaleem Ullah, M.
    Rafique, A.
    Wang, B.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei University, China.
    Alkaline earth metal and samarium co-doped ceria as efficient electrolytes2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 4, article id 043902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-doped ceramic electrolytes M0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ (M = Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr) were synthesized via co-precipitation. The focus of this study was to highlight the effects of alkaline earth metals in doped ceria on the microstructure, densification, conductivity, and performance. The ionic conductivity comparisons of prepared electrolytes in the air atmosphere were studied. It has been observed that Ca0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ shows the highest conductivity of 0.124 Scm-1 at 650 °C and a lower activation energy of 0.48 eV. The cell shows a maximum power density of 630 mW cm-2 at 650 °C using hydrogen fuel. The enhancement in conductivity and performance was due to increasing the oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice with the increasing dopant concentration. The bandgap was calculated from UV-Vis data, which shows a red shift when compared with pure ceria. The average crystallite size is in the range of 37-49 nm. DFT was used to analyze the co-doping structure, and the calculated lattice parameter was compared with the experimental lattice parameter.

  • 2. Cai, Yixiao
    et al.
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Wang, Baoyuan
    Zhang, Wei
    Wang, Yi
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bioderived Calcite as Electrolyte for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Strategy toward Utilization of Waste Shells2017In: ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 10387-10395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The excessive consumption of synthesized materials and enhanced environmental protection protocols necessitate the exploitation of desirable functionalities to handle our solid waste. Through a simple calcination and composite strategy, this work envisages the first application of biocalcite derived from the waste of crayfish shells as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which demonstrates encouraging performances within a low temperature range of 450-550 degrees C. The single cell device, assembled from calcined waste shells at 600 degrees C (CWS600), enables a peak power density of 166 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C, and further renders 330 and 256 mW cm(-2) after compositing with perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (LSCF) and layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (LNCA), respectively. Notably, an oxygen-ion blocking fuel cell is used to confirm the proton-conducting property of CWS600 associated electrolytes. The practical potential of the prepared fuel cells is also validated when the cell voltage of the cell is kept constant value over 10 h during a galvanostatic operation using a CWS600-LSCF electrolyte. These interesting findings may increase the likelihood of transforming our solid municipal waste into electrochemical energy devices, and also importantly, provide an underlying approach for discovering novel electrolytes for low-temperature SOFCs.

  • 3. Chen, Jingjing
    et al.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Xu, Jianliang
    Zou, Weiwen
    Hedman, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Chen, Rongchao
    Sang, Mengdie
    FishBuddy: Promoting Student Engagement in Self-Paced Learning through Wearable Sensing2017In: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SMART COMPUTING (SMARTCOMP), IEEE , 2017, p. 211-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student engagement is crucial for successful self-paced learning. Feeling isolated during self-paced learning with neither adequate supervision nor intervention by teachers may cause negative emotions such as anxiety. Such emotions may in turn significantly weaken students' motivation to engage in learning activities. In this paper, we develop a self-paced learning environment (FishBuddy) that aims to reduce anxiety and promote student engagement. We construct and implement a physiologically-state-aware performance-evaluation model for identifying potentially fruitful moments of intervention when students show frustration during learning activities using an Apple Watch application that measures heart rate and alerts the student to watch a visualization of his or her own physiological state. We have conducted an experiment with 20 first-year undergraduate students, randomly separated into an experimental group and a control group, who carry out online, self-paced English grammar exercises. The students in the experimental group used FishBuddy and those in the control group did not. The self-reports from both groups show that FishBuddy significantly reduced reported experiences of anxiety and isolation in the experiment. Further to this, students who used FishBuddy were engaged longer with the exercises. The average scores on the exercises between the two groups, however, were not significantly different.

