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  • 1. Bessarab, Pavel F.
    et al.
    Mueller, Gideon P.
    Lobanov, Igor S.
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Statistical Physics.
    Kiselev, Nikolai S.
    Jonsson, Hannes
    Uzdin, Valery M.
    Blugel, Stefan
    Bergqvist, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Lifetime of racetrack skyrmions2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 3433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The skyrmion racetrack is a promising concept for future information technology. There, binary bits are carried by nanoscale spin swirls-skyrmions-driven along magnetic strips. Stability of the skyrmions is a critical issue for realising this technology. Here we demonstrate that the racetrack skyrmion lifetime can be calculated from first principles as a function of temperature, magnetic field and track width. Our method combines harmonic transition state theory extended to include Goldstone modes, with an atomistic spin Hamiltonian parametrized from density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that two annihilation mechanisms contribute to the skyrmion stability: At low external magnetic field, escape through the track boundary prevails, but a crossover field exists, above which the collapse in the interior becomes dominant. Considering a Pd/Fe bilayer on an Ir(111) substrate as a well-established model system, the calculated skyrmion lifetime is found to be consistent with reported experimental measurements. Our simulations also show that the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of escape depends only weakly on the external magnetic field, whereas the pre-exponential factor for collapse is strongly field dependent. Our results open the door for predictive simulations, free from empirical parameters, to aid the design of skyrmion-based information technology.

  • 2.
    Bommer, Jouri D. S.
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Zhang, Hao
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Tsinghua Univ, State Key Lab Low Dimens Quantum Phys, Dept Phys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Gul, Onder
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Nijholt, Bas
    Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Wimmer, Michael
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Statistical Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Garaud, Julien
    Univ Tours, Lab Math & Phys Theor CNRS UMR 7350, Inst Denis Poisson FR2964, Parc Grandmt, F-37200 Tours, France..
    Rodic, Donjan
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Theoret Phys, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Babaev, Egor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Statistical Physics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Troyer, Matthias
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Theoret Phys, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.;Microsoft Quantum, Redmond, WA 98052 USA..
    Car, Diana
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Plissard, Sebastien R.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Watanabe, Kenji
    Natl Inst Mat Sci, Adv Mat Lab, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044, Japan..
    Taniguchi, Takashi
    Natl Inst Mat Sci, Adv Mat Lab, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044, Japan..
    Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
    Delft Univ Technol, QuTech, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Delft Univ Technol, Kavli Inst Nanosci, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;Microsoft Stn Q Delft, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Spin-Orbit Protection of Induced Superconductivity in Majorana Nanowires2019In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 122, no 18, article id 187702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-orbit interaction (SOI) plays a key role in creating Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires proximity coupled to a superconductor. We track the evolution of the induced superconducting gap in InSb nanowires coupled to a NbTiN superconductor in a large range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Based on realistic simulations of our devices, we reveal SOI with a strength of 0.15-0.35 eV angstrom. Our approach identifies the direction of the spin-orbit field, which is strongly affected by the superconductor geometry and electrostatic gates.

  • 3.
    Du, Haifeng
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Anhui Univ, Sch Phys & Mat Sci, Dept Phys, Hefei 230601, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Xuebing
    Fudan Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Chem Energy Mat, Dept Mat Sci, Lab Adv Mat, Shanghai 200438, Peoples R China..
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Borisov, Aleksandr B.
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, MN Miheev Inst Met Phys, Ekaterinburg 620990, Russia..
    Wang, Shasha
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Jin
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Jin, Chiming
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Chao
    Fudan Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Chem Energy Mat, Dept Mat Sci, Lab Adv Mat, Shanghai 200438, Peoples R China..
    Wei, Wensheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China..
    Kiselev, Nikolai S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Adv Simulat, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;JARA, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Zhang, Yuheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Phys, Hefei 230031, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Che, Renchao
    Fudan Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Chem Energy Mat, Dept Mat Sci, Lab Adv Mat, Shanghai 200438, Peoples R China..
    Bluegel, Stefan
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Adv Simulat, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;JARA, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Tian, Mingliang
    Chinese Acad Sci, High Magnet Field Lab, Anhui Prov Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Anhui Univ, Sch Phys & Mat Sci, Dept Phys, Hefei 230601, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Interaction of Individual Skyrmions in a Nanostructured Cubic Chiral Magnet2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 120, no 19, article id 197203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report direct evidence of the field-dependent character of the interaction between individual magnetic skyrmions as well as between skyrmions and edges in B20-type FeGe nanostripes observed by means of high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that above certain critical values of an external magnetic field the character of such long-range skyrmion interactions changes from attraction to repulsion. Experimentally measured equilibrium inter-skyrmion and skyrmion-edge distances as a function of the applied magnetic field shows quantitative agreement with the results of micromagnetic simulations. The important role of demagnetizing fields and the internal symmetry of three-dimensional magnetic skyrmions are discussed in detail.

