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  • 1.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sedimentation of finite-size particles in quiescent wall-bounded shear-thinning and Newtonian fluidsIn: Journal of International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the sedimentaion of finite-size particles in a quiescent wall-boundedNewtonian and shear-thinning fluids. The problem is studied numerically bymeans of direct numerical simulations with the presence of the particles ac-counted for with an immersed boundary method. The supensions are Non-Brownian rigid spherical particles with particle to fluid density ratio ρ p /ρ f =1.5; three different solid volume fractions Φ = 1%, 5% and 20% are considered.The Archimedes number is kept constant to Ar = 36 for all shear-thinning fluidcases, while it is changed to Ar = 97 for the Newtonian fluid to reproduce thesame terminal velocity of a single particle sedimenting in the shear-thinningfluid. We show that the mean settling velocities decrease with the particle con-centration as a consequence of the hindering effect and that the mean settlingspeed is always larger in the shear thinning fluid than in the Newtonian one.This is due to the decrease of the mean viscosity of the fluid which leads to alower drag force acting on the particles. We show that particles tend to formaggregates in the middle of the channel in a shear-thinning fluid, preferentiallypositioning in the wake of neighboring particles or aside them, resulting in lowerlevels of fluctuation in the gravity direction than in a Newtonian fluid.

  • 2.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Complex Fluids and Flows Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sedimentation of finite-size particles in quiescent wall-bounded shear-thinning and Newtonian fluids2020In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 129, article id 103291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the sedimentation of finite-size particles in quiescent wall-bounded Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids by interface resolved numerical simulations. The suspended phase consists of Non-Brownian rigid spherical particles with particle to fluid density ratio ρp/ρf=1.5 at three different solid volume fractions Φ=1%, 5% and 20%. Firstly, to focus on the effect of shear-thinning on the particle dynamics and interactions, the Archimedes number is increased for a single particle to have the same settling speed in the Newtonian fluid as in the shear-thinning fluid. Secondly, we consider fixed Archimedes and vary the shear-thinning properties of the fluid. Overall, we report a twofold effect of shear thinning. First and more important, the substantial increase of the particle sedimentation velocity in the shear-thinning case due to the increase of the shear rate around the particles, which reduces the local viscosity leading to a reduced particle drag. Secondly, the shear-thinning fluid reduces the level of particle interactions, causing a reduction of velocity fluctuations and resulting in particles sedimenting at approximately the same speed. Moreover, the mean settling velocities decrease with the particle concentration as a consequence of the hindering effect. Particles tend to sediment in the middle of the channel, preferentially positioning in the wake of neighbouring particles or aside them, resulting in lower levels of fluid velocity fluctuations in the gravity direction in the shear-thinning fluid.

  • 3.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Inertial migration of a deformable particle in pipe flow2019In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 4, no 10, article id 104201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform fully Eulerian numerical simulations of an initially spherical hyperelastic particle suspended in a Newtonian pressure-driven flow in a cylindrical straight pipe. We study the full particle migration and deformation for different Reynolds numbers and for various levels of particle elasticity, to disentangle the interplay of inertia and elasticity on the particle focusing. We observe that the particle deforms and undergoes a lateral displacement while traveling downstream through the pipe, finally focusing at the pipe centerline. We note that the migration dynamics and the final equilibrium position are almost independent of the Reynolds number, while they strongly depend on the particle elasticity; in particular, the migration is faster as the elasticity increases (i.e., the particle is more deformable), with the particle reaching the final equilibrium position at the centerline in shorter times. Our simulations show that the results are not affected by the particle initial conditions, position, and velocity. Finally, we explain the particle migration by computing the total force acting on the particle and its different components, viscous and elastic.

