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  • 1.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Kuhlefelt, Anna
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    A GIS based integrated participatory approach for wind-farm siting2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind energy plays a vital role to meet growing energy needs and to replace non-renewable energy sources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sweden has set the goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2040 with a major share coming from wind energy. In this context, Sweden has a national strategy for sustainable wind power development, with suggested development shares for each region. However, wind energy development also faces a multitude of ecological and societal impacts that needs consideration. Therefore, wind power planning face major challenges and there is a need for systematic planning support, integrating scientific knowledge and stakeholder valuation. The REWIND project aims to develop GIS-based methods based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for sustainable wind power planning.

    In the case study of the County of Västernorrland, stakeholders are engaged in the main MCA steps, the design step with factor selection, treatment and aggregation, as well as weighting, and the evaluation step. Preparing this, to gain credibility, we analyse not only scientific literature but also existing planning documents and legal judgments in order to find relevant factors and their treatment and valuation. For the MCA process, we built the REWIND–GIS toolbox in Python for ArcGIS where factor parameters can be easily altered and conflicts in terms of different criteria can be aggregated and scrutinized. Through this a wide array of uncertainties can be tested, such as graded safety distances or conflict areas in varying degrees. Weights of factors from stakeholders are integrated into the model to arrive at different scenarios for suitable sites which are evaluated.

    The evaluation and ranking of alternatives can then use the original factors, weights and conflicts while adding also new emerging factors, spatial or non-spatial. In this stage different methods of evaluation are also compared and tested. Through the systematic and transparent approach, planners have various options to choose from the decision space with improved understanding about the trade-offs in a quantified manner. REWIND bridges the knowledge gap in treatment of diverse factors and their performances spatially, through development of the transferable REWIND-GIS tool. This planning support tool will enable sustainable wind power planning on regional level, considering main sustainability aspects and diversified perspectives.

  • 4.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Kuhlefelt, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Byström, Gustaf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, Sweden.
    Barney, Andrew
    Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, Sweden.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Spatial multicriteria framework for sustainable wind-farm planning – accounting for conflicts2024Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 189, artikel-id 113856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable pressure is placed on wind power in Sweden due to the country’s goal of generating 100 % of its electricity from fossil free resources. The aim was to develop the REWIND methodological framework to support wind power planning, built on spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA). In addition, the purpose was to develop a conflict score as a novel component of this framework, for handling goal conflicts. This framework includes the scoping, design and evaluation stages. It was applied in a case study of Västernorrland County with extensive involvement of stakeholders throughout the process. 

    The conflict score allows a separate analysis of trade-offs between factors, highlighting potential conflicts across the landscape to increase transparency. Thus, users are allowed to decide on a threshold on how much conflict among factors should be allowed for areas to qualify as planning alternatives. Critical issues that will need further attention concern quality and availability of data, creation of representative spatial indicators for the factors, weighting methods, and uncertainty analysis. The REWIND framework is open-ended and allows for further development to provide planning support that gives more control of factors and conflicts to be acceptable in real-world planning. Capacity building involving stakeholders in the design of planning alternatives are crucial. In Sweden, it can promote a more proactive planning process in the municipalities, supported by the regional actors, leading to a more predictable permitting process for developers. This will be useful for inclusive wind power planning in any country, since it is applicable on different scales.

  • 5.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Linking multi-criteria approaches to spatial planning for wind energy development in two case studies in Sweden2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to achieve 100% renewable electricity by year 2040 with a major share expectation from wind. In this context, the national strategy developed for wind power development estimates expected shares from each County. With this increased expectations from each county, Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) is used as a tool to integrate contributing and conflicting criteria that influence wind energy planning to find sustainable solutions. A majority of studies accommodating larger number of criteria uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) or OWA to solve wind farm siting problems. By this, weights obtained from the stake-holders indicating importance of the criteria are used to allow trade-off between criteria to reach a negotiated decision when there are areas not available as in an ideal scenario. Through this opinions of stakeholders from diverse expertise are thus meant to be incorporated in a transparent and democratic way. However, these trade-off may disguise conflicts which need to be handled in a controlled way. 

