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  • 1. Dong, Gang
    et al.
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Lian, Binbin
    Mobility analysis and kinematic synthesis of a novel 4-DoF parallel manipulator2016In: Robotica (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0263-5747, E-ISSN 1469-8668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel parallel manipulator with 1 translational and 3 rotational degrees of freedom, which may be designed as the docking equipment for large-scale component assemblage in the aircraft industry. First, the mobility and kinematic analysis of the novel manipulator is performed using the screw theory and the closed-loop vector method. To evaluate the kinematic performance of the manipulator, its workspace is calculated, and the dimensional homogeneous Jacobian matrix of this manipulator is deduced. Mainly based on a nonlinear programming approach, the kinematic dimensional synthesis is performed to optimise the dimensional parameters of this novel parallel manipulator in a prescribed workspace. The results of this paper may lay a solid foundation for the prototype design and manufacture of the novel parallel manipulator.

  • 2. Huo, X. M.
    et al.
    Lian, Binbin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Sun, T.
    Song, Y. M.
    Parameterized inverse kinematics of parallel mechanism based on CGA2019In: EuCoMeS 2018 Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Mechanism Science, Springer Netherlands, 2019, Vol. 59, p. 340-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A parameterized inverse kinematic model is the theoretical basis for performance analysis, design and control of parallel mechanism (PM). Current methods are either computationally expensive or difficult to get analytical form. To deal with this problem, this paper proposes a parameterized method by conformal geometric algebra (CGA). Based on the description and computation of screw motions in CGA, closure equations about successive screw displacements of any PM can be formulated. Joint displacements of each limb and screw parameters of end-effector are then solved in an analytical manner. The proposed method is exemplified by a 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) PM, which shows high efficiency in deriving the analytical inverse kinematic model.

  • 3.
    Lian, Binbin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Tianjin University, China.
    Geometric Error Modeling of Parallel Manipulators Based on Conformal Geometric Algebra2018In: Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras, ISSN 0188-7009, E-ISSN 1661-4909, Vol. 28, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for geometric error modeling of parallel manipulators (PMs) based on the visual representation and direct calculation of conformal geometric algebra is introduced in this paper. In this method, the finite motion of an open-loop chain is firstly formulated. Through linearization of the finite motion, error propagation of the open-loop chain is analyzed. Then the error sources are separated in terms of joint perturbations and geometric errors. Next, motions and constraints of PMs are analyzed visually by their reciprocal property. Finally geometric error model of PMs are formulated considering the actuations and constraints. The merits of this new approach are twofold: (1) complete and continuous geometric error modeling can be achieved since finite motions are considered, (2) visual and analytical computation of motions and constraints are applied for transferring geometric errors from the open-loop chain to the PM. A 2-DoF rotational PM is applied to demonstrate the geometric error modeling process. Comparisons between simulation and analytical models show that this approach is highly effective.

  • 4.
    Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chanal, Helene
    Comparative study on thekinematic and static performance of two 1T2R parallel manipulators2015In: Recent Advances in Mechanism Design for Robotics, Springer, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Wang, Xiaoli
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Passive and active gravity compensation of horizontally-mounted 3-RPS parallel kinematic machine2016In: Mechanism and machine theory, ISSN 0094-114X, E-ISSN 1873-3999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a horizontally-mounted 3-RPS parallel kinematic machine (PKM) as an example, this paper investigates passive and active gravity compensation strategies for improving PKM precision. Herein, R, P and S denote revolute, actuated prismatic and spherical joint, respectively. Based on inverse position kinematic and force analysis, passive gravity compensation is firstly implemented by three extension springs. Geometric parameters of these springs are optimized by minimizing potential energy fluctuation within a prescribed workspace. Then deformation caused by gravity is adopted to evaluate compensation strategies. The deviations of an end reference point demonstrate that passive gravity compensation is capable of substantially balancing gravity. In order to further eliminate the effect of gravity, active gravity compensation is proposed to adjust spring displacements by several one degree-of-freedom (DoF) translational mechanisms. Deformation of the 3-RPS PKM is directly regarded as the objective function for determining the active translations. Overall, both passive and active gravity compensations are able to improve mechanism precision due to the partial and complete gravity balancing capability, respectively, which makes the 3-RPS PKM suitable for the application of rough and fine machining.