  • 4.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, Kufa University, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Interface-resolved simulations of particle suspensions in visco-elastic carrier fluidsIn: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the rheology of a suspension of neutrally buoyant rigid particles subject touniform shear in different kinds of non-Newtonian fluids, chosen in order to disentanglethe effect of elasticity and shear thinning on the macroscopic system behavior. In par-ticular, we adopt the inelastic Carreau, viscoelastic Oldroyd-B and Giesekus models forthe carrier fluid. The rheology of the suspension is analyzed for a wide range of particlevolume fractions, Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers, comparing the results with thoseobtained for a Newtonian carrier fluid. We report here that the effective viscosity per-taining all the non-Newtonian cases is always lower than that of the suspension in theNewtonian carrier fluid and grows monotonically with the solid volume fraction. Theshear-thinning viscoelastic Giesekus fluid behaves similarly to the Oldroyd-B fluid at lowWeissenberg numbers and to the Carreau fluid at high Weissenberg numbers, indicatingthat elastic effects dominate at low Weissenberg and shear thinning is predominant athigh Weissenberg number. These variations in the effective viscosity are mainly due tochanges in the particle induced shear stress component. These data show that, at highshear rates, a viscoelastic carrier fluid can be modelled as a simple shear-thinning fluidfor which theoretical closures exists, while new models are needed at low Weissenbergnumbers to account for elastic effects such as decreased particle stress. Finally, when theinertia is increased, the suspension effective viscosity grows with the particle Reynoldsnumber at the same rate as in a Newtonian fluid for the Oldroyd-B case, while in ashear-thinning fluid the growth is less than in the Newtonian fluid. Also in the presenceof inertia, therefore, the shear-thinning behaviour dominates the suspension dynamics atrelatively high values of the imposed shear rate and elasticity effects saturate.

  • 5.
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical study of filament suspensions at finite inertiaIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Numerical study of filament suspensions at finite inertia2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 882, article id A5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical study on the rheology of semi-dilute and concentrated filament suspensions of different bending stiffness and Reynolds number, with the immersed boundary method used to couple the fluid and solid. The filaments are considered as one-dimensional inextensible slender bodies with fixed aspect ratio, obeying the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. To understand the global suspension behaviour we relate it to the filament microstructure, deformation and elastic energy and examine the stress budget to quantify the effect of the elastic contribution. At fixed volume fraction, the viscosity of the suspension reduces when decreasing the bending rigidity and grows when increasing the Reynolds number. The change in the relative viscosity is stronger at finite inertia, although still in the laminar flow regime, as considered here. Moreover, we find the first normal stress difference to be positive as in polymeric fluids, and to increase with the Reynolds number; its value has a peak for an intermediate value of the filament bending stiffness. The peak value is found to be proportional to the Reynolds number, moving towards more rigid suspensions at larger inertia. Moreover, the viscosity increases when increasing the filament volume fraction, and the rate of increase of the filament stress with the bending rigidity is stronger at higher Reynolds numbers and reduces with the volume fraction. We show that this behaviour is associated with the formation of a more ordered structure in the flow, where filaments tend to be more aligned and move as a compact aggregate, thus reducing the filament-filament interactions despite their volume fraction increases.

  • 7.
    Banerjee, Indradumna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Kumar, Tharagan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Particle focusing dynamics in extended elasto inertial flow2018In: 22nd International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2018, Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society , 2018, p. 472-475Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the decoupled effects of inertial and viscous forces on particle focusing, the stability of particles, and particle trajectories to reach equilibrium position in an extended elasto inertial pressure driven flow, in a circular micro-capillary. We report numerically and experimentally for the first time, the existence of multiple stable equilibrium positions in the EEI regime, which was unobserved for flows previously studied at lower Reynolds number viscoelastic flows. 

  • 8.
    Banerjee, Indradumna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Kumar, Tharagan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Analog particle position tuning in Elasto-inertial microfluidic flowsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We observe for the first time an analog trend in particle focusing in a high throughput weakly viscoelastic regime, where it is possible to tune particles into multiple intermediate focusing positions that lie between the "Segre-Silberberg annulus" and the center of a circular microcapillary. The "Segre-Silberberg annulus" (0.6 times the pipe radius), that describes particle equilibrium in a predominantly inertial flow, shrinks consistently closer to the center for increasing elasticity in extremely dilute PEO concentrations (ranging from 0.001 wt% to 0.05wt%). The experimental observations are supported by direct numerical simulations, where an Immersed Boundary Method is used to account for the presence of particles and a FENE-P model is used to simulate the presence of polymers in a Non-Newtonian fluid. The numerical simulations study the dynamics and stability of finite size particles and are further used to analyze particle behavior at Reynolds number higher than what is allowed by the present experimental setup. In particular, we are able to report the entire migration trajectories of the particles as they reach their final equilibrium positions and extend our predictions to other geometries such as the square cross-section. We believe complex effects originate due to a combination of inertia and elasticity in a weakly viscoelastic regime, where neither inertia nor elasticity are able to mask each other's effect completely, thus leading to a number of intermediate focusing positions. The present study provides a new understanding into the mechanism of particle focusing in elasto-inertial flows and opens up new possibilities for exercising analog control in tuning the particle focusing positions.