    The REWIND project aims to develop a framework and GIS tools to conduct SMCA for sustainable wind power planning. The study also addresses planning issues that arises when following the standard approach and ways to handle it. 

    Two case studies are included in this project with the collaboration of Västernorrland and Västra Götaland Counties. The methodology includes selection of criteria and transformation into a uniform suitability scale. These factors are aggregated through a conflict score, to prevent high trade-offs in later stages.  Secondly, the importance of one factor over the other is obtained from stake-holders through some weighting method. In general, when the number of factors are more than 9, clustering into groups in hierarchical structure (planning tree) is carried out to calculate weights. The basis for the groups varies and the most common way of clustering is based on the three pillars of sustainability. This not only restricts comparison of factors belonging to different clusters, but it also controls the weight distribution indirectly. The symmetricity of the tree and how it impacts final weights are often overlooked by the participants who carry out weighting and their involvement become more or less pointless. To tackle this, the Ranking-Rating (RR) method is developed and used in the framework, where factors are grouped into different level of importance first, then ranked and rated within each group. Finally, the suitability scores of different scenarios are used to identify suitable sites for wind energy planning.

    Through this systematic and transparent approach planners are given various options to choose from the decision space with more clear understanding about the trade-offs in a quantified manner.  Moreover rectifying the standard approach where stake-holders can get integrated in the process more effectively can strengthen the strategic planning process and reduce the delays and difficulties during the permitting process. The REWIND methodological framework, also bridges knowledge gaps through integrating and treating diverse factors with stakeholder involvement in useful ways through development the GIS-based tool. The REWIND tool is transferable and can be used for wind power planning on regional and municipal scales. 

  • 6.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    REWIND-GIS – Integrating biodiversity issues in wind power planning2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is one of the renewable energy solutions to meet the challenges of climate change. However, it comes with potential conflicts with other sustainability goals, such as biodiversity. These need to be addressed in regional wind power planning, taking multiple sustainability aspects into account. This project aims to develop methods and the related Rewind-GIS tool for integrating biodiversity in wind power planning on regional level, targeting to meet multiple sustainability goals and to support municipal planning. The REWIND-GIS tool is based on spatial multi-criteria analysis methods to find and evaluate suitable areas for wind farm development. In cooperation with stakeholders, we integrate factors representing wind resources with biodiversity, with subfactors representing sensitive birds, forest and wetland ecosystems, as well as social and other main planning factors. After aggregating and weighing the factors in cooperation with stakeholders, we designed scenarios using opportunistic and defensive approaches. Finally a set of sites were selected for evaluation regarding potential energy output and suitability from wind power developer, social and biodiversity perspectives. In this way, synergies and trade-offs could be quantified and visualised, and main conflicting factors could be localised and discussed during the process. The methodology and the Rewind-GIS tool has potential to be useful for transparent and strategic landscape planning on regional and municipal scales.

  • 7.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wind power planning with a multicriteria approach - integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in the REWIND-GIS tool2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is one of the renewable energy solutions to meet the challenges of climate change. However, it comes with potential conflicts with other sustainability goals, such as biodiversity and ecosystem services. These social and ecological constraints and benefits need to be addressed in regional wind power planning, taking multiple sustainability aspects into account. This project aim to develop methods and the related Rewind-GIS tool for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in wind power planning on regional level, targeting to meet multiple sustainability goals and to support municipal planning. We used spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) methods and developed a tool to find and evaluate suitable areas for wind farm development. We integrated expert knowledge, such as green infrastructure applied on county level, and structured the decision problem in cooperation with stakeholders. Main factors were wind resources and relevant infrastructure, biodiversity with subfactors representing sensitive birds, forest and wetland ecosystems, cultural ecosystem services related to residential areas as well as outdoor recreation, reindeer hearding, and other land use and claims. After aggregating and weighing the factors in cooperation with stakeholders, we designed scenarios using offensive and defensive approaches. Finally 7 sites of 10 km2 were selected for evaluation regarding potential energy output and suitability from wind power developer, social and ecological perspectives. In this way, synergies and trade-offs could be quantified and visualised, and main conflicting factors could be localised and discussed during the process. The methodology and the Rewind-GIS tool has potential to be useful for transparent landscape planning on regional and municipal scales.

