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  • 1.
    Araujo, Igor M.
    et al.
    Fed Univ Para, Technol Inst, Belem, PA, Brazil..
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Santana, Adamo L.
    Fuji Elect Co Ltd, Corp R&D Headquarters, 1 Fuji Machi, Hino, Tokyo, Japan..
    Cardoso, Diego L.
    Fed Univ Para, Technol Inst, Belem, PA, Brazil..
    Accelerating VNF-based Deep Packet Inspection with the use of GPUs2018Inngår i: 2018 20TH ANNIVERSARY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS (ICTON) / [ed] Jaworski, M Marciniak, M, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, artikkel-id 8473638Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) replaces the hardware that supports packet processing in network operation from specific-by general-purpose ones, reducing costs and bringing more flexibility and agility to the network operation. However, this shift can cause performance losses due to the non-optimal packet processing capabilities of the general-purpose hardware. Moreover, supporting the line rate of optical network channels with Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) is a challenging task. This work analyzes the benefits of using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to support the execution of a Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) VNF towards supporting the line rate of an optical channel. The use of GPUs in VNFs has a great potential to increase throughput, but the delay incurred might be an issue for some functions. Our simulation was performed using an Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) which performs DPI deployed as a VNF under real-world traffic scaled to high bit rates. Results show that the packet processing speedup achieved by using GPUs can reach up to 19 times, at the expense of a higher packet delay.

  • 2.
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    et al.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, EE Dept, Rome, Italy.;Consorzio Nazl Interuniv Telecomunicaz, Pisa, Italy..
    Amorosi, Lavinia
    Consorzio Nazl Interuniv Telecomunicaz, Pisa, Italy..
    Blefari-Melazzi, Nicola
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, EE Dept, Rome, Italy.;Consorzio Nazl Interuniv Telecomunicaz, Pisa, Italy..
    Dell'Olmo, Paolo
    Univ Rome Sapienza, DSS Dept, Rome, Italy..
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Optimal Design of 5G Networks in Rural Zones with UAVs, Optical Rings, Solar Panels and Batteries2018Inngår i: 2018 20TH ANNIVERSARY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS (ICTON) / [ed] Jaworski, M Marciniak, M, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We focus on the problem of designing a 5G network architecture to provide coverage in rural areas. The proposed architecture is composed of 5G Base Stations carried by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and supported by ground sites interconnected through optical fiber links. We also consider the dimensioning of each site in terms of the number of Solar Panels (SPs) and batteries. We then formulate the problem of cost minimization of the aforementioned architecture, by considering: i) the cost for installing the sites, ii) the costs for installing the SPs and the batteries in each site, iii) the costs for installing the optical fiber links between the installed sites, and iv) the scheduling of the UAVs to serve the rural areas. Our results, obtained over a representative scenario, reveal that the proposed solution is effective in limiting the total costs, while being able to ensure the coverage over the rural areas.

  • 3.
    da Silva, Carlos Natalino
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Joint Optimization of Failure Management Costs, Electricity Costs, and Operator Revenue in Optical Core Networks2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, ISSN 2473-2400, Vol. PP, nr 99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We focus on the problem of maximizing profitability in an optical core network by acting on the power states of Optical Line Amplifiers (OLAs) and Line Cards (LCs) operating under varying traffic. Specifically, the profitability metric considered in this work takes into account the electricity costs of OLAs and LCs, the failure management costs derived from the application of power states to the network devices, and the operator revenue. After proving that all terms of the considered profitability function are deeply inter-correlated, we formulate the optimization problem of maximizing the network profitability in an optical core network with multi-period traffic. By solving the proposed formulation on a realistic scenario, we show that it is possible to wisely trade between the considered costs and revenue, and achieve higher network profitability than in the case in which the single terms are considered in isolation, e.g., only electricity consumption or only Failure Management Costs (FMC).