  • 9.
    Banerjee, Indradumna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Rosti, Marco Eduardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kumar, Tharagan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Lashgari, Iman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Dynamics of Inertial migration of particles in straight channels2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SUMMARY

    We study numerically the entire migration dynamics of spherical and oblate particles in straight rectangular and square cross sectional ducts. The reported results can help in design of straight duct channel based microfluidic systems.

     

    KEYWORDS: Inertial microfluidics, Lateral migration, Oblate particles, Straight particles.

     

    INTRODUCTION

    We  simulate spherical and oblate rigid particles in straight ducts of different aspect ratios using an Immersed Boundary Method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time not only the equilibrium position of particles is described, but also the entire migration dynamics of the particle from the initial to final position, including particle trajectory, velocity, rotation and orientation, are investigated.

     

    EXPERIMENTAL

     The fluid is considered incompressible and its motion is governed by the Navier Stokes and Continuity equations. The numerical approach employed is an Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) with two sets of grid points: an equispaced Eulerian mesh for the fluid flow, and Lagrangian grid points uniformly distributed on the surface of the particle. The flow is set up in square and rectangular cross section ducts with no slip and no penetration boundary conditions (Fig.1).

     

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    We examine the lateral motion of spherical and oblate particles using the IBM method mentioned above. While simulating three different spheres in a square duct of duct width to sphere diameter ratio H/Ds= [3.5, 5, 10], we find that the particles focus at closest face-cantered equilibrium position from their point of introduction(Fig.2a). We also show the downstream length needed for a sphere to focus, focusing length, as a function of the distance from the vertical duct symmetry line and as a function of Reynolds number(Fig.2b and c respectively). Spherical particles in rectangular duct tend to move laterally toward the longer length wall and then slowly moves towards the equilibrium position at the face-centre along the long wall(fig.3a). We also observe that the focusing length is longer for spherical particles in a rectangular duct, about three times longer than that in square duct (fig. 3b). In case of an oblate particle flowing through a square duct, the lateral motion towards the face centred equilibrium position is similar to that of a sphere (fig.4a), however there is significant tumbling motion of the particle as it tries to reach equilibrium(fig.4b).In a rectangular duct of aspect ratio 2, the oblate particle reaches a steady configuration on the duct symmetry line at the center of the different faces (fig.5a). The focusing length surprisingly is shorter in a rectangular duct for an oblate particle in contrast to its focusing length in a square duct. This is attributed to the higher lateral velocity of the oblate in the second stage of the migration, that with negligible tumbling(fig.5b). The behavior of three oblate particles in a square duct of duct width to longer diameter ratio H/Ds= [3.5, 5, 10] is different compared to a sphere as the largest oblate tend to focus at the duct cross section diagonals compared to the other two which are at face centred equilibrium as in case of a sphere(fig.6a). We attribute this to the rotation rate of the larger particle which is initially increasing and then decreasing(fig.6b).When it comes to focusing lengths, the smaller particles need longer times to reach their final equilibrium(fig.6c). Another interesting behavior we see is the effect of Reynolds number, where it can be seen that the oblate particles show a tilt of 21 degrees when focusing at equilibrium at certain high Reynolds number (fig.7).

     

    CONCLUSION

    The results presented employ a highly accurate interface-resolved numerical algorithm, based on the Immersed Boundary Method to study the entire inertial migration of an oblate particle in both square and rectangular ducts and compare it with that of a single sphere. Currently, we apply a volume penalization method and polymeric drag component to the code to solve for viscoelastic effects in circular microcapillaries.

     

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This work was supported by the European Research Council Grant no. ERC-2013-CoG-616186, TRITOS and by the Swedish Research Council Grant no. VR 2014-5001, COST Action MP1305: Flowing matter, and computation time from SNIC.

     REFERENCES : Lashgari, Iman, et al. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 819 (2017): 540-561.