  • 8.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Kuhlefelt, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Regionalt planeringsstöd för vindkraft2023Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to a sustainable energy system is urgent due to climate change, on global level and in Sweden. For this transition, wind power plays an important role. According to Swedens national strategy for wind power, the County Administrative Boards were suggested to, in close collaboration with the municipalities, derive expected shares of wind power in order to reach the goal of 100 TWh wind power to year 2040. Simultaneously, wind power can entail social and ecological impacts, among these landscape impacts, noise and flickering shadows, which can affect

    residential areas, cultural values and recreation. Also reindeer husbandry can be affected. Ecological impacts can be habitat loss and fragmentation as well as collisions with birds and bats, impacting on biological diversity. Wind power development can also create jobs and thus contribute to local and regional economy. In order to develop useful planning support for wind power planning, the current planning practice and permitting process needs to be investigated concerning which aspects of sustainability that are taken into account, factors that are used, and trade-offs that are made between sustainability goals. In addition, planning support tools need to be developed, that can integrate different sustainability goals and work as a dialogue tool in the planning process. A methodology that can be useful in this context is Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA). There are though several challenges associated with using SMCA in real-world planning contexts, where further method development and adaption is needed to increase its applicability. The overall aim of the project “Regional planning support for wind power” (REWIND) was to investigate wind power planning and methods for planning support, to find opportunities for development, where the regional level plays an greater role, providing competence, data, knowledge and coordination. In this way, suggestions can be made on how regional support for wind power planning can be developed to efficiently strengthen municipal planning, acceptance and sustainable regional growth. The project consisted of two interacting parts with a common  final discussion.

    The goal for Part 1 in the project was to investigate the current planning practice and legislation through analysis of municipal policy documents and guiding judgements. Thus, we investigated which sustainability aspects and factors that were considered, with a special focus on the spatial dimension. As well, we investigated trade-offs between sustainability goals in planning and court cases. The goal for Part 2 in the project was to develop a methodological   framework for SMCA, as planning support for terrestrial wind power on regional and municipal level in Sweden. The project used a selection of existing methods from SMCA that were adapted and combined with new methods. These were integrated as parts of the REWIND tool, for increased applicability in the planning process. The method development concerned a) a GIS-based tool for more flexible creation and aggregation of the spatial indicators for the factors, b) a new method for weighing of factors, and c) a new method for conflict mapping. The REWIND tool was applied in two case studies in the counties Västernorrland and Västra Götaland, where the methods were tested in collaboration with selected actors.

    Finally, Part 1 and 2 were integrated in a common discussion, together with a focus group interview with municipal officials. The interview concerned wind power planning and related sustainability perspectives as well as the possibilities of SMCA to strengthen regional and municipal planning and collaboration. The methodology included both qualitative and quantitative methods, in the form of literature reviews, interviews, focus group discussions, as well as case studies with application and method development of SMCA in dialogue with stakeholders. Scientific literature was reviewed targeting planning of wind power, its preconditions and effects on different sustainability targets, as well as methods and applications of SMCA in planning contexts. Swedish wind power plans and judgements were analysed, to understand which factors were involved and how they were treated, trade-offs between sustainability goals, and problems and opportunities for sustainable wind power planning. From the results, together with interviews for understanding significance and treatment of selected factors, such as the electricity grid, the REWIND framework was developed. It consists of a selection of existing SMCA methods together with new methods developed within the project; for deriving spatial indicators, weighing and conflict mapping. Method development and application was carried out with the help of the case studies in Västernorrland and Västra Götaland counties, including involvement of stakeholders through focus group discussions.