  • 4.
    da Silva, Carlos Natalino
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Yayimli, Aysegul
    Istanbul University of Technology.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Assessing the effects of physical layer attacks on content accessibility and latency in optical CDNs2017Inngår i: 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Girona, Spain: IEEE conference proceedings, 2017, artikkel-id 8024993Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are a major enabler of large-scale content distribution for Internet applications. Many of these applications require high bandwidth and low latency for a satisfactory user experience, e.g., cloud gaming, augmented reality, tactile Internet and vehicular communications. Replication is one of the most prominent solutions to meet the requirements of latency-sensitive applications. However, infrastructure disruptions can greatly degrade the performance of such applications, or even cease their proper execution. The extent of degradation can be exacerbated by malicious attackers that target the critical elements of the CDN physical infrastructure to disconnect or severely degrade services.

  • 5.
    da Silva, Carlos Natalino
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Yayimli, Aysegul
    Istanbul University of Technology.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Content Accessibility in Optical Cloud Networks Under Targeted Link Cuts2017Inngår i: 2017 21st International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, ONDM 2017 - Conference Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, artikkel-id 7958546Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key enablers of the digital society is a highly reliable information infrastructure that can ensure resiliency to a wide range of failures and attacks. In cloud networks, replicas of various content are located at geographically distributed data centers, thus inherently enhancing cloud network reliability through diversification and redundancy of user accessibility to the content. However, cloud networks rely on optical network infrastructure which can be a target of deliberate link cuts that may cause service disruption on a massive scale. This paper investigates the dependency between the extent of damage caused by link cuts and a particular replica placement solution, as a fundamental prerequisite of resilient cloud network design that lacks systematic theoretical quantification and understanding. To quantify the vulnerability of optical cloud networks based on anycast communication to targeted link cuts, we propose a new metric called Average Content Accessibility (ACA). Using this metric, we analyze the impact of the number and the placement of content replicas on cloud network resiliency and identify the best and the worst case scenarios for networks of different sizes and connectivity. We evaluate the efficiency of simultaneous and sequential targeted link cuts, the latter reassessing link criticality between subsequent cuts to maximize disruption. Comparison with Average Two-Terminal Reliability (A2TR), an existing robustness measure for unicast networks, shows great discrepancy in the vulnerability results, indicating the need for new measures tailored to anycast-based networks.

  • 6. Dobrijevic, O.
    et al.
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Hodzic, H.
    Dzanko, M.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Another price to pay: An availability analysis for SDN virtualization with network hypervisors2018Inngår i: Proceedings of 2018 10th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling, RNDM 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication networks are embracing the software defined networking (SDN) paradigm. Its architectural shift assumes that a remote SDN controller (SDNC) in the control plane is responsible for configuring the underlying devices of the forwarding plane. In order to support flexibility-motivated network slicing, SDN-based networks employ another entity in the control plane, a network hypervisor (NH). This paper first discusses different protection strategies for the control plane with NHs and presents the corresponding availability models, which assume possible failures of links and nodes in the forwarding plane and the control plane. An analysis of these protection alternatives is then performed so as to compare average control plane availability, average path length for the control communication that traverses NH, and infrastructure resources required to support them. Our results confirm the intuition that the NH introduction generally results in a reduction of the control plane availability, which stresses the need for appropriate protection. However, the availability achieved by each of the considered strategies is impacted differently by the node availability and the link failure probability, thus calling for a careful selection that is based on the infrastructure features.

