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  • 1.
    Dahlgren, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Schlatter, Nicola Manuel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ivchenko, Nickolay
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Roth, Lorenz
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Relation of anomalous F region radar echoes in the high-latitude ionosphere to auroral precipitation2017In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 475-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-thermal echoes in incoherent scatter radar observations are occasionally seen in the high-latitude ionosphere. Such anomalous echoes are a manifestation of plasma instabilities on spatial scales matching the radar wavelength. Here we investigate the occurrence of a class of spatially localized anomalous echoes with an enhanced zero Doppler frequency feature and their relation to auroral particle precipitation. The ionization profile of the E region is used to parametrize the precipitation, with nmE and hmE being the E region peak electron density and the altitude of the peak, respectively. We find the occurrence rate of the echoes to generally increase with nmE and decrease with hmE, thereby indicating a correlation between the echoes and high-energy flux precipitation of particles with a high characteristic energy. The highest occurrence rate of > 20% is found for hmE = 109 km and nmE D 10(11.9) m(-3), averaged over the radar observation volume.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Al-Saadeh, Osama
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Gusarov, Anton
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Challa, Renuka Venkata Ramani
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Tombaz, S.
    Sung, Ki Won
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Energy-efficient 5G deployment in rural areas2016In: 12th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, WiMob 2016, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, article id 7763258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is of profound importance for prospective 5G wireless networks, especially in sparsely populated rural areas where broadband mobile services should be provided at a reasonable cost. In this paper the impact of beamforming (BF) and cell discontinuous transmission (cell DTX) technologies on the average area power consumption is studied. The required density of base stations for a 5G cellular system in a rural environment is also investigated. For this purpose, we propose a simple rural area model that captures a non-uniform distribution of users and employ the generalized Lloyd algorithm to determine the deployment of base stations. We assume a 5G system operating in mmWave band centered at 28 GHz with the bandwidth of 100 MHz, compared with existing LTE networks at 0.8 GHz with a 20 MHz bandwidth. Simulation results show that for the 5G network the density of base stations needed to provide 50 Mbps for 95% of users at the busy hour will be reduced by 8-9 times with the implementation of BF. It is also observed that BF has a greater effect on the energy saving of 5G networks in rural areas in comparison to the cell DTX.

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