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  • 1.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Waveguide Gratings in Thin-Film Lithium Niobate on Insulator2017In: CLEO: 2017, OSA Technical Digest, Optical Society of America, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Waveguide Gratings in Thin-Film Lithium Niobate on Insulator2017In: 2017 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS EUROPE & EUROPEAN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE (CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Edinger, Pierre
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-loss MEMS phase shifter for large scale reconfigurable silicon photonics2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate a silicon MEMS phase shifter achieving more than π phase shift with sub-dB insertion loss (IL).  The phase is tuned by reducing the gap between a static suspended waveguide and a free silicon beam, via comb-drive actuation.  Our device reaches 1.2π phase shift at only 20 V, with only 0.3 dB insertion loss – an order of magnitude improvement over previously reported MEMS devices.  The device has a small footprint of 50×70 µm2 and its power consumption is 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of traditional thermal phase shifters.  Our new phase shifter is a fundamental building block of the next-generation large scale reconfigurable photonic circuits which will find applications in datacenter interconnects, artificial intelligence (AI), and quantum computing.

  • 4.
    Edinger, Pierre
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Reducing Actuation Nonlinearity of MEMS Phase Shifters for Reconfigurable Photonic Circuits2019In: 2019 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low power consumption of MEMS actuators enables large-scale reconfigurable photonic circuits. However, insertion loss and actuation linearity need improvement. By simulations and experiments, we analyze the dominating design parameters affecting linearity and suggest improvements.

  • 5.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Photonic MEMS for optical information technologies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) combine hundreds of optical components on a chip, and can enable fast communications, high-performance computing, and improved sensing. PICs, made by miniaturized optical waveguides, require many reconfigurable elements to enable programmable functionalities and to compensate for fabrication variations and environmental factors. However, current reconfiguration methods consume large amounts of electrical power, which is a bottleneck for their scalability, and limits their applications. A promising technology to alleviate this bottleneck is photonic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which provides low-power reconfiguration of PICs using electromechanical actuation. This thesis reports on several photonic MEMS devices and technologies that enable low-power reconfiguration for PICs, and bring new functionalities towards efficient nonlinear optics, optical beam steering, and photonic Lab-on-chips (LoCs). A fundamental element of reconfigurable PICs is the phase shifter, and this thesis introduces novel photonic MEMS phase shifters with low power consumption, low optical losses, and linear actuation, and applies them to reconfigurable filtering. Moreover, photonic MEMS bring novel functionalities arising from the mechanical movement of waveguide components, and, in this thesis, a method to tune waveguide dispersion for efficient nonlinear optics in silicon, and two types of reconfigurable waveguide gratings for low-power optical beam steering are developed. The photonic MEMS platform introduced in this thesis can be combined with polarization diversity schemes by using a novel suspended polarization beam splitter. In addition, other technologies addressing challenges in integrated photonics are introduced, such as a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) platform that combines grating couplers, high confinement waveguides, and Bragg gratings, for electro-optic modulation and efficient nonlinear optics; and a cost-efficient method to integrate photonic sensors into LoCs for healthcare applications. The technologies introduced in this thesis have potential to enable large-scale, power-efficient, and highly functional PICs, with prospects for more efficient and more functional optical information technologies.

  • 6.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colangelo, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Ahmed, Samy
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Björk, Joel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    MEMS tunable silicon photonic grating coupler for post-assembly optimization of fiber-to-chip coupling2017In: Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2017 30th IEEE International Conference on / [ed] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 293-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally demonstrate the first MEMS tunable photonic fiber-to-waveguide grating coupler, and apply it to electrostatically optimize the light coupling between an optical fiber and an on-chip silicon photonic waveguide. Efficient and stable fiber-to-chip coupling is vital for combining the high optical quality of silica fibers with the integration density of silicon photonics. Our device has the potential to lower assembly cost and extend device lifetime, by enabling electrical post-assembly adjustments.

  • 7.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Das, Sandipan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Suspended polarization beam splitter on silicon-on-insulator2018In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 2675-2681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization handling in suspended silicon photonics has the potential to enable new applications in fields such as optomechanics, photonic microelectromechanical systems, and mid-infrared photonics. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a suspended polarization beam splitter on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform, based on an asymmetric directional coupler. Our device presents polarization extinction ratios above 10 and 15 dB, and insertion losses below 5 and 1 dB, for TM and TE polarized input, respectively, across a 40 nm wavelength range at 1550 nm, with a device length below 8 µm. These results make our suspended polarization beam splitter a promising building block for future systems based on polarization diversity suspended photonics.