  • 7.
    Furdek, Marija
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Schiano, Marco
    Telecom Italia, Turin, Italy..
    Di Giglio, Andrea
    Telecom Italia, Turin, Italy..
    Experiment-based detection of service disruption attacks in optical networks using data analytics and unsupervised learning2019Inngår i: METRO AND DATA CENTER OPTICAL NETWORKS AND SHORT-REACH LINKS II / [ed] Srivastava, AK Glick, M Akasaka, Y, SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2019, artikkel-id 109460DKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the detection of malicious attacks targeting service disruption at the optical layer as a key prerequisite for fast and effective attack response and network recovery. We experimentally demonstrate the effects of signal insertion attacks with varying intensity in a real-life scenario. By applying data analytics tools, we analyze the properties of the obtained dataset to determine how the relationships among different optical performance monitoring (OPM) parameters of the signal change in the presence of an attack as opposed to the normal operating conditions. In addition, we evaluate the performance of an unsupervised learning technique, i.e., a clustering algorithm for anomaly detection, which can detect attacks as anomalies without prior knowledge of the attacks. We demonstrate the potential and the challenges of unsupervised learning for attack detection, propose guidelines for attack signature identification needed for the detection of the considered attack methods, and discuss remaining challenges related to optical network security.

  • 8. Goscien, R.
    et al.
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Impact of high-power jamming attacks on SDM networks2018Inngår i: 22nd Conference on Optical Network Design and Modelling, ONDM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, s. 77-81Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) is a promising solution to provide ultra-high capacity optical network infrastructure for rapidly increasing traffic demands. Such network infrastructure can be a target of deliberate attacks that aim at disrupting a large number of vital services. This paper assesses the effects of high-power jamming attacks in SDM optical networks utilizing Multi-Core Fibers (MCFs), where the disruptive effect of the inserted jamming signals may spread among multiple cores due to increased Inter-Core CrossTalk (ICo-XT). We first assess the jamming-induced reduction of the signal reach for different bit rates and modulation formats. The obtained reach limitations are then used to derive the maximal traffic disruption at the network level. Results indicate that connections provisioned satisfying the normal operating conditions are highly vulnerable to these attacks, potentially leading to huge data losses at the network level.

  • 9.
    Li, Jun
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Van, Dung pham
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chen, Jiajia
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Resource Management in Fog-Enhanced Radio Access Network to Support Real-Time Vehicular Services2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 1st International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 68-74, artikkel-id 8014361Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With advances in the information and communication technology (ICT), connected vehicles are one of the key enablers to unleash intelligent transportation systems (ITS). On the other hand, the envisioned massive number of connected vehicles raises the need for powerful communication and computation capabilities. As an emerging technique, fog computing is expected to be integrated with existing communication infrastructures, giving rise to a concept of fog-enhanced radio access networks (FeRANs). Such architecture brings computation capabilities closer to vehicular users, thereby reducing communication latency to access services, while making users capable of sharing local environment information for advanced vehicular services. In the FeRANs service migration, where the service is migrated from a source fog node to a target fog node following the vehicle's moving trace, it is necessary for users to access service as close as possible in order to maintain the service continuity and satisfy stringent latency requirements of real-time services. Fog servers, however, need to have sufficient computational resources available to support such migration. Indeed, a fog node typically has limited resources and hence can easily become overloaded when a large number of user requests arrive, e.g., during peak traffic, resulting in degraded performance. This paper addresses resource management in FeRANs with a focus on management strategies at each individual fog node to improve quality of service (QoS), particularly for real-time vehicular services. To this end, the paper proposes two resource management schemes, namely fog resource reservation and fog resource reallocation. In both schemes, real-time vehicular services are prioritized over other services so that their respective vehicular users can access the services with only one hop. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes can effectively improve one-hop access probability for real-time vehicular services implying low delay performance, even when the fog resource is under heavy load.

