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  • 1. Bellini, E.
    et al.
    Barreira, A.
    Frusciante, N.
    Hu, B.
    Peirone, S.
    Raveri, M.
    Zumalacarregui, Miguel
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Avilez-Lopez, A.
    Ballardini, M.
    Battye, R. A.
    Bolliet, B.
    Calabrese, E.
    Dirian, Y.
    Ferreira, P. G.
    Finelli, F.
    Huang, Z.
    Ivanov, M. M.
    Lesgourgues, J.
    Li, B.
    Lima, N. A.
    Pace, F.
    Paoletti, D.
    Sawicki, I.
    Silvestri, A.
    Skordis, C.
    Umilta, C.
    Vernizzi, F.
    Comparison of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers for testing general relativity2018In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 97, no 2, article id 023520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare Einstein-Boltzmann solvers that include modifications to general relativity and find that, for a wide range of models and parameters, they agree to a high level of precision. We look at three general purpose codes that primarily model general scalar-tensor theories, three codes that model Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity, a code that models f(R) gravity, a code that models covariant Galileons, a code that models Horava-Lifschitz gravity, and two codes that model nonlocal models of gravity. Comparing predictions of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the power spectrum of dark matter for a suite of different models, we find agreement at the subpercent level. This means that this suite of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers is now sufficiently accurate for precision constraints on cosmological and gravitational parameters.

  • 2.
    Zumalacarregui, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBNL, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, France.
    Seljak, U.
    Limits on Stellar-Mass Compact Objects as Dark Matter from Gravitational Lensing of Type Ia Supernovae2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, no 14, article id 141101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of dark matter (DM) remains unknown despite very precise knowledge of its abundance in the Universe. An alternative to new elementary particles postulates DM as made of macroscopic compact halo objects (MACHO) such as black holes formed in the very early Universe. Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) are subject to less robust constraints than other mass ranges and might be connected to gravitational-wave signals detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). New methods are therefore necessary to constrain the viability of compact objects as a DM candidate. Here we report bounds on the abundance of compact objects from gravitational lensing of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Current SNe data sets constrain compact objects to represent less than 35.2% (Joint Lightcurve Analysis) and 37.2% (Union 2.1) of the total matter content in the Universe, at 95% confidence level. The results are valid for masses larger than ∼0.01 M (solar masses), limited by the size SNe relative to the lens Einstein radius. We demonstrate the mass range of the constraints by computing magnification probabilities for realistic SNe sizes and different values of the PBH mass. Our bounds are sensitive to the total abundance of compact objects with M0.01 M and complementary to other observational tests. These results are robust against cosmological parameters, outlier rejection, correlated noise, and selection bias. PBHs and other MACHOs are therefore ruled out as the dominant form of DM for objects associated to LIGO gravitational wave detections. These bounds constrain early-Universe models that predict stellar-mass PBH production and strengthen the case for lighter forms of DM, including new elementary particles.

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