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    Dynamics of inertial migration
  • 10.
    Brizzolara, Stefano
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8039 Zürich, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Institute of Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, 8903, Switzerland..
    Rosti, Marco E.
    Complex Fluids and Flows Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan..
    Olivieri, Stefano
    Complex Fluids and Flows Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan; DICCA, University of Genova and INFN, Genova Section, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, 16145, Italy..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Holzner, Markus
    Swiss Federal Institute of Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, 8903, Switzerland; Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Eawag, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland..
    Mazzino, Andrea
    DICCA, University of Genova and INFN, Genova Section, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, 16145, Italy.
    Fiber Tracking Velocimetry for Two-Point Statistics of Turbulence2021In: Physical Review X, E-ISSN 2160-3308, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 031060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and validate a novel experimental technique to measure two-point statistics of turbulent flows. It consists of spreading rigid fibers in the flow and tracking their position and orientation in time and is therefore named “fiber tracking velocimetry.” By choosing different fiber lengths, i.e., within the inertial or dissipative range of scales, the statistics of turbulence fluctuations at the selected length scale can be probed accurately by simply measuring the fiber velocity at its two ends and projecting it along the transverse-to-fiber direction. By means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations and experiments, we show that these fiber-based transverse velocity increments are statistically equivalent to the (unperturbed) flow transverse velocity increments. Moreover, we show that the turbulent energy-dissipation rate can be accurately measured exploiting sufficiently short fibers. The technique is tested against standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) of flow tracers with excellent agreement. Our technique overcomes the well-known problem of PTV to probe two-point statistics reliably because of the fast relative diffusion in turbulence that prevents the mutual distance between particles to remain constant at the length scale of interest. This problem, making it difficult to obtain converged statistics for a fixed separation distance, is even more dramatic for natural flows in open domains. A prominent example is oceanic currents, where drifters (i.e., the tracer-particle counterpart used in field measurements) disperse quickly, but at the same time their number has to be limited to save costs. Inspired by our laboratory experiments, we propose pairs of connected drifters as a viable option to solve the issue.

  • 11.
    Crialesi-Esposito, Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Scapin, Nicolo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Demou, Andreas
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    Costa, Pedro
    Spiga, Filippo
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    FluTAS: A GPU-accelerated finite difference code for multiphase flowsIn: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the Fluid Transport Accelerated Solver, FluTAS, a scalable GPU code for multiphase flows with thermal effects. The code solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for two-fluid systems, with a direct FFT-based Poisson solver for the pressure equation. The interface between the two fluids is represented with the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method, which is mass conserving and well suited for complex flows thanks to its capacity of handling topological changes. The energy equation is explicitly solved and coupled with the momentum equation through the Boussinesq approximation. The code is conceived in a modular fashion so that different numerical methods can be used independently, the existing routines can be modified, and new ones can be included in a straightforward and sustainable manner. FluTAS is written in modern Fortran and parallelized using hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the CPU-only version and accelerated with OpenACC directives in the GPU implementation. We present different benchmarks to validate the code, and two large-scale simulations of fundamental interest in turbulent multiphase flows: isothermal emulsions in HIT and two-layer Rayleigh-Bénard convection. FluTAS is distributed through a MIT license and arises from a collaborative effort of several scientists, aiming to become a flexible tool to study complex multiphase flows.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    De Vita, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol Grad Univ, Complex Fluids & Flaws Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Caserta, Sergio
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Chem Mat & Ind Prod Engn, Ple Tecchio 80, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical simulations of vorticity banding of emulsions in shear flows2020In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 2854-2863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiphase shear flows often show banded structures that affect the global behavior of complex fluids e.g. in microdevices. Here we investigate numerically the banding of emulsions, i.e. the formation of regions of high and low volume fractions, alternated in the vorticity direction and aligned with the flow (shear bands). These bands are associated with a decrease of the effective viscosity of the system. To understand the mechanism of experimentally observed banding, we have performed interface-resolved simulations of the two-fluid system. The experiments were performed starting with a random distribution of droplets, which under the applied shear, evolve in time resulting in a phase separation. To numerically reproduce this process, the banded structures are initialized in a narrow channel confined by two walls moving in opposite directions. We find that the initial banded distribution is stable when droplets are free to merge and unstable when coalescence is prevented. In this case, additionally, the effective viscosity of the system increases, resembling the rheological behavior of suspensions of deformable particles. Droplet coalescence, on the other hand, allows emulsions to reduce the total surface of the system and, hence, the energy dissipation associated with the deformation, which in turn reduces the effective viscosity.