  • 8.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Colangelo, Marco
    KTH.
    Björk, Joel
    KTH.
    Ahmed, Samy
    KTH.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    New dynamic silicon photonic components enabled by MEMS technology2018In: Proceedings Volume 10537, Silicon Photonics XIII, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, Vol. 10537, article id 1053711Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon photonics is the study and application of integrated optical systems which use silicon as an optical medium, usually by confining light in optical waveguides etched into the surface of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The term microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) refers to the technology of mechanics on the microscale actuated by electrostatic actuators. Due to the low power requirements of electrostatic actuation, MEMS components are very power efficient, making them well suited for dense integration and mobile operation. MEMS components are conventionally also implemented in silicon, and MEMS sensors such as accelerometers, gyros, and microphones are now standard in every smartphone. By combining these two successful technologies, new active photonic components with extremely low power consumption can be made. We discuss our recent experimental work on tunable filters, tunable fiber-to-chip couplers, and dynamic waveguide dispersion tuning, enabled by the marriage of silicon MEMS and silicon photonics.

  • 9.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems. Grenoble Institute of Technology - INP Phelma.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Dynamic dispersion tuning of silicon photonicwaveguides by microelectromechanical actuation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient nonlinear silicon photonics rely on phase-matching through finewaveguide dispersion engineering. We experimentally demonstrate dynamic dispersion tuningof 800 ps/nm/km in a silicon waveguide ring resonator, by using microelectromechanicalactuation of an adjacent suspended waveguide rim.

  • 10.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Le Thomas, Nicolas
    Univ Ghent, Photon Res Grp, INTEC Dept, Imec, Technol Pk Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Ghent, Ctr Nano & Biophoton, Technol Pk Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium..
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power optical beam steering by microelectromechanical waveguide gratings2019In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 855-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical beam steering is key for optical communications, laser mapping (lidar), and medical imaging. For these applications, integrated photonics is an enabling technology that can provide miniaturized, lighter, lower-cost, and more power-efficient systems. However, common integrated photonic devices are too power demanding. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, beam steering by microelectromechanical (MEMS) actuation of a suspended silicon photonic waveguide grating. Our device shows up to 5.6 degrees beam steering with 20 V actuation and power consumption below the mu W level, i.e., more than five orders of magnitude lower power consumption than previous thermo-optic tuning methods. The novel combination of MEMS with integrated photonics presented in this work lays ground for the next generation of power-efficient optical beam steering systems.

  • 11.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Le Thomas, Nicolas
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Low-power optical beam steering by microelectromechanical waveguide gratingsIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical beam steering is key for optical communications, laser mapping (LIDAR), and medical imaging. For these applications, integrated photonicsis an enabling technology that can provide miniaturized, lighter, lower cost, and more power efficient systems. However, common integrated photonic devices are too power demanding. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, beam steering by microelectromechanical (MEMS)actuation of a suspended silicon photonic waveguide grating. Our device shows up to 5.6° beamsteering with 20 V actuation and a power consumption below the μW level, i.e. more than 5 orders of magnitude lower power consumption than previous thermo-optic tuning methods. The novel combination of MEMS with integrated photonics presented in this work lays ground for the next generation of power-efficient optical beam steering systems.

  • 12.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Takabayashi, A. Y.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Sattari, H.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Quack, N.
    MEMS for Photonic Integrated Circuits2020In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, ISSN 1077-260X, E-ISSN 1558-4542, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is reviewed. This field leverages mechanics at the nanometer to micrometer scale to improve existing components and introduce novel functionalities in PICs. This review covers the MEMS actuation principles and the mechanical tuning mechanisms for integrated photonics. The state of the art of MEMS tunable components in PICs is quantitatively reviewed and critically assessed with respect to suitability for large-scale integration in existing PIC technology platforms. MEMS provide a powerful approach to overcome current limitations in PIC technologies and to enable a new design dimension with a wide range of applications.

  • 13.
    Ottonello Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rödjegård, Henrik
    Senseair AB, Stn Gatan 12, S-82471 Delsbo, Sweden..
    Martin, Hans
    Senseair AB, Stn Gatan 12, S-82471 Delsbo, Sweden..
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Carbon Dioxide Sensing with Low-confinement High-sensitivity Mid-IR Silicon Waveguides2019In: 2019 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, article id 8750210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a low-confinement Si waveguide for 4.26 μm wavelength and apply it to sense CO2 concentrations down to 0.1 %. We demonstrate the highest reported waveguide sensitivity to CO2: 44 % of the free-space sensitivity.

  • 14.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    On-chip dispersion spectroscopy of mid-infrared molecular fingerprints using a microring resonatorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ottonello-Briano, Floria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Rödjegård, Henrik
    Martin, Hans
    Sohlström, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Electrical Systems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Carbon dioxide absorption spectroscopy with a mid-infrared silicon photonic waveguideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide is a vital gas for life on Earth, a waste product of human activities, and widely used in agriculture and industry. Its accurate sensing is therefore of great interest. Optical sensors exploiting the mid-infrared light absorption of CO2 provide high selectivity, but their large size and high cost limit their use. Here, we demonstrate CO2 gas sensing at 4.2 μm wavelength using an integrated silicon waveguide, featuring a sensitivity to CO2 of 44% that of free-space sensing. The suspended waveguide is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate by a single-lithography-step process, and we route it into a mid-infrared photonic circuit for on-chip-referenced gas measurements. Its demonstrated performance and its simple and scalable fabrication make our waveguide ideal for integration in miniaturized CO2 sensors for distributed environmental monitoring, personal safety, medical, and high-volume consumer applications.