    About two-thirds of the Swedish municipalities have  carried out some form of wind power planning, even if these to varying degrees have become outdated. We found that the main themes that are balanced against wind power in wind power plans and judgements are noise, landscapes, cultural environment, outdoor recreation, nature conservation, reindeer husbandry, and defence. Themes that appear to be especially difficult to handle are those that concern reindeer husbandry and defence, but also possibilities to connect to the electricity grid. There is a great variation within wind power planning concerning how the spatial analysis is organised, themes that are included and how they are treated, as well as trade-offs between wind power and other sustainability aspects. The analysis of judgements indicate that the comprehensive plan is often considered in the assessment of permit applications. Thus, more updated and well informed municipal plans would be a help as decision support also in the permitting process. Concerning SMCA, there are several challenges related to its integration in realworld planning contexts. Challenges that emerged through the focus group discussions were, among other, knowledge and data gaps, difficulties in identifying factors and their spatial indicators on different scales, standardisation of spatial indicators, weighing of factors and aggregation of their spatial indicators that to some extent can hide conflicts, and control of the weighing.

    The REWIND framework consists of three steps, 1) scoping, 2) design of planning alternatives, and 3) evaluation. The GIS-based REWIND tool was developed to enable creation and change of spatial indicators for the factors. A relatively simple but systematic weighing method was developed, the Ranking-Rating (RR) method, which allows a transparent integration of the stakeholders input with the target to get weights that represent their view on the factors’ importance. In addition, the understanding of the meaning of the weights can increase through comparisons with the planning tree, which gives an instant overview of different dimensions of sustainability. A method for conflict mapping was also developed, in order to enable elimination of areas with high conflict between factors. These new methods were integrated in the REWIND framework.

    The general overview of wind power planning that emerged in the study is, that  it can be difficult to handle the complex technical-economic, social and environmental challenges in municipal planning and decision making. Simultaneously, there is a need for a more continuous and proactive wind power planning. Possibilities to strengthen this could be financial support and through regional collaboration processes together with the municipalities, in order to strengthen their capacity for wind power planning. This could include a collaboration platform where municipal

    initiatives and planning processes can interact with counties and regions, for knowledge building and exchange of experience. SMCA can be part of such a platform, as a useful tool for integration and trade-off of relevant knowledge and interests, in a systematic and transparent way. This could increase the possibilities to interact with the planning processes for the electricity grid, as well as facilitate knowledge and capacity building including dialogue with key actors of the defence interests, reindeer husbandry, and other. Such a collaboration platform could also strengthen the inter-municipal cooperation as well as the handling of areas of national interest and trade-offs between these. This can contribute to development of a more coordinated and sustainable wind power planning, with potential to, in the long run, form part of a more cohesive landscape planning and sustainable development of the energy system in Sweden.

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  • 9.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Bending the Curve – the Role and Interplay of Municipal Energy Planning and Municipal Spatial Planning for Climate Change Mitigation in Sweden2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det globala klimatet förändras snabbt, vilket accentuerar behovet av att omedelbart böja utsläppskurvan av växthusgaser nedåt. De lokala myndigheterna har identifierats som nyckelaktörer i klimatomställningen på grund av deras omfattande ansvarsområden, vilket innefattar olika mandat för lokal planering. De svenska kommunerna är inget undantag i detta avseende, utan framstår som särskilt kritiska för Sveriges ambitioner att nå klimatneutralitet år 2045 och flera andra hållbarhetsmål, eftersom de har i uppdrag att bedriva kommunal energiplanering avseende tillförsel och distribution av energi, besitter ett monopol på fysisk planering och har vetorätt för större vindkraftsetableringar. Det finns dock begränsad kunskap om kommunernas planeringsprocesser och institutionella kapacitetsutveckling när det gäller att bemöta klimatförändringarna i sin kommunala planering. Det övergripande syftet med denna sammanläggningsavhandling, som omfattar fem vetenskapliga artiklar, är att bidra med ny kunskap om rollerna och processerna inom kommunal energi- och klimatplanering, kommunal fysisk planering och kommunal vindkraftsplanering, samt samspelet däremellan, för att möta behovet av en skyndsam klimatomställning samt identifiera vägar framåt för att bygga kommunernas institutionella kapacitet. Avhandlingen bygger på ett tillvägagångssätt med mixade metoder, som omfattar semistrukturerade intervjuer, fokusgruppsintervjuer, deltagande observation, enkätundersökning, statistiska analyser, samt multipla dokumentanalyser av både tvärsnitts- och longitudinell karaktär som inkluderar inslag av kvantitativa innehållsanalyser och tematiska analyser.