  • 6. Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Parameter sensitivity analysis of a 5-DoF parallel manipulator2017In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Jin, Yan
    Queen's University of Belfast.
    Price, Mark
    Stiffness analysis and experiment of a novel 5-DoF parallel kinematic machine consideringgravitational effects2015In: International journal of machine tools & manufacture, ISSN 0890-6955, E-ISSN 1879-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Elastodynamic modeling and parameter sensitivity analysis of a parallelmanipulator with articulated traveling plate2019In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the elastodynamic modeling and parameter sensitivity analysis of a parallel manipulator with articulated traveling plate (PM-ATP) for assembling large components in aviation and aerospace. In the elastodynamic modeling, the PM-ATP is divided into four levels, i.e., element, part, substructure, and the whole mechanism. Herein, three substructures, including translation, bar, and ATP, are categorized according to the composition of the PM-ATP. Based on the kineto-elastodynamic (KED) method, differential motion equations of lower levels are formulated and assembled to build the elastodynamic model of the upper level. Degrees of freedom (DoFs) at connecting nodes of parts and deformation compatibility conditions of substructures are considered in the assembling. The proposed layer-by-layer method makes the modeling process more explicit, especially for the ATP having complex structures and multiple joints. Simulations by finite element software and experiments by dynamic testing system are carried out to verify the natural frequencies of the PM-ATP, which show consistency with the results from the analytical model. In the parameter sensitivity analysis, response surface method (RSM) is applied to formulate the surrogate model between the elastic dynamic performances and parameters. On this basis, differentiation of performance reliability to the parameter mean value and standard variance are adopted as the sensitivity indices, from which the main parameters that greatly affect the elastic dynamic performances can be selected as the design variables. The present works are necessary preparations for future optimal design. They can also provide reference for the analysis and evaluation of other PM-ATPs.

  • 9.
    Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Static and dynamic optimization of a pose adjusting mechanism considering parameter changes during constructionIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lian, Binbin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Static and dynamic optimization of a pose adjusting mechanism considering parameter changes during construction2019In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 59, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having potentially high stiffness and good dynamic response, a parallel pose adjusting mechanism was proposed for being an attachment to a big serial robot of a macro-micro robotic system. This paper addresses its design optimization problem mainly concerning arrangements of design variables and objectives. Parameter changes during construction are added to the design variables in order to prevent the negative effects to the physical prototype. These parameter changes are interpreted as parameter uncertainty and modeled by probabilistic theory. For the objectives, both static and dynamic performances are simultaneously optimized by Pareto-based method. The involved performance indices are instantaneous energy based stiffness index, first natural frequency and execution mass. The optimization procedure is implemented as: (1) carrying out performance modeling and defining performance indices, (2) reformulating statistical objectives and probabilistic constraints considering parameter uncertainty, (3) conducting Pareto-based optimization with the aid of response surface method (RSM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), (4) selecting optimal solution by searching for cooperative equilibrium point (CEP). By addressing parameter uncertainty and the best compromise among multiple objectives, the presented optimization procedure provides more reliable optimal parameters that would not be affected by minor parameter changes during construction, and less biased optimum between static and dynamic performances comparing with the conventional optimization methods. The proposed optimization method can also be applied to the other similar mechanisms.

  • 11.
    Song, Yimin
    et al.
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Dong, Gang
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Lian, Binbin
    Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Elasto-dynamic analysis of a novel 2-DoF rotational parallel mechanism with an articulated travelling platform2016In: Meccanica (Milano. Print), ISSN 0025-6455, E-ISSN 1572-9648, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 1547-1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper carries out the elasto-dynamic analysis of a novel 2 degrees-of-freedom (DoF) rotational parallel mechanism (RPM) with an articulated travelling platform by means of kineto-elasto dynamic method. The architecture of the proposed 2-DoF RPM is firstly described, and then its kinematic analysis is carried out by closed-loop vector method. On the basis of finite element analysis, the elasto-dynamic models of movable components are established before assembling to formulate the elasto-dynamic equations of the whole mechanism in the light of deformation compatibility conditions. The free vibration equation is then achieved to evaluate the natural frequency of the novel 2-DoF RPM. Finally, an example is illustrated and the results are verified by finite element software. It shows that the relatively high natural frequencies and good dynamic performance make the novel 2-DoF RPM a promising solution for pose-adjusting module of 5-DoF machine centre.

  • 12.
    Song, Yimin
    et al.
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Gao, Hao
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Dong, Gang
    Lian, Binbin
    Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
    Kinematic analysisand optimal design of a novel 1T3R parallel manipulator with an articulated travelling plate2014In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 508-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the requirements of the large-scale component assemblage for the docking platform, this paper proposes a novel one-translational-three-rotational (1T3R) parallel manipulator with an articulated travelling plate, which can provide high stiffness and good accuracy performances in the assemblage. The underlying architecture of this manipulator is briefly addressed with emphasis on the practical realization of the articulated travelling plate. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of the 1T3R parallel manipulator, its optimal design considering the force and motion transmissibility is carried out, in which the generalized virtual power transmissibility of this manipulator is defined. This paper aims at laying a solid theoretical and technical foundation for the prototype design and manufacture of the 1T3R parallel manipulator.