  • 10.
    Monti, Paolo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Ahmed, Jawwad
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Frances, Renato
    Restoring optical cloud services using relocation2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical cloud is a very popular concept by which storage and computing resources (i.e., IT resources) are distributed over different datacenter (DC) locations interconnected via high-speed optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) links. In this paradigm cloud services are provisioned in an anycast fashion, where only the source node needs to be specified in the routing and resource assignment phase, while any DC (with enough IT resources) can be used to accommodate a cloud service. Anycast provisioning has a number of advantages already recognized by optical cloud providers [1][2]. This kind of provisioning paradigm allows, for example, for the live relocation of the already provisioned cloud services, referred to as the service relocation concept. It means that if the DC location is not essential for the execution of a certain cloud service, multiple relocations of the job to other DC locations are possible. This allows for a more efficient management of both the cloud and the transport network resources. Service relocation has also the potential to bring an extra degree of flexibility to survivability strategies. By providing the option for relocating a cloud service it is possible to use a backup path terminating at a DC that is different from the one used by the primary path. This benefit has been assessed in the literature showing the ability to improve resources efficiency by using service relocation in conjunction with path protection strategies [1]. Another instance in which service relocation might be beneficial is when it is combined with restoration-based survivability strategies. These strategies are very efficient in using backup resources, i.e., they are dynamically provisioned only upon a failure, but restoration-based approaches suffer from a certain risk that the backup network resources might not be available when needed [3]. Service relocation can potentially alleviate this problem. This talk presents a study where the objective is to inves- igate if relocating a cloud service disrupted by a network failure is beneficial in terms of both restorability and average connection availability. To this end the talk will present a number of results based on the solution of an efficient and scalable heuristic algorithm able to jointly solve the restoration and service relocation problem. These results are also benchmarked against the performance of an integer linear programming (ILP) model [4] optimizing the same objective function as the heuristic. In summary it can be concluded that by using relocation the average service availability can be significantly improved requiring only a minimal fraction of the cloud services to be relocated. In addition the proposed heuristic behaves very closely to the optimal ILP results in terms of both restorability and average connection availability.

  • 11.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chiaraviglio, L.
    Idzikowski, F.
    Francês, C. R. L.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Optimal lifetime-aware operation of green optical backbone networks2016Inngår i: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, ISSN 0733-8716, Vol. 34, nr 12, s. 3915-3926, artikkel-id 2611879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper targets the lifetime-aware management of a set of optical line amplifiers (OLAs) in an optical network exploiting sleep mode (SM) in order to save energy. We first present a simple model to predict the OLA lifetime. We then provide different mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations, which jointly consider energy saving and lifetime. The proposed MILP formulations are then solved on different realistic scenarios, by taking into account the spatial and temporal variations of traffic demands. Results show that our lifetime-aware approach outperforms classical energy saving ILP formulations, which instead tend to notably decrease the OLA lifetime. More important, the proposed approaches can achieve a good lifetime performance without consuming significantly more energy than purely energy-aware strategies.

  • 12.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Listani, Marco
    Carlos, Frances
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Lifetime-Aware Provisioning in Green Optical Backbone Networks2016Inngår i: 2016 OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION (OFC), Optical Society of America, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a framework able to limit the device lifetime degradation in optical backbone networks using sleep-mode-based green strategies. Results show that our approach manages the lifetime while not compromising significantly the energy saving performance. 

  • 13.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Coelho, Frederico
    Fed Univ Minas Gerais UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Lacerda, Gustavo
    Fed Univ Minas Gerais UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Braga, Antonio
    Fed Univ Minas Gerais UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    A Proactive Restoration Strategy for Optical Cloud Networks Based on Failure Predictions2018Inngår i: 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2018 / [ed] Jaworski, M Marciniak, M, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, artikkel-id 8473938Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure prediction based on the anomaly detection/forecasting is becoming a reality thanks to the introduction of machine learning techniques. The orchestration layer can leverage on this new feature to proactively reconfigure cloud services that might find themselves traversing an element that is about to fail. As a result, the number of cloud service interruptions can be reduced with beneficial effects in terms of cloud service availability. Based on the above intuition, this paper presents an orchestration strategy for optical cloud networks able to reconfigure vulnerable cloud services (i.e., the ones that would be disrupted if a predicted failure happens) before an actual failure takes place. Simulation results demonstrate that, with a single link failure scenario, proactive restoration can lead to up to 97% less cloud services having to be relocated. This result brings considerable benefits in terms of cloud service availability, especially in low load conditions. It is also shown that these improvements come with almost no increase in the cloud service blocking probability performance,i.e., resource efficiency is not impacted.