    När man sammanfattar resultaten från artikel I-V är det tydligt att kommunerna bemöter klimatkrisen på flera olika sätt. Detta inbegriper att en proaktiv strategisk energi- och klimatplaneringspraxis med syfte att minska klimatpåverkan har vuxit fram ur den sektoriella energiplaneringstraditionen. Miljöbedömningspraxisen är bristfällig inom kommunal energi- och klimatplanering, särskilt när planeringen bedrivs i en icke lagstadgad form. Resultaten tyder på att miljöbedömning kan underlätta beaktandet av synergier och konflikter mellan olika hållbarhetsmål, vilket därmed även kan bidra till att påvisa den möjliga lokala nyttan med klimatåtgärder. Dessutom har kommunerna integrerat ett flertal olika strategier för minskad klimatpåverkan i sina översiktsplaner, relaterade till energiproduktion, -distribution och -användning, transporter och markanvändning, och resultaten påvisar att sådan hänsyn till energi- och klimataspekter i översiktsplanerna har ökat under de senaste decennierna. Integreringen av klimataspekter i översiktsplaner har till stor del stimulerats av förekomsten av en kommunal energi- och klimatstrategi eller motsvarande policydokument, vilket har möjliggjort en tvåvägs policyintegrering mellan dessa två planeringsdomäner. Förekomsten av energi- och klimatstrategisk kompetens inom den kommunala verksamheten är en annan avgörande faktor, eftersom detta underlättar kunskapsinflödet genom deltagande i olika regional-lokala och mellankommunala nätverk, som sedan kan spridas internt och nyttjas i översiktsplaneprocesserna. Kommunala tjänstepersoner måste också ges tid och resurser att interagera med politikerna för att mobilisera stöd och skapa handlingsmandat.