  • 4.
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Garaud, Julien
    Univ Orleans, Univ Tours, CNRS, UMR 7013,Inst Denis Poisson, Parc Grandmont, F-37200 Tours, France..
    Babaev, Egor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Stable Hopf-Skyrme topological excitations in the superconducting state2019In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 100, no 9, article id 094515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At large scales, magnetostatics of superconductors is described by a massive vector field theory: the London model. The magnetic field cannot penetrate into the bulk unless quantum vortices are formed. These are topological excitations characterized by an invariant: the phase winding. The London model dictates that loops of such vortices are not stable because the kinetic energy of superflow and the magnetic energy are smaller, the smaller vortex loops are. We demonstrate that in two-component superconductors, under certain conditions, such as the proximity to pair-density-wave instabilities, the hydromagnetostatics of the superconducting state and topological excitation changes dramatically: the excitations acquire the form of stable vortex loops and knots characterized by the different topological invariant: the Hopf index and hence termed hopfions. This demonstrates that magnetic properties in a superconducting state can be dramatically different from those of a London's massive vector field theory.

  • 5.
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Kiselev, Nikolai S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Adv Simulat, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;JARA, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Chiral magnetic skyrmions with arbitrary topological charge2019In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 99, no 6, article id 064437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that continuous and spin-lattice models of chiral ferro- and antiferromagnets provide the existence of an infinite number of stable soliton solutions of any integer topological charge. A detailed description of the morphology of new skyrmions and the corresponding energy dependencies are provided. The considered model is general, and is expected to predict a plethora of particlelike states which may occur in various chiral magnets including ultrathin films, e.g., PdFe/Ir(111), rhombohedral GaV4S8 semiconductor, B20-type alloys as Mn1-xFexGe, Mn1-xFexSi, Fe1-xCoxSi, Cu2OSeO3, and acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds.

  • 6.
    Zheng, Fengshan
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, Julich, Germany..
    Rybakov, Filipp N.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Statistical Physics. Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, MN Miheev Inst Met Phys, Ekaterinburg, Russia.;Ural Fed Univ, Ekaterinburg, Russia..
    Borisov, Aleksandr B.
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, MN Miheev Inst Met Phys, Ekaterinburg, Russia.;Ural Fed Univ, Ekaterinburg, Russia..
    Song, Dongsheng
    Tsinghua Univ, Natl Ctr Electron Microscopy Beijing, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Shasha
    Chinese Acad Sci, Anhui Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme Condi, High Magnet Field Lab, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Chinese Acad Sci, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Li, Zi-An
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Phys, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Du, Haifeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Anhui Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme Condi, High Magnet Field Lab, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Chinese Acad Sci, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Kiselev, Nikolai S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst & Inst Adv Simulat, Julich, Germany.;JARA, Julich, Germany..
    Caron, Jan
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, Julich, Germany..
    Kovacs, Andras
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, Julich, Germany..
    Tian, Mingliang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Anhui Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme Condi, High Magnet Field Lab, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Chinese Acad Sci, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Yuheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Anhui Key Lab Condensed Matter Phys Extreme Condi, High Magnet Field Lab, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Univ Sci & Technol China, Chinese Acad Sci, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.;Nanjing Univ, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Microstruct, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Bluegel, Stefan
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst & Inst Adv Simulat, Julich, Germany.;JARA, Julich, Germany..
    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Ernst Ruska Ctr Microscopy & Spect Electrons, Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, Julich, Germany..
    Experimental observation of chiral magnetic bobbers in B20-type FeGe2018In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 451-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chiral magnetic skyrmions(1,2) are nanoscale vortex-like spin textures that form in the presence of an applied magnetic field in ferromagnets that support the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) because of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry of the crystal(3,4). In sharp contrast to other systems(5,6) that allow for the formation of a variety of two-dimensional (2D) skyrmions, in chiral magnets the presence of the DMI commonly prevents the stability and coexistence of topological excitations of different types(7). Recently, a new type of localized particle-like object-the chiral bobber (ChB)-was predicted theoretically in such materials(8). However, its existence has not yet been verified experimentally. Here, we report the direct observation of ChBs in thin films of B20-type FeGe by means of quantitative off-axis electron holography (EH). We identify the part of the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram in which ChBs exist and distinguish two mechanisms for their nucleation. Furthermore, we show that ChBs are able to coexist with skyrmions over a wide range of parameters, which suggests their possible practical applications in novel magnetic solid-state memory devices, in which a stream of binary data bits can be encoded by a sequence of skyrmions and bobbers.

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