  • 13.
    De Vita, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Caserta, Sergio
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Chem Mat & Ind Prod Engn, Piazzale V Tecchio 80, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    On the effect of coalescence on the rheology of emulsions2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 880, p. 969-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical study of the rheology of a two-fluid emulsion in dilute and semidilute conditions. The analysis is performed for different capillary numbers, volume fractions and viscosity ratios under the assumption of negligible inertia and zero buoyancy force. The effective viscosity of the system increases for low values of the volume fraction and decreases for higher values, with a maximum for approximately 20% concentration of the disperse phase. When the dispersed fluid has lower viscosity, the normalised effective viscosity becomes smaller than 1 for high enough volume fractions. To single out the effect of droplet coalescence on the rheology of the emulsion we introduce an Eulerian force which prevents merging, effectively modelling the presence of surfactants in the system. When the coalescence is inhibited the effective viscosity is always greater than 1 and the curvature of the function representing the emulsion effective viscosity versus the volume fraction becomes positive, resembling the behaviour of suspensions of deformable particles. The reduction of the effective viscosity in the presence of coalescence is associated with the reduction of the total surface of the disperse phase when the droplets merge, which leads to a reduction of the interface tension contribution to the total shear stress. The probability density function of the flow topology parameter shows that the flow is mostly a shear flow in the matrix phase, with regions of extensional flow when the coalescence is prohibited. The flow in the disperse phase, instead, always shows rotational components. The first normal stress difference is positive, except for the smallest viscosity ratio considered, whereas the second normal difference is negative, with their ratio being constant with the volume fraction. Our results clearly show that the coalescence efficiency strongly affects the system rheology and that neglecting droplet merging can lead to erroneous predictions.

  • 14.
    De Vita, Francesco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duffo, L.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hormozi, S.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Elastoviscoplastic flows in porous media2018In: Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0377-0257, E-ISSN 1873-2631, Vol. 258, p. 10-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the elastoviscoplastic flow through porous media by numerical simulations. We solve the Navier–Stokes equations combined with the elastoviscoplastic model proposed by Saramito for the stress tensor evolution [1]. In this model, the material behaves as a viscoelastic solid when unyielded, and as a viscoelastic Oldroyd-B fluid for stresses higher than the yield stress. The porous media is made of a symmetric array of cylinders, and we solve the flow in one periodic cell. We find that the solution is time-dependent even at low Reynolds numbers as we observe oscillations in time of the unyielded region especially at high Bingham numbers. The volume of the unyielded region slightly decreases with the Reynolds number and strongly increases with the Bingham number; up to 70% of the total volume is unyielded for the highest Bingham numbers considered here. The flow is mainly shear dominated in the yielded region, while shear and elongational flow are equally distributed in the unyielded region. We compute the relation between the pressure drop and the flow rate in the porous medium and present an empirical closure as function of the Bingham and Reynolds numbers. The apparent permeability, normalized with the case of Newtonian fluids, is shown to be greater than 1 at low Bingham numbers, corresponding to lower pressure drops due to the flow elasticity, and smaller than 1 for high Bingham numbers, indicating larger dissipation in the flow owing to the presence of the yielded regions. Finally we investigate the effect of the Weissenberg number on the distribution of the unyielded regions and on the pressure gradient.

  • 15.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sarabian, Mohammad
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Computational modeling of multiphase viscoelastic and elastoviscoplastic flows2018In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, ISSN 0271-2091, E-ISSN 1097-0363, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 521-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Le Clainche, S.
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Coherent structures in the turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 888, article id A5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this numerical and theoretical work, we study the turbulent channel flow of Newtonian and elastoviscoplastic fluids. The coherent structures in these flows are identified by means of higher order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD), applied to a set of data non-equidistant in time, to reveal the role of the near-wall streaks and their breakdown, and the interplay between turbulent dynamics and non-Newtonian effects. HODMD identifies six different high-amplitude modes, which either describe the yielded flow or the yielded-unyielded flow interaction. The structure of the low- and high-frequency modes suggests that the interaction between high- and low-speed streamwise velocity structures is one of the mechanisms triggering the streak breakdown, dominant in Newtonian turbulence where we observe shorter near-wall streaks and a more chaotic dynamics. As the influence of elasticity and plasticity increases, the flow becomes more correlated in the streamwise direction, with long streaks disrupted for short times by localised perturbations, reflected in reduced drag. Finally, we present streamwise-periodic dynamic mode decomposition modes as a viable tool to describe the highly complex turbulent flows, and identify simple well-organised groups of travelling waves.