    Samtidigt visar resultaten att många kommuner kämpar med att utveckla tillräcklig institutionell kapacitet för att hantera aspekter relaterat till minskad klimatpåverkan i sin energi- och klimatstrategiska planering samt i sin strategiska fysiska planering. Detta har till exempel visat sig genom att antagandet av både energi- och klimatfokuserade policydokument och vindbruksplaner följde de tidsmässiga mönstren av förekomsten av statligt finansierade ekonomiska incitament, och att mer än en fjärdedel av kommunerna inte har antagit ett energi- och klimatfokuserat policydokument under den studerade tolvårsperioden. Detta har också lett till ett mer reaktivt kommunalt beslutsfattande i förhållande till det kommunala vetot för vindkraftsutbyggnad, med konsekvenser för dess legitimitet och allmänhetens deltagande. Givet kommunernas centrala roll bedöms det vara av vikt att ytterligare främja processen att utveckla den institutionella kapaciteten för att bemöta klimatkrisen i deras kommunala planering och beslutsfattande. En mer kontinuerlig planering inom energi- och klimatstrategisk planering, översiktsplanering respektive vindbruksplanering, med tätare intervall mellan varje planeringsprocess, skulle kunna möjliggöra ett ökat politiskt stöd för att integrera och beakta nya aspekter och strategier relaterat till minskad klimatpåverkan i planeringen samt bidra till organisatoriskt lärande. Dessutom skulle de tre planeringsformerna kunna kopplas samman ytterligare, till exempel genom att fastställa mål för utsläpp av växthusgaser och förnybar elproduktion inom energi- och klimatdomänen, vilket medför konsekvenser för den strategiska fysiska planeringen, och genom att initiera processer samtidigt och på ett integrerat sätt. Om kommuner skulle ta tillvara på potentialen i en mer proaktiv strategisk miljöbedömningsprocess kan detta vara ytterligare ett verktyg för ökad hållbarhetshänsyn tidigt i processen, där det finns stora möjligheter att påverka planens innehåll. Sammantaget kan detta leda till en mer hållbarhetinriktad kommunal planering, som kan bidra till att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser, samtidigt som det ger synergier mellan andra hållbarhetsmål. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    PhD kappa, Vincent Wretling
  • 10.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Strengthening the Municipal Energy Planning – Integration into Comprehensive Planning, Performance of Impact Assessment and Inclusion of National Environmental Objectives2018Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate is changing rapidly, which pronounces the need for transforming the energy system. The Swedish municipalities have been identified as key actors in Sweden’s decarbonisation due to their far-reaching responsibilities, which encompass energy planning. The municipalities are required to have a Municipal Energy Plan (MEP) regarding the provision of energy, but have increasingly shown climate awareness. Further, the municipalities are responsible also for the spatial planning, and increased climate efforts will largely be dependent on how this planning is conducted. However, the energy system also affects various other environmental impacts. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can aid to take these impacts and associated National Environmental Quality Objectives (NEQOs) into account, which is necessary in order to avoid that other negative environmental impacts occur due to a decarbonisation and that synergies between NEQOs instead could be utilised. Thus, this thesis aims to examine current municipal energy planning practice and the integration of energy and climate targets into comprehensive planning (Paper I), as well as to explore the performance of SEA and the consideration of NEQOs in municipal energy planning (Paper II). Further, suggestions for strengthening the practice is developed (Paper I and II).To achieve the aims, a document analysis, statistical analyses, thematic analyses and an interview study has been employed. This thesis shows that the Act on Municipal Energy Planning is not followed and that the municipalities proactively focuses on climate change mitigation instead. Moreover, a link between MEPs and Comprehensive Plans is seen regarding energy and climate-related targets, and a continuous energy planning can thus be one way of achieving a spatial planning in line with the climate objectives. SEA is seldom performed despite legal requirements, due to a deficient screening practice. However, when performed, SEA can increase the consideration of NEQOs, particularly those in which negative environmental impacts of climate efforts can occur. The consideration of NEQOs could thus help enhance synergies between a decarbonisation and other NEQOs, which could mobilise support for the MEP and aid its implementation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Are Local Authorities Building Their Capacity to Plan for Reduced Climate Impact?: A Longitudinal Analysis of Swedish Comprehensive Plans2021Ingår i: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 652-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial planning conducted by the local authorities has been identified as a key part of shaping carbon-neutral societies. Nevertheless, the question of whether local authorities are building their institutional capacity for integrating climate change mitigation aspects into spatial planning remains under-researched. This paper aims to fill this gap while also analysing the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in facilitating organisational learning. The methods employed were a longitudinal document analysis of Comprehensive Plans belonging to eight municipalities in Stockholm County, complemented by a focus group interview. A significant difference was identified, as the recently adopted Comprehensive Plans included more strategies for climate change mitigation and, to a greater extent, linked these strategies to reduced climate impact or energy efficiency than previously adopted Comprehensive Plans. However, numerous additional strategies could have been given further consideration in each studied Comprehensive Plan. Thus, this calls for more continuous and cyclical comprehensive planning processes to facilitate capacity building, primarily by being a vehicle for mobilising political support. Lastly, the findings indicate that SEA can lead to organisational learning of both single-loop and double-loop nature, where the latter can enable SEA to shape the planning process in a more profound and sustainability-oriented manner.