  • 14.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Idzikowski, F.
    Poznan Univ Tech, Fac Elect & Telecommun, Poznan, Poland.
    Chiaraviglio, L.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, EE Dept, Rome, Italy.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    EFAH: An energy and fatigue aware heuristic for provisioning highly available connections in optical backbone networks2017Inngår i: Proceedings of 2017 9th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling, RNDM 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical backbone operators need to meet the availability requirements specified in the Service Level Agreements (SLAs). While less stringent availability constraints, i.e., less than three 9's might be met by provisioning connections without any protection, more stringent requirements, i.e., five 9's, force operator to use proactive protection strategies. The connection provisioning process becomes more cost-efficient when green aspects are considered. On the other hand, energy awareness introduces thermal fatigue effects, which may in turn lower the lifetime of devices that undergo frequent power state transitions, i.e., between Active Mode (AM) and Sleep Mode (SM). As a result the availability level experienced by the unprotected connections may decrease. At the same time, with devices failing more frequently the protection level chosen for a given connection might not be enough to guarantee the required average connection availability performance. This work tackles the problem of managing an optical back-bone network when green and thermal fatigue aspects are introduced. We propose an Energy and Fatigue Aware Heuristic (EFAH) that is able to balance between thermal fatigue effects and energy saving performance. When compared to the pure Energy-Aware (EA) strategies, EFAH manages to significantly improve the value of the average connection availability of both unprotected and protected connections. On the other hand, there is a price to pay in terms of lower energy saving performance.

  • 15.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Poznan Univ Tech, Fac Elect & Telecommun, Poznan, Poland..
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, EE Dept, Rome, Italy..
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Energy- and fatigue-aware RWA in optical backbone networks2019Inngår i: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 31, s. 193-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connection provisioning in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks needs to account for a number of crucial parameters. On the one hand, operators need to ensure the connection availability requirements defined in Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This is addressed by selecting an appropriate amount of backup resources and recovery strategies for the connections over which services are provisioned. Services requiring less strict availability requirements can be routed over unprotected lightpaths. Services with more strict availability requirements are provisioned over protected lightpaths in order to cope with possible failures in the network. Another important aspect to consider during the provisioning process is energy efficiency. Green strategies leverage on setting network devices in Sleep Mode (SM) or Active Mode (AM) depending on whether or not they are needed to accommodate traffic. However, frequent power state changes introduce thermal fatigue which in turn has a negative effect on the device lifetime. Finally, in multi-period traffic scenarios, it is also important to minimize the number of reconfigurations of lightpaths already established in the network in order to avoid possible traffic disruptions at higher layers. The work presented in this paper tackles the connection provisioning paradigm in an optical backbone network with a multi-period traffic scenario. More specifically the paper looks into the interplay among (i) energy efficiency, (ii) thermal fatigue, and (iii) lightpath reconfiguration aspects. To this end, the Energy and Fatigue Aware Heuristic with Unnecessary Reconfiguration Avoidance (EFAH-URA) is introduced, showing that it is possible to balance the three aspects mentioned above in an efficient way. When compared to the pure energy-aware strategies, EFAH-URA significantly improves the average connection availability for both unprotected and protected connections. On the other hand, it is done at the expense of reduced energy saving.

  • 16.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Franca, Luis
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Frances, Carlos R. L.
    Costa, Joao C. W. A.
    Dimensioning Optical Clouds with Shared-Path Shared-Computing (SPSC) Protection2015Inngår i: High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), 2015 IEEE 16th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service relocation represents a promising strategy to provide flexible and resource efficient resiliency from link failures in the optical cloud environment. However, when a failure affects a node hosting a datacenter (DC), service relocation from the affected DC is not possible. One alternative to protect against DC failures relies on using design strategies that duplicate the IT (i.e., storage and processing) resources in a backup DC at the expense of increasing resource overbuild (i.e., cost) of the network. This work proposes a dimensioning strategy based on the shared-path shared-computing (SPSC) concept able to protect against any single link, server, or DC failure scenario with minimal resource overbuild for the network and IT infrastructures. SPSC is based on the intuition that only storage units need complete replication in backup DC, while processing units can be instantiated only after the occurrence of a failure, leaving the design strategy some leeway to minimize their number. As result, the proposed SPSC design shows a considerable reduction in the amount of backup resources when compared to the dedicated protection strategies.