  • 16. Quack, Niels
    et al.
    Sattari, Hamed
    Takabayashi, Alain Yuji
    Zhang, Yu
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wang, Xiaojing
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jezzini, Moises
    Hwang, H. Y.
    O'Brien, Peter
    Porcel, Marco
    Arce, Cristina
    Kumar, Saurav
    Abasahl, Banafsheh
    Verheyen, Peter
    Bogaerts, Wim
    Exploiting Mechanics at the Nanoscale to Enhance Photonic Integrated Circuits2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the maturing and the increasing complexity of Silicon Photonics technology, novel avenues are pursued to reduce power consumption and to provide enhanced functionality: exploiting mechanical movement in advanced Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits provides a promising path to access a strong modulation of the effective index and to low power consumption by employing mechanically stable and thus non-volatile states. In this paper, we will discuss recent achievements in the development of MEMS enabled systems in Silicon Photonics and outline the roadmap towards reconfigurable general Photonic Integrated Circuits.

  • 17. Quack, Niels
    et al.
    Sattari, Hamed
    Takabayashi, Alain Yuji
    Zhang, Yu
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Exploiting Mechanics at the Micro- and Nanoscale for Efficient Reconfiguration of Photonic Integrated Circuits2019In: IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series 2019, SUM 2019, 2019, p. 1-1, article id 8795036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit Micro- & Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems in Photonic Integrated Circuits to perform basic photonic operations, including phase shifting, attenuation and switching. Due to their small footprint and low insertion loss, Photonic MEMS are highly scalable, while mechanical latching mechanisms can offer zero steady state power consumption.

  • 18.
    Wang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Bleiker, Simon J.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Edinger, Pierre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Stemme, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Wafer-Level Vacuum Sealing by Transfer Bonding of Silicon Caps for Small Footprint and Ultra-Thin MEMS Packages2019In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 460-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vacuum and hermetic packaging is a critical requirement for optimal performance of many micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), vacuum electronics, and quantum devices. However, existing packaging solutions are either elaborate to implement or rely on bulky caps and footprint-consuming seals. Here, we address this problem by demonstrating a wafer-level vacuum packaging method featuring transfer bonding of 25-μm-thin silicon (Si) caps that are transferred from a 100-mm-diameter silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to a cavity wafer to seal the cavities by gold-aluminum (Au-Al) thermo-compression bonding at a low temperature of 250 °C. The resulting wafer-scale sealing yields after wafer dicing are 98% and 100% with sealing rings as narrow as 6 and 9 μm, respectively. Despite the small sealing footprint, the Si caps with 9-μm-wide sealing rings demonstrate a high mean shear strength of 127 MPa. The vacuum levels in the getter-free sealed cavities are measured by residual gas analysis to be as low as 1.3 mbar, based on which a leak rate smaller than 2.8x10-14 mbarL/s is derived. We also show that the thickness of the Si caps can be reduced to 6 μm by post-transfer etching while still maintaining excellent hermeticity. The demonstrated ultra-thin packages can potentially be placed in between the solder bumps in flip-chip interfaces, thereby avoiding the need of through-cap-vias in conventional MEMS packages.

  • 19.
    Zichi, Julien
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Yang, Lily
    Gyger, Samuel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Lettner, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Jöns, Klaus D.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    Gallo, Katia
    Steinhauer, Stephan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
    Heterogeneous integration of NbTiN by universal room temperature depositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the Nb-based compound with the highest known critical temperature, NbTiN is of particular interest for many applications. It is used in Josephson junctions for single flux quantum logic gates, as a superconducting electrode to contact semiconductor devices, and one important use is in superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. These detectors are the ideal candidate for on-chip integration in photonic circuits, offering near-unity detection efficiency, low noise and excellent time resolution, therefore it is desirable to implement them on a wide variety of platforms. However, it remains a challenge to deposit the superconducting material with a process suitable for heterogeneous integration, as the most widespread material, NbN, is associated with a deposition at a high temperature. Taking advantage of the possibility to deposit superconducting NbTiN with various stoichiometries by co-sputter deposition at room temperature, we demonstrate growth on six different substrates – silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, gallium arsenide, lithium niobate, [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] or PMN-PT, and aluminum nitride – in the same deposition run, and show that all the films exhibit superconducting properties with similar critical temperatures. We fabricated waveguide-compatible superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on five substrates, report short dead times for all devices with a narrow spread of performances, and discuss their different photon detection saturation behavior. Our method simplifies the fabrication of superconducting devices on a wide range of materials.

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