  • 12.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Building Institutional Capacity to Plan for Climate Neutrality: The Role of Local Co-Operation and Inter-Municipal Networks at the Regional Level2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 4, artikel-id 2173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The institutional capacity of local authorities to integrate climate change mitigation aspects into spatial planning is of vital importance. This paper sets out to investigate this capacity in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, by surveying 26 municipalities and analysing two case study municipalities through participation in workshops and interviews. The study shows the need both for a local energy and climate policy domain that can be integrated into spatial planning as well as dedicated personnel to maintain this policy, thereby securing knowledge resources within the organisation. Additionally, the importance of relations to and repertoires for interacting with politicians is highlighted. Lastly, the study demonstrates the complementary added value of a regional-local network administered by the County Administrative Board, spreading learning examples and diffusing theoretical knowledge, as well as sub-regional, inter-municipal networks that enable the transfer of more practical knowledge and provide a platform for concrete action.

  • 13.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Hörnberg, Christina
    Impact Assessment in municipal energy planning: Current trends and pathways forward2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hörnberg, Christina
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    The (lacking) role of SEA within local energy and climate planning - Pathways forward. Advances in European SEA and strategic planning2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent upsurge in voluntary local energy and climate planning is generally appraised. Nevertheless, as these plans are produced informally, SEA legislation does not apply. Findings concerning Swedish energy planning point towards that SEA often is lacking even when the directive does apply, due to lack of knowledge and the conviction that these plans are sustainable ‘by default’. Thus, many energy and climate plans may miss procedural and substantive benefits of SEA, for example to highlight interactions between pathways for decarbonisation and other sustainability objectives. This paper raises questions concerning current energy and climate planning practices and discuss pathways forward.  

  • 15.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balancing wind power deployment and sustainability objectives in Swedish planning and permittingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Wind power can be a critical renewable energy technology in efforts to achieve the global climate targets. However, local impacts do occur, which demands careful consideration in planning and permitting. Sweden has set an ambition to triple land-based wind power by 2040, and municipalities play a key role in both the planning and permitting process, due to a planning monopoly and veto power in the permitting process. This calls for an investigation of Swedish wind power governance, with a particular focus on recent trends in municipal wind power planning, how wind power is balanced in relation to sustainability objectives in planning and permitting, and insights from practitioners regarding their capacities and drivers.

    Results

    The results show that about two-thirds of Swedish municipalities have conducted wind power planning in some form, but this basis for decision-making has become outdated due to a lack of institutional capacity at the municipal level. Secondly, the study finds that many municipalities perceive that there are insufficient incentives for a continued wind power expansion. Lastly, the study sheds light on a large heterogeneity within wind power planning practice concerning how trade-offs between wind power deployment and other sustainability aspects are handled, as well as a lack of coherence between planning and permitting.

    Conclusions

    It is concluded that the current state of municipal wind power planning raises questions regarding the legitimacy of municipal decision-making in terms of perceived justice among local inhabitants and highlights the need for updated wind power plans. Moreover, to promote local acceptance in the future, formalised financial compensation and strategic initiatives that enable the localisation of electricity-intensive industry within municipalities with large-scale wind power production can be two key components. The results also highlight the need for additional support at the municipal level, including access to critical competencies and relevant knowledge to enable trade-offs between the different sustainability considerations in an informed and balanced manner. Finally, regional dialogues with key actors would facilitate the handling of inter-municipal issues, in particular by fostering co-operation regarding inter-municipal wind sites.

  • 16.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balancing wind power deployment and sustainability objectives in Swedish planning and permitting2022Ingår i: Energy, Sustainability and Society, E-ISSN 2192-0567, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wind power is a critical renewable energy technology in efforts to achieve the global climate targets. However, local impacts do occur, which demands careful consideration in planning and permitting. Sweden has setan ambition to triple land-based wind power by 2040, and municipalities play a key role in both the planning and permitting process, due to a planning monopoly and veto power in the permitting process. This calls for an investigationof Swedish wind power governance, with a particular focus on recent trends in municipal wind power planning, how wind power is balanced in relation to sustainability objectives in planning and permitting, and insights frompractitioners regarding their capacities and drivers.