  • 17.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    O¨hlen, P.
    Batista, P.
    Santos, M.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Machine-learning-based routing of QoS-constrained connectivity services in optical transport networks2018Inngår i: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optical Society of America, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of Service (QoS) constraints are crucial in 5G networks. The paper presents a provisioning strategy for connectivity services with different priorities based on reinforcement learning able to accommodate QoS requirements while maximizing provider profits.

  • 18.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Rostami, A.
    Deutsche Bahn AG, Germany.
    Ohlen, P.
    Ericsson Research, Kista, Sweden.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Machine Learning Aided Orchestration in Multi-Tenant Networks2018Inngår i: IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 125-126Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Defined Networking enables the efficient sharing of a network infrastructure among different tenants, a concept known as network slicing. The paper presents a slicing strategy based on reinforcement learning able to efficiently orchestrate services requested by mobile and cloud tenants. 

  • 19.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Schiano, M.
    Di Giglio, A.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Field Demonstration of Machine-Learning-Aided Detection and Identification of Jamming Attacks in Optical Networks2018Inngår i: European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a machine-learning-aided framework for detection and identification of optical network jamming signal attacks of varying intensities. Trained with data gathered in our field-deployed experimental setup, the approach achieves 93% accuracy on average over the considered attack scenarios.

  • 20.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Sousa, A. D.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    On the trade-offs between user-to-replica distance and CDN robustness to link cut attacks2018Inngår i: Proceedings of 2018 10th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling, RNDM 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are a key enabler for geographically-distributed content delivery with high throughput and low latency. As CDNs utilize the underlying optical core network infrastructure, they inherit its vulnerability to targeted link cut attacks which can cause severe service degradation. One of the fundamental problems in CDN configuration is deciding on the placement of content replicas across the underlying network of data centers, which should obtain balance among multiple, often conflicting performance criteria. This paper investigates the implications of minimizing the average distance between the users and the content replicas on the CDN robustness to targeted link cuts.To this end, we compute Pareto-optimal replica placement solutions with minimal user-to-replica distance and maximal robustness to link cut attacks of the highest damaging potential. k-best replica placement solutions in terms of the user-to-replica distance are calculated by formulating the problem as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) exact method. For each replica placement solution, the worst case link cut attack scenario is identified by defining the Critical Link Set Detection (CLSD) problem. CLSD returns the link set whose cutting disconnects the maximal number of nodes from the content. We develop an ILP model for the CLSD and evaluate the robustness of the resulting CDN attack scenario in terms of mean content accessibility. The approach is evaluated through extensive simulations on real-world reference topologies, indicating that it is possible to improve the robustness to link cuts at the expense of small user-to-replica distance penalties. Moreover, the improvement of robustness is more significant for topologies with smaller average node degree and when cuts involve a larger number of links.