  • 4. Fan, Liangdong
    et al.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Su, Pei-Chen
    He, Chuanxin
    Nanomaterials and technologies for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells: Recent advances, challenges and opportunities2018In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 45, p. 148-176Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) show considerable promise for meeting the current ever-increasing energy demand and environmental sustainability requirements because of their high efficiency, low environmental impact, and distinct fuel diversity. In the past few decades, extensive R&D efforts have been focused on lowering operational temperatures in order to decrease the system (stack and balance-of-plant) cost and improve the longevity of operationally useful devices of commercial relevance. Nanomaterials and related nanotechnologies have the potential to improve SOFC performance because of their advantageous functionalities, namely, their enlarged surface area and unique surface and interface properties compared to their microscale analogs. Recently, the use of nanomaterials has increased rapidly, as reflected by the exponential growth in the number of publications since 2002. In this work, we present a comprehensive summary of nanoparticles, nano-thin films and nanocomposites with different crystal phases, morphologies, microstructures, electronic properties, and electrochemical performances for low temperature SOFCs (LT-SOFCs), with focus on efforts to enhance electrical efficiency, to induce novel fundamental properties that are inaccessible in microcrystalline materials, and to promote the commercialization of LT-SOFCs. Recent progress in the applications of many classically or newly chemical and physical nanomaterials and nanofabrication techniques, such as thin film vacuum deposition, impregnation, electrospinning, spark plasma sintering, hard-and soft-template methods, and in-situ nanoparticle surface exsolution are also thoroughly described. The technological and scientific advantages and limitations related to the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are highlighted, along with our expectations for future research within this emerging field.

  • 5.
    Feng, Chu
    et al.
    Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Baoyuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jing
    Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Hao
    Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Sci, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Thin-Film Fuel Cells using a Sodium Silicate Binder with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta (LSCF) and LaCePr Oxides (LCP) Membranes2018In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 312-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium silicate was used as a binder to prepare LaCePr oxides (LCP) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta (LSCF) thin films on a Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li oxide ceramic substrate for the first time. The microstructure, morphology, and electrical properties of the LSCF-LCP thin films were characterized and investigated by using XRD, SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The film sintered at 600 degrees C presents promising density and has been successfully applied as the electrolyte membrane for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Such a device achieved a respectable electrochemical performance with an open-circuit voltage of 1.04V and a maximum power output of 545mWcm(-2) at 575 degrees C. These findings suggest that sodium silicate is a suitable binder for the preparation of dense thin-film membranes for SOFCs. Moreover, the preparation technology based on sodium silicate eliminated degumming and high-temperature sintering, which resulted in greatly simplifying the preparation process of the thin-film fuel cell towards potential fuel cell commercialization.

  • 6.
    Khan, M. Ajmal
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Ningbo Inst Mat Technol & Engn, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Magnet Mat & Applicat Techn, CAS Key Lab Magnet Mat & Devices, Ningbo 315201, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.;COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Phys, Lahore 5400, Pakistan..
    Xu, Cheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Ningbo Inst Mat Technol & Engn, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Magnet Mat & Applicat Techn, CAS Key Lab Magnet Mat & Devices, Ningbo 315201, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Song, Zhenlun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Ningbo Inst Mat Technol & Engn, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Magnet Mat & Applicat Techn, CAS Key Lab Magnet Mat & Devices, Ningbo 315201, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Raza, Rizwan
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Phys, Lahore 5400, Pakistan..
    Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfiq
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Phys, Lahore 5400, Pakistan..
    Abbas, Ghazanfar
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Phys, Lahore 5400, Pakistan..
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Synthesize and characterization of ceria based nano-composite materials for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2018In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 6310-6317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is focused on ceria based mixed (ionic and electronic conductor) composite Al0.05Ni0.1Ti0.05Zn0.80-SDC (ATZN-SDC) oxide material was prepared by solid state reaction, which can be used as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell. The effect of Ti and Al oxides were analyzed on the NiZn-SDC composite with respect to its conductivity and catalytic activity in hydrogen atmosphere. The average crystallite size of the composite was found to be 40-100 nm by XRD and SEM. The DC conductivity was determined by 4-probe technique. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) was also examined in hydrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 350-550 degrees C. The maximum power density 370 mW/cm(2) was achieved at 650 degrees C.