  • 17.
    Le Clainche, Soleidad
    et al.
    School of Aerospace Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain .
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Flow structures and shear-stress predictions in the turbulent channel flow over an anisotropic porous wall2020In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing , 2020, Vol. 1522, no 1, p. 012016-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article identifies the main coherent structures driving the flow dynamics in the turbulent channel flow over anisotropic porous walls. Two different cases have been analyzed where the drag increases or decreases with respect to a channel with isotropic porous walls. Higher order dynamic mode decomposition (HODMD) is applied to analyze these data, identifying 20 and 15 high amplitude modes in the drag increasing (DI) and drag reducing (DR) cases, respectively, which well reflects the largest flow complexity in the former case. The frequency of 13 modes and the three-dimensional structure of the modes are similar in the DR and DI cases, suggesting the need of using more complex analyses to deepen our physical insight of these flows. The spatio-temporal HODMD analysis identifies a periodic solution along the spanwise direction (as imposed by the boundary conditions). The wavenumbers related to the modes with highest amplitude are β = 0 and β = 3 (Lz = 2 3 π ). The rollers, groups of spanwise correlated structures, are mostly identified in the DI case near the wall, with β = 0, while the presence of the streaks, streamwise correlated structures are mostly identified in the DR case. Although, in areas far away from the wall it is possible to identify these two types of structures with β = 3 in both cases, depending on the temporal frequency of the DMD modes, the rollers and the streaks are related to high and low frequency DMD modes, respectively. Finally, a model is constructed to predict the temporal evolution of the wall shear, using the 6 most relevant DMD modes interacting near the channel wall: 6 low frequency modes for DR and 3 low and 3 high frequency modes for DI. In the DR case the wall shear is predicted for almost 300 time units with relative error ∼ 2%, however, this error is larger in the DI case, ∼ 6%, suggesting the need of using a larger number of modes to represent this more complex flow.

  • 18.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Turbulent  flow of finite-size spherical particles with viscous hyper-elastic walls2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent flow of finite-size spherical particles in channels with viscous hyper-elastic walls2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 873, p. 410-440, article id PII S0022112019004130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study single-phase and particle-laden turbulent channel flows bounded by two incompressible hyper-elastic walls with different deformability at bulk Reynolds number $5600$ . The solid volume fraction of finite-size neutrally buoyant rigid spherical particles considered is $10\,\%$ . The elastic walls are assumed to be of a neo-Hookean material. A fully Eulerian formulation is employed to model the elastic walls together with a direct-forcing immersed boundary method for the coupling between the fluid and the particles. The data show a significant drag increase and the enhancement of the turbulence activity with growing wall elasticity for both the single-phase and particle-laden flows when compared with the single-phase flow over rigid walls. Drag reduction and turbulence attenuation is obtained, on the other hand, with highly elastic walls when comparing the particle-laden flow with the single-phase flow for the same wall properties; the opposite effect, drag increase, is observed upon adding particles to the flow over less elastic walls. This is explained by investigating the near-wall turbulence, where the strong asymmetry in the magnitude of the wall-normal velocity fluctuations (favouring positive $v<^>{\prime }$ ), is found to push the particles towards the channel centre. The particle layer close to the wall contributes to turbulence production by increasing the wall-normal velocity fluctuations, so that in the absence of this layer, smaller wall deformations and in turn turbulence attenuation is observed. For a moderate wall elasticity, we increase the particle volume fraction up to $20\,\%$ and find that particle migration away from the wall is the cause of turbulence attenuation with respect to the flow over rigid walls. However, for this higher volume fractions, the particle induced stress compensates for the decreasing Reynolds shear stress, resulting in a higher overall drag for the case with elastic walls. The effect of the wall elasticity on the overall drag reduces significantly with increasing particle volume fraction.

  • 20.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mazzino, Andrea
    DICCA, University of Genova, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genova, Italy;INFN and CINFAI Consortium, Genova Section, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genova, Italy.
    Flexible Fiber Reveals the Two-Point Statistical Properties of Turbulence2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, no 4, article id 044501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the dynamics of a flexible fiber freely moving in a three-dimensional fully developed turbulent field and present a phenomenological theory to describe the interaction between the fiber elasticity and the turbulent flow. This theory leads to the identification of two distinct regimes of flapping, which we validate against direct numerical simulations fully resolving the fiber dynamics. The main result of our analysis is the identification of a flapping regime where the fiber, despite its elasticity, is slaved to the turbulent fluctuations. In this regime the fiber can be used to measure two-point statistical observables of turbulence, including scaling exponents of velocity structure functions, the sign of the energy cascade and the energy flux of turbulence, as well as the characteristic times of the eddies within the inertial range of scales. Our results are expected to have a deep impact on the experimental turbulence research as a new way, accurate and efficient, to measure two-point, and more generally multipoint, statistics of turbulence.