  • 13.
    Song, Yimin
    et al.
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Lian, Binbin
    Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory, Equipment Design of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Dong, Gang
    Qi, Yang
    Gao, Hao
    A novel five-degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator and its kinematic optimization2014In: Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, ISSN 1942-4302, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 041008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by requirements of five-axis numerical control (NC) machine for its executive mechanism, this paper creatively proposes a flow path to synthesize a novel class of n-degree-of-freedom (n-DoF, 4 <= n <= 6) parallel manipulators (PMs) resorting to four steps, and takes a patented 5-DoF PM, named T5, for example to demonstrate the flow path in depth. Comparing with existing five-axis executive mechanisms, this novel class of the PMs has some advantages of light end-effector, good static, dynamic performance, and so on. Upon the underlying architecture of T5, the kinematic analysis and optimal design are carried out for the first time, in which two essential procedures are involved, one is the kinematic performance index by means of the reciprocal product associated with the wrench screw and twist screw with specific physical meaning, the other is the design method adopted to perform the multi-objective dimensional synthesis using an artificial intelligence approach, that is nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). This paper is aimed at laying a solid theoretical and technical foundation for the prototype design and manufacture of T5 PM.

  • 14.
    Song, Yimin
    et al.
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Zhang, Jiateng
    Lian, Binbin
    Tianjin Univeristy, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Tianjin University.
    Kinematic calibration of a 5-DoF parallel kinematic machine2016In: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, Vol. 45, p. 242-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinematic calibration of a 5 degree-of-freedom parallel kinematic machine (T5 PKM) resorting to a step-by-step strategy is carried out, which conducts the identification modeling, measurement planning, parameter identification and modification of substructure I and then substructure II. On the basis of geometrical error model, a ridge estimation method based on L-curve selection is applied to the ill-conditioning inverse problem of the identification modeling of both substructures. Sensitivity analysis of substructure I and parameter analysis of substructure II are then employed to select the geometrical error parameters to be identified. Measurement planning is conducted by four principles to minimize the number of measuring configurations. Parameter identification and modification is implemented by SolidWorks simulation, which is able to check the correctness of identification modeling and measuring planning and to virtually manipulate the experimental procedure. Finally, kinematic calibration experiments are performed, which effectively validates that the proposed kinematic calibration is highly accurate and efficient.

  • 15.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Lian, Binbin
    Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Stiffness analysis of a2-DoF over-constrained RPM with an articulated traveling platform2016In: Mechanism and machine theory, ISSN 0094-114X, E-ISSN 1873-3999, Vol. 96, p. 165-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by the requirements of inter-satellite link antenna for tracking mechanism with two degree-of-freedom (DoF), this paper proposes a 2-DoF over-constrained rotational parallel mechanism (RPM) with an articulated traveling platform and formulates its stiffness model considering gravitational effects. The stiffness modeling is implemented by three steps: 1) Considering the over-constrained property and gravitational effects, twist/wrench mapping models of two R(RU)(2) limbs connecting the fixed base and the articulated traveling platform are obtained based upon screw theory. 2) Employing deformation superposition principle, the compliance models of two R(RU)(2) limbs in their joint spaces are formulated, of which component compliance is described by n-DoF (n <= 6) virtual springs; and 3) by applying deformation compatibility conditions and twist/wrench mapping models into the virtual work equations, the stiffness model of the 2-DoF over-constrained RPM considering gravitational effects is derived. From component, limbs to mechanism, the stiffness modeling process demonstrates their relations with clear physical meaning and unifies performances including kinematic, stiffness, accuracy and dynamics. This approach is verified by commercial FEA software. Finally the stiffness distribution and gravitational effects within prescribed workspace are discussed.

  • 16.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Lian, Binbin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Jiateng
    Tianjin University.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Kinematic calibration of a2-DoF over-constrained parallel mechanism using real inverse kinematics2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 67752-67761Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Panfeng, Wang
    Lian, Binbin
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Zhai, Yapu
    Liu, Sida
    Geometric accuracy design and error compensation of a one-translational and three-rotational parallel mechanism with articulated traveling plate2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 232, no 12, p. 2083-2097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for advanced and flexible docking equipment are increasing in the fields of aerospace, shipbuilding and construction machinery. Position and orientation accuracy is one of the most important criteria, which would directly affect the docking quality. Taking a novel one-translational and three-rotational docking equipment, referred to as PaQuad parallel mechanism as example, this article proposed an accuracy improvement strategy by geometric accuracy design and error compensation. Drawing mainly on screw theory, geometric error modeling of PaQuad parallel mechanism was first carried out via four independent routes. Joint perturbations and geometric errors were included in each route error twist. Wrenches due to articulated traveling plate were applied to eliminate joint perturbations. Then, geometric accuracy design was implemented at component and substructure levels. The basic principle was to transfer geometric errors into dimensional or geometric tolerance. High-precision machining/assembling techniques were applied to satisfy the tolerance. Finally, error compensation resorting to kinematic calibration was implemented at mechanism level. It can be summarized as identification modeling, measurement planning, and parameter identification and modification. Maximum deviations of PaQuad parallel mechanism before calibration experiment were 0.01mm, 0.027 after kinematic calibration. Orientation accuracy of PaQuad parallel mechanism has improved one order of magnitude. It proves the effectiveness of accuracy improvement in terms of geometric accuracy design and error compensation.