    Results: The results show that about two-thirds of Swedish municipalities have conducted wind power planning in some form, but this basis for decision-making has become outdated due to a lack of institutional capacity at the municipal level. Secondly, the study finds that many municipalities perceive that there are insufficient incentives for a continued wind power expansion. Lastly, the study sheds light on a large heterogeneity within wind power planning practice concerning how trade-offs between wind power deployment and other sustainability aspects are handled, as well as a lack of coherence between planning and permitting.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that the current state of municipal wind power planning raises questions regarding the legitimacy of municipal decision-making in terms of perceived justice among local inhabitants and highlights the need for updated wind power plans. Moreover, to promote local acceptance in the future, formalised financial compensation and strategic initiatives that enable the localisation of electricity-intensive industry within municipalities with large-scale wind power production can be two key components. The results also highlight the need for additional support at the municipal level, including access to critical competence and relevant knowledge to enable trade-offs between the different sustainability considerations in an informed and balanced manner. Finally, regional dialogue with key actors, such as the military, Sami representatives and grid operators, would facilitate the handling of inter-municipal issues, in particular by fostering co-operation regarding inter-municipal wind sites.

  • 17.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Byström, Gustaf
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Strategic municipal energy planning – examining current practice in Sweden2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier.
    Hörnberg, Christina
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Strategic municipal energy planning in Sweden – Examining current energy planning practice and its influence on comprehensive planning2018Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 113, s. 688-700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish municipalities, which possess great autonomy for land use planning, are required to have Energy Plans (EPs) concerning the distribution and supply of energy. However, most municipalities no longer have operational control over these aspects of the energy system. Instead, many municipalities have initiated proactive, strategic energy and climate planning. Prior to a potential legislative revision, the current energy planning practice is examined with regards to the propagation of these different energy planning approaches and the influence of municipal energy planning on comprehensive planning. This study shows that 61% of Sweden's 290 municipalities adopted an EP during 2004–2015. Most of these EPs had a broad scope, and it is shown that during the studied time frame the focus of the municipal energy planning gradually shifted towards mitigating climate change. The municipalities’ population size also has a significant effect on the propagation and currentness of energy planning. Furthermore, municipal energy and climate planning increases the potential for ensuring the consideration of energy and climate targets and strategies in comprehensive planning, which can facilitate a more sustainability-led municipal planning in line with the Swedish energy and climate objectives, and this relation is thus urged to be strengthened.

  • 19.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hörnberg, Christina
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Exploring the application of Impact Assessment and its function of addressing interactions between national environmental objectives in Swedish energy and climate planningManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides the dire need to tackle climate change, a multitude of anthropogenic environmental impacts and associated environmental objectives also need to be addressed in planning. Impact Assessment (IA) tools such as Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can potentially aid such consideration in planning, and thus the IA practice and its contribution to considering national environmental objectives are explored within municipal and regional energy and climate planning in Sweden. The results show that, in consequence of low application and quality of screening, the performance of IA is generally lacking within Swedish energy and climate planning. Furthermore, the policy documents for which an IA has been conducted have a significantly higher inclusion of the Swedish National Environmental Quality Objectives, thereby indicating that the use of IA can facilitate the consideration of national environmental objectives. Consequently, interactions among national objectives can be illuminated and synergies utilised, a function that otherwise often is lacking.

  • 20.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Hörnberg, Christina
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Strategiska hållbarhetsstudier. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    SEA screening practice and the inclusion of environmental objectives in Swedish energy and climate planning2021Ingår i: Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, ISSN 1461-5517, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Wretling, Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Regional planning for wind power2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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