  • 21.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Spadaro, Salvatore
    Costa, Joao
    Carlos, Frances
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Restoration in Optical Cloud Networks With Relocation and Services Differentiation2016Inngår i: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 100-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical cloud networks allow for the integrated management of both optical and IT resources. In this paradigm, cloud services can be provisioned in an anycast fashion; i.e., only the source node asking for a service is specified, while it is up to the cloud control/management system to select the most suitable destination data center (DC) node. During the cloud service provisioning process, resiliency is crucial in order to guarantee continuous network operations also in the presence of failures. On the one hand, a survivability strategy needs to be able to meet the availability requirements of each specific cloud service, while on the other hand it must be efficient in using backup resources. This paper proposes a restoration-based survivability strategy, which combines the benefits of both cloud service relocation and service differentiation concepts. The former is used to enhance the restorability performance (i.e., the percentage of successfully restored cloud services) offered by restoration, while the latter ensures that critical services are given the proper consideration while backup resources are assigned. The paper proposes both an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation, which guarantees optimal results, and a heuristic, which trades the optimality of the solution achieved by the ILP for faster processing times. Simulation results show that the average service availability and restorability performance obtained by both the ILP and the heuristic are very close to that achievable using a protection-based strategy, but with the inherent benefit, in terms of efficient use of resources, offered by a restoration-based approach.

  • 22.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Yayimli, Aysegul
    Valparaiso Univ, Comp & Informat Sci Dept, Indiana, PA USA..
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Infrastructure upgrade framework for Content Delivery Networks robust to targeted attacks2019Inngår i: Optical Switching and Networkning Journal, ISSN 1573-4277, E-ISSN 1872-9770, Vol. 31, s. 202-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are crucial for enabling delivery of services that require high capacity and low latency, primarily through geographically-diverse content replication. Optical networks are the only available future-proof technology that meets the reach and capacity requirements of CDNs. However, the underlying physical network infrastructure is vulnerable to various security threats, and the increasing importance of CDNs in supporting vital services intensifies the concerns related to their robustness. Malicious attackers can target critical network elements, thus severely degrading network connectivity and causing large-scale service disruptions. One way in which network operators and cloud computing providers can increase the robustness against malicious attacks is by changing the topological properties of the network through infrastructure upgrades. This work proposes a framework for CDN infrastructure upgrade that performs sparse link and replica addition with the objective of maximizing the content accessibility under targeted link cut attacks. The framework is based on a newly defined content accessibility metric denoted as mu-ACA which allows the network operator to gauge the CDN robustness over a range of attacks with varying intensity. Two heuristics, namely Content-Accessibility Aware Link Addition Heuristic (CAA-LAH), and Content-Accessibility-Aware Replica Addition Heuristic (CAA-RAH) are developed to perform strategic link and replica placement, respectively, and hamper attackers from disconnecting users from the content even in severe attack scenarios. Extensive experiments on real-world reference network topologies show that the proposed framework effectively increases the CDN robustness by adding a few links or replicas to the network.

  • 23.
    Natalino, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Yayimli, Aysegul
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Link Addition Framework for Optical CDNs Robust to Targeted Link Cut Attacks2017Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF 2017 9TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RESILIENT NETWORKS DESIGN AND MODELING (RNDM) / [ed] Rak, J; Bilo, D; Marzo, J; Calle, E; Pareta, JS, IEEE conference proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) are a key enabler for the distribution of large amounts of data with high capacity and low latency. For instance, content streaming companies extensively use geographical distribution and replication to meet the ever-growing demand for media. Optical networks are the only future-proof technology available that meets the reach and capacity requirements of CDNs. However, the robustness of optical networks becomes a point of concern, as they can be a target of deliberate link cuts that can severely degrade network connectivity and cause large-scale service disruption. To mitigate the vulnerabilities, actions can be taken in the optical and/or cloud infrastructures. The replication of content across geographically diverse data centers results in an intrinsic increase of content accessibility. At the network infrastructure level, robustness to attacks can be enhanced by increasing the topology connectivity through link addition. This work focuses on the latter approach and its effectiveness in increasing content accessibility in the presence of deliberate link cuts. The paper proposes a framework for evaluation and enhancement of content accessibility in CDNs by sparse link addition. First, a content accessibility measure called mu-ACA is introduced to gauge the content accessibility of a given network topology under a set of link cut attack scenarios. Based on this measure, a new link addition strategy is defined aimed at maximizing the content accessibility for a given number of extra links. Simulation results on real-world reference topologies show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve content accessibility by adding a very limited number of optical fiber links.