  • 18.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Dong, Gang
    Lian, Binbin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
    Liu, Jianping
    Optimal design of a parallel mechanism with three rotational degrees of freedom2012In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 500-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the concept design of a pose-adjustment system applied in the large fuselage or wing assembly of aircraft manufacturing which including a 3-degree-of-freedom rotational parallel mechanism (3-DoFs RPM), pogo columns and three tracks. The optimal design of the 3-DoFs RPM with its topology a 3-PUS&S mechanism is detailed, which is designed as a rigid yet compact module that can act as a pose-adjustment mechanism moving along three long tracks for large aircraft structural component assembly, a middle fuselage for example. Inverse kinematics of the 3-DoFs RPM with the exponential product method is achieved to lay the foundation for its kinematic synthesis. Next, with the commercial mathematical software, one can get the reachable workspace and define the prescribed workspace, respectively. Then, dimensional synthesis of the 3-DoFs RPM is executed to achieve a relatively good kinematic performance within its workspace. With the commercial CAE software, stiffness analysis is carried out for performance evaluation of the 3-DoFs RPM virtual prototype.

  • 19.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Wu, Hao
    Lian, Binbin
    Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of EducationTianjin UniversityTianjinChina.
    Wang, Panfeng
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Stiffness modeling of parallel manipulator with articulated traveling plate2017In: Mechanism and Machine Science: Proceedings of ASIAN MMS 2016 & CCMMS 2016, Springer, 2017, p. 1043-1055Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel manipulator (PM) with articulated travelling plate (ATP) has drawn more and more attention from industry and academia. In order to characterize stiffness of PMs with ATP in an explicit and accurate manner, a semi-analytical stiffness modeling method is proposed. Resorting to superposition principle, compliance matrix of the whole PM can be formulated by the parallel limbs and ATP step-by-step. In the formulation of compliance of two substructures, n-DoF (n <= 6) virtual springs are firstly applied to describe component deformations. Then, deformation superposition, twist/wrench mapping model, virtual work principle and Hooke's Law are adopted. Wrenches of parallel limbs become single wrenches within each limb, combination wrenches from opposite limbs due to the effect of ATP. This stiffness modeling method is exemplified and verified by a one translational and three rotational (1T3R) PM with ATP. Results from finite element analysis software indicate that proposed stiffness modeling method is with high accuracy.

  • 20.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Wu, Hao
    Lian, Binbin
    Yang, Qi
    Wang, Panfeng
    Stiffness modeling, analysis andevaluation of a 5 degree of freedom hybrid manipulator for friction stirwelding2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 231, p. 4441-4456Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Tao, Sun
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Lian, Binbin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Yimin, Song
    Tianjin University.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Elasto-dynamicoptimization of a 5-DoF parallel kinematic machine considering parameteruncertainty2019In: IEEE/ASME transactions on mechatronics, ISSN 1083-4435, E-ISSN 1941-014X, no 1, p. 315-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometric errors, vibration, and elastic deformation are the main causes for inaccuracy of parallel kinematic machines (PKMs). Instead of tackling these inaccuracies after the prototype has been built, this paper proposes a design optimization method to minimize vibration and deformation considering the effects of geometric errors before constructing the PKM. In this paper, geometric errors are described as parameter uncertainty because they are unknown in design stage. A five degree-of-freedom (DoF) PKM is taken to exemplify this method. Elastodynamic model is first formulated by a step-by-step strategy. On this basis, dynamic performances, including natural frequency, elastic deformation, and maximum stress, are analyzed. These analytical results are verified by finite-element simulation and experiment. Then, the necessity of concerning parameter uncertainty in optimization is addressed. Next, parameter uncertainty is added to the formulation of objectives and constraints by Monte Carlo simulation and response surface method. Finally, elastodynamic optimization of the 5-DoF PKM is implemented to rebuild a prototype which is robust to geometric errors and has minimal vibration and deformation. The proposed method can also be applied to accuracy improvement of any machines in practical applications.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Jiateng
    et al.
    Tianjin University.
    Lian, Binbin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Song, Yimin
    Tianjin Univeristy.
    Geometric error analysis ofan over-constrained parallel tracking mechanism using screw theory2018In: Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, ISSN 1000-9361Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 22 of 22
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