  • 21.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Grad Univ, Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol, Complex Fluids & Flows Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Increase of turbulent drag by polymers in particle suspensions2020In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 5, no 4, article id 041301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of spherical particles on the turbulent flow of a viscoelastic fluid and find that the drag reducing effect of polymer additives is completely lost for semidense suspensions, with the drag increasing more than for suspensions in Newtonian fluids. This different behavior is due to three separate effects. First, polymer stretching is reduced by the presence of rigid particles, thus canceling the drag reducing benefit of the viscoelastic fluid. Second, drag increase is provided by the growth of the particle and polymeric shear stresses with the particles, due to larger shear rates in the vicinity of the particle surface. Third, particles migrate towards the wall due to the shear-thinning property of the fluid, thus enhancing the particle near-wall layer and further increasing the drag.

  • 22.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a viscous hyper-elastic wall2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 830, p. 708-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow over an hyper-elastic wall. In the fluid region the flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, while the solid is a neo-Hookean material satisfying the incompressible Mooney-Rivlin law. The multiphase flow is solved with a one-continuum formulation, using a monolithic velocity field for both the fluid and solid phase, which allows the use of a fully Eulerian formulation. The simulations are carried out at Reynolds bulk Re = 2800 and examine the effect of different elasticity and viscosity of the deformable wall. We show that the skin friction increases monotonically with the material elastic modulus. The turbulent flow in the channel is affected by the moving wall even at low values of elasticity since non-zero fluctuations of vertical velocity at the interface influence the flow dynamics. The near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly reduced near a highly elastic wall while the flow becomes more correlated in the spanwise direction, similarly to what happens for flows over rough and porous walls. As a consequence, the mean velocity profile in wall units is shifted downwards when shown in logarithmic scale, and the slope of the inertial range increases in comparison to that for the flow over a rigid wall. We propose a correlation between the downward shift of the inertial range, its slope and the wall-normal velocity fluctuations at the wall, extending results for the flow over rough walls. We finally show that the interface deformation is determined by the fluid fluctuations when the viscosity of the elastic layer is low, while when this is high the deformation is limited by the solid properties.

  • 23.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Suspensions of deformable particles in a Couette flow2018In: Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0377-0257, E-ISSN 1873-2631, Vol. 262, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider suspensions of deformable particles in a Newtonian fluid by means of fully Eulerian numerical simulations with a one-continuum formulation. We study the rheology of the visco-elastic suspension in plane Couette flow in the limit of vanishing inertia and examine the dependency of the effective viscosity mu on the solid volume-fraction Phi, the capillary number Ca, and the solid to fluid viscosity ratio K. The suspension viscosity decreases with deformation and applied shear (shear-thinning) while still increasing with volume fraction. We show that mu collapses to an universal function, mu(Phi(e)), with an effective volume fraction Phi(e), lower than the nominal one owing to the particle deformation. This universal function is well described by the Eilers fit, which well approximate the rheology of suspension of rigid spheres at all O. We provide a closure for the effective volume fraction Phi(e) as function of volume fraction Phi and capillary number Ca and demonstrate it also applies to data in literature for suspensions of capsules and red-blood cells. In addition, we show that the normal stress differences exhibit a non-linear behavior, with a similar trend as in polymer and filament suspensions. The total stress budgets reveals that the particle-induced stress contribution increases with the volume fraction Phi and decreases with deformability.

  • 24.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, L.uca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Rheology of suspensions of viscoelastic spheres: Deformability as an effective volume fraction2018In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 012301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study suspensions of deformable (viscoelastic) spheres in a Newtonian solvent in planeCouette geometry, by means of direct numerical simulations. We find that in the limit of vanishing inertia, the effective viscosity mu of the suspension increases as the volume fraction occupied by the spheres Phi increases and decreases as the elastic modulus of the spheres G decreases; the function mu(Phi,G) collapses to a universal function mu(Phi(e)) with a reduced effective volume fraction Phi(e)(Phi,G). Remarkably, the function mu(Phi(e)) is the well- known Eilers fit that describes the rheology of suspension of rigid spheres at all Phi. Our results suggest different ways to interpret the macrorheology of blood.

  • 25.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Pinelli, Alfredo
    Turbulent channel flow over an anisotropic porous wall - drag increase and reduction2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 842, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the variations of the permeability tensor on the close-to-the-wall behaviour of a turbulent channel flow bounded by porous walls is explored using a set of direct numerical simulations. It is found that the total drag can be either reduced or increased by more than 20% by adjusting the permeability directional properties. Drag reduction is achieved for the case of materials with permeability in the vertical direction lower than the one in the wall-parallel planes. This configuration limits the wall-normal velocity at the interface while promoting an increase of the tangential slip velocity leading to an almost 'one-component' turbulence where the low- and high-speed streak coherence is strongly enhanced. On the other hand, strong drag increase is found when high wall-normal and low wall-parallel permeabilities are prescribed. In this condition, the enhancement of the wall-normal fluctuations due to the reduced wall-blocking effect triggers the onset of structures which are strongly correlated in the spanwise direction, a phenomenon observed by other authors in flows over isotropic porous layers or over ribletted walls with large protrusion heights. The use of anisotropic porous walls for drag reduction is particularly attractive since equal gains can be achieved at different Reynolds numbers by rescaling the magnitude of the permeability only.