  • 24.
    Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). Ericsson, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). Chalmers Univ Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ohlen, Peter
    Ericsson Res, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). Chalmers Univ Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). Chalmers Univ Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Reinforcement Learning for Slicing in a 5G Flexible RAN2019Inngår i: Journal of Lightwave Technology, ISSN 0733-8724, E-ISSN 1558-2213, Vol. 37, nr 20, s. 5161-5169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Network slicing enables an infrastructure provider (InP) to support heterogeneous 5G services over a common platform (i.e., by creating a customized slice for each service). Once in operation, slices can be dynamically scaled up/down to match the variation of their service requirements. An InP generates revenue by accepting a slice request. If a slice cannot be scaled up when required, an InP has to also pay a penalty (proportional to the level of service degradation). It becomes then crucial for an InP to decide which slice requests should be accepted/rejected in order to increase its net profit. This paper presents a slice admission strategy based on reinforcement learning (RL) in the presence of services with different priorities. The use case considered is a 5G flexible radio access network (RAN), where slices of different mobile service providers are virtualized over the same RAN infrastructure. The proposed policy learns which are the services with the potential to bring high profit (i.e., high revenue with low degradation penalty), and hence should be accepted. The performance of the RL-based admission policy is compared against two deterministic heuristics. Results show that in the considered scenario, the proposed strategy outperforms the benchmark heuristics by at least 23%. Moreover, this paper shows how the policy is able to adapt to different conditions in terms of 1) slice degradation penalty versus slice revenue factors, and 2) proportion of high versus low priority services.

  • 25.
    Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH.
    Vidal, Allan
    Ericsson Research.
    Santos, Mateus
    Ericsson Research.
    Öhlen, Peter
    Ericsson Research.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH.
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH.
    Demonstration of Resource Orchestration Using Big Data Analytics for Dynamic Slicing in 5G Networks2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an SDN/NFV-based orchestrator for sharing infrastructure resources among different tenants. The designed orchestrator maximizes the profit of an infrastructure provider by using a dynamic slicing approach based on big data analytics.

  • 26.
    Raza, Muhammad Rehan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Öhlen, Peter
    Ericsson Research.
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Monti, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    A Slice Admission Policy Based on Reinforcement Learning for a 5G Flexible RAN2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Zhu, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). Univ Sci & Technol China, Sch Informat Sci & Technol, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Natalino, Carlos
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Wosinska, Lena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Furdek, Marija
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab).
    Zhu, Zuqing
    Univ Sci & Technol China, Sch Informat Sci & Technol, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Control Plane Robustness in Software-Defined Optical Networks under Targeted Fiber Cuts2018Inngår i: 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL NETWORK DESIGN AND MODELING (ONDM 2018) / [ed] Ruffini, M Tzanakaki, A Casellas, R Autenrieth, A MarquezBarja, JM, IEEE , 2018, s. 118-123Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Software-Defined Optical Networking (SDON) paradigm enables programmable, adaptive and application-aware backbone networks. However, aside from the manifold advantages, the centralized Network Control and Management in SDONs also gives rise to a number of security concerns at different network layers. As communication between the control and the data plane devices in an SDON utilizes the common optical fiber infrastructure, it can be subject to various targeted attacks aimed at disabling the underlying optical network infrastructure and disrupting the services running in the network. In this work, we focus on the threats from targeted fiber cuts to the control plane (CP) robustness in an SDON under different link cut attack scenarios with diverse damaging potential, modeled through a newly defined link criticality measure based on the routing of control paths. To quantify the robustness of a particular CP realization, we propose a metric called Average Control Plane Connectivity (ACPC) and analyze the CP robustness for a varying number of controller instances in master/slave configuration. Simulation results indicate that CP enhancements in terms of controller addition do not necessarily yield linear improvements in CP robustness but require tailored CP design strategies.

1 - 27 of 27
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