  • 7.
    Liu, Liang
    et al.
    China Univ Geosci, Fac Mat Sci & Chem, Minist Educ, Engn Res Ctr Nanogeo Mat, 388 Lumo Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Yanyan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Li, Lingyao
    China Univ Geosci, Fac Mat Sci & Chem, Minist Educ, Engn Res Ctr Nanogeo Mat, 388 Lumo Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yan
    China Univ Geosci, Fac Mat Sci & Chem, Minist Educ, Engn Res Ctr Nanogeo Mat, 388 Lumo Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China..
    Singh, Manish
    Lund Univ, Pure & Appl Biochem Chem Ctr, S-22241 Lund, Sweden..
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. China Univ Geosci, Fac Mat Sci & Chem, Minist Educ, Engn Res Ctr Nanogeo Mat, 388 Lumo Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    The composite electrolyte with an insulation Sm2O3 and semiconductor NiO for advanced fuel cells2018In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 12739-12747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel Sm2O3-NiO composite was prepared as the functional electrolyte for the first time. The total electrical conductivity of Sm2O3-NiO is 0.38 S cm(-1) in H-2/air condition at 550 degrees C. High performance, e.g. 718 mW cm(-2), was achieved using Sm2O3-NiO composite as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells operated at 550 degrees C. The electrical properties and electrochemical performance are strongly depended on Sm2O3 and NiO constituent phase of the compositions. Notably, surprisingly high ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance are achieved using the composite system constituting with insulating Sm2O3 and intrinsic p-type conductive NiO with a low conductivity of 4 x 10(-3) S cm(-1). The interfacial ionic conduction between two phases is a dominating factor giving rise to significantly enhanced proton conduction. Fuel cell performance and further ionic conduction mechanisms are under investigation.

  • 8. Lu, Y.
    et al.
    Li, J.
    Souamy, L.
    Wang, J.
    Zhang, Y.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Model analysis on hydrogen production by hybrid system of SOEC and solar energy2017In: Engineering Letters, ISSN 1816-093X, E-ISSN 1816-0948, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 382-388, article id EL_25_4_04Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) can convert high temperature steam into H2 and O2 with high efficiency. The SOEC operating temperature is very close to the temperature of solar dish engine system which heats up the water to high temperature steam. We design an advanced the hydrogen production system utilizes solar energy as the only prime energy source in which the thermal energy is provided by solar dish thermal engine subsystem while the electrical energy is supplied by photovoltaic subsystem. Energy and exergy analysis have been conducted to investigate the thermodynamic-electrochemical characteristics of the hydrogen production by hybrid system of SOEC and solar energy. The effects of some important operating parameters, such as temperature, flow rate of H2O and current density have been studied. It is found that an increase in temperature and decrease in operating voltage can reduce the exergy loss in the hybrid system. The findings show that the difference between energy and exergy efficiency is small for the high temperature thermal energy input is only a small fraction of the total energy input. Numerical simulations are implemented for illustration and verification of the effectiveness of the solar energy.

  • 9. Lund, Peter D.
    et al.
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Li, Yongdan
    Yun, Sining
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    Raza, Rizwan
    Leskela, Markku
    Ni, Meng
    Wu, Yan
    Chen, Gang
    Fan, Liangdong
    Kim, Jung-Sik
    Basu, Suddhasatwa
    Kallio, Tanja
    Pamuk, Ibrahim
    Standardized Procedures Important for Improving Single-Component Ceramic Fuel Cell Technology2017In: ACS ENERGY LETTERS, ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 2752-2755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Mushtaq, N.
    et al.
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Dong, W.
    Abbas, G.
    Raza, R.
    Ali, A.
    Rauf, S.
    Wang, B.
    Kim, J. -S
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
    Perovskite SrFe1-xTixO3-δ (x < = 0.1) cathode for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell2018In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 10266-10272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable and compatible cathode materials are a key factor for realizing the low-temperature (LT, ≤600 °C) operation and practical implementations of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study, perovskite oxides SrFe1-xTixO3-δ (x &lt; = 0.1), with various ratios of Ti doping, are prepared by a sol-gel method for cathode material for LT-SOFCs. The structure, morphology and thermo-gravimetric characteristics of the resultant SFT powders are investigated. It is found that the Ti is successfully doped into SrFeO3-δ to form a single phase cubic perovskite structure and crystal structure of SFT shows better stability than SrFeO3-δ. The dc electrical conductivity and electrochemical properties of SFT are measured and analysed by four-probe and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements, respectively. The obtained SFT exhibits a very low polarization resistance (Rp),.01 Ωcm2 at 600◦C. The SFT powders using as cathode in fuel cell devices, exhibit maximum power density of 551 mW cm−2 with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.15 V at 600◦C. The good performance of the SFT cathode indicates a high rate of oxygen diffusion through the material at cathode. By enabling operation at low temperatures, SFT cathodes may result in a practical implementation of SOFCs.