  • 26.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    De Vita, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Numerical simulations of emulsions in shear flows2019In: Acta Mechanica, ISSN 0001-5970, E-ISSN 1619-6937, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 667-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a modification of a recently developed volume of fluid method for multiphase problems (Ii et al. in J Comput Phys 231(5):2328-2358, 2012), so that it can be used in conjunction with a fractional-step method and fast Poisson solver, and validate it with standard benchmark problems. We then consider emulsions of two-fluid systems and study their rheology in a plane Couette flow in the limit of vanishing inertia. We examine the dependency of the effective viscosity on the volume fraction phi (from 10 to 30%) and the Capillary number Ca (from 0.1 to 0.4) for the case of density and viscosity ratio 1. We show that the effective viscosity decreases with the deformation and the applied shear (shear-thinning) while exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior with respect to the volume fraction. We report the appearance of a maximum in the effective viscosity curve and compare the results with those of suspensions of rigid and deformable particles and capsules. We show that the flow in the solvent is mostly a shear flow, while it is mostly rotational in the suspended phase; moreover, this behavior tends to reverse as the volume fraction increases. Finally, we evaluate the contributions to the total shear stress of the viscous stresses in the two fluids and of the interfacial force between them.

  • 27.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Ge, Zhouyang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Jain, Suhas S.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Turbulence Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Dodd, Michael S.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Turbulence Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Droplets in homogeneous shear turbulence2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 876, p. 962-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulate the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluids separated by an interface in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow at a shear Reynolds number equal to 15 200. The viscosity and density of the two fluids are equal, and various surface tensions and initial droplet diameters are considered in the present study. We show that the two-phase flow reaches a statistically stationary turbulent state sustained by a non-zero mean turbulent production rate due to the presence of the mean shear. Compared to single-phase flow, we find that the resulting steady-state conditions exhibit reduced Taylor-microscale Reynolds numbers owing to the presence of the dispersed phase, which acts as a sink of turbulent kinetic energy for the carrier fluid. At steady state, the mean power of surface tension is zero and the turbulent production rate is in balance with the turbulent dissipation rate, with their values being larger than in the reference single-phase case. The interface modifies the energy spectrum by introducing energy at small scales, with the difference from the single-phase case reducing as the Weber number increases. This is caused by both the number of droplets in the domain and the total surface area increasing monotonically with the Weber number. This reflects also in the droplet size distribution, which changes with the Weber number, with the peak of the distribution moving to smaller sizes as the Weber number increases. We show that the Hinze estimate for the maximum droplet size, obtained considering break-up in homogeneous isotropic turbulence, provides an excellent estimate notwithstanding the action of significant coalescence and the presence of a mean shear.

  • 28.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 853, p. 488-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present numerical simulations of laminar and turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid. The non-Newtonian flow is simulated by solving the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the evolution equation for the elastoviscoplastic stress tensor. The laminar simulations are carried out for a wide range of Reynolds numbers, Bingham numbers and ratios of the fluid and total viscosity, while the turbulent flow simulations are performed at a fixed bulk Reynolds number equal to 2800 and weak elasticity. We show that in the laminar flow regime the friction factor increases monotonically with the Bingham number (yield stress) and decreases with the viscosity ratio, while in the turbulent regime the friction factor is almost independent of the viscosity ratio and decreases with the Bingham number, until the flow eventually returns to a fully laminar condition for large enough yield stresses. Three main regimes are found in the turbulent case, depending on the Bingham number: for low values, the friction Reynolds number and the turbulent flow statistics only slightly differ from those of a Newtonian fluid; for intermediate values of the Bingham number, the fluctuations increase and the inertial equilibrium range is lost. Finally, for higher values the flow completely laminarizes. These different behaviours are associated with a progressive increases of the volume where the fluid is not yielded, growing from the centreline towards the walls as the Bingham number increases. The unyielded region interacts with the near-wall structures, forming preferentially above the high-speed streaks. In particular, the near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly enhanced in an highly elastoviscoplastic fluid and