  • 11. Wang, Baoyuan
    et al.
    Cai, Yixiao
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Kim, Jung-Sik
    Liu, Yanyan
    Dong, Wenjing
    Wang, Hao
    Afzal, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Li, Junjiao
    Raza, Rizwan
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Semiconductor-ionic Membrane of LaSrCoFe-oxide-doped Ceria Solid Oxide Fuel Cells2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 248, p. 496-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel semiconductor-ionic La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta (LSCF)-Sm/Ca co-doped CeO2 (SCDC) nanocomposite has been developed as a membrane, which is sandwiched between two layers of Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05Li-oxide (NCAL) to construct semiconductor-ion membrane fuel cell (SIMFC). Such a device presented an open circuit voltage (OCV) above 1.0 V and maximum power density of 814 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C, which is much higher than 0.84 V and 300 mW cm(-2) for the fuel cell using the SCDC membrane. Moreover, the SIMFC has a relatively promising long-term stability, the voltage can maintain at 0.966 V for 60 hours without degradation during the fuel cells operation and the open-circuit voltage (OCV) can return to 1.06 V after long-term fuel cell operation. The introduction of LSCF electronic conductor into the membrane did not cause any short circuit but brought significant enhancement of fuel cell performances. The Schottky junction is proposed to prevent the internal electrons passing thus avoiding the device short circuiting problem.

  • 12.
    Zhu, Bin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. China Academy of Art, China.
    Hedman, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Feng, Shuo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Li, Haibo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Osika, Walter
    Designing, Prototyping and Evaluating Digital Mindfulness Applications: A Case Study of Mindful Breathing for Stress Reduction2017In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 19, no 6, article id e197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the past decade, there has been a rapid increase of interactive apps designed for health and well-being. Yet, little research has been published on developing frameworks for design and evaluation of digital mindfulness facilitating technologies. Moreover, many existing digital mindfulness applications are purely software based. There is room for further exploration and assessment of designs that make more use of physical qualities of artifacts. Objective: The study aimed to develop and test a new physical digital mindfulness prototype designed for stress reduction. Methods: In this case study, we designed, developed, and evaluated HU, a physical digital mindfulness prototype designed for stress reduction. In the first phase, we used vapor and light to support mindful breathing and invited 25 participants through snowball sampling to test HU. In the second phase, we added sonification. We deployed a package of probes such as photos, diaries, and cards to collect data from users who explored HU in their homes. Thereafter, we evaluated our installation using both self-assessed stress levels and heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures in a pilot study, in order to measure stress resilience effects. After the experiment, we performed a semistructured interview to reflect on HU and investigate the design of digital mindfulness apps for stress reduction. Results: The results of the first phase showed that 22 of 25 participants (88%) claimed vapor and light could be effective ways of promoting mindful breathing. Vapor could potentially support mindful breathing better than light (especially for mindfulness beginners). In addition, a majority of the participants mentioned sound as an alternative medium. In the second phase, we found that participants thought that HU could work well for stress reduction. We compared the effect of silent HU (using light and vapor without sound) and sonified HU on 5 participants. Subjective stress levels were statistically improved with both silent and sonified HU. The mean value of HR using silent HU was significantly lower than resting baseline and sonified HU. The mean value of root mean square of differences (RMSSD) using silent HU was significantly higher than resting baseline. We found that the differences between our objective and subjective assessments were intriguing and prompted us to investigate them further. Conclusions: Our evaluation of HU indicated that HU could facilitate relaxed breathing and stress reduction. There was a difference in outcome between the physiological measures of stress and the subjective reports of stress, as well as a large intervariability among study participants. Our conclusion is that the use of stress reduction tools should be customized and that the design work of mindfulness technology for stress reduction is a complex process, which requires cooperation of designers, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) experts and clinicians.

  • 13.
    Zhu, Bin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. China Acad Art, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Hedman, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Designing Digital Mindfulness: Presence-In and Presence-With versus Presence-Through2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 ACM SIGCHI CONFERENCE ON HUMAN FACTORS IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS (CHI'17), ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2017, p. 2685-2695Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital health and wellbeing movement has led to development of digital mindfulness applications that aim to help people to become mindful. In this paper we suggest a broad scheme for classifying and ordering apps intended to support mindfulness. This scheme consists of four levels of what we here term digital mindfulness. One crucial aspect of the fourth level is that artifacts at this level allow for what we term as presence-with and presence-in as opposed to presence-through, which occurs at the first three levels. We articulate our four levels along with specific design qualities through concrete examples of existing mindfulness apps and through research through design (RtD) work conducted with design fiction examples. We then use a working design case prototype to further illustrate the possibilities of presence-with and presence-in. We hope our four levels of digital mindfulness framework will be found useful by other researchers in discussing and planning the design of their own mindfulness apps and digital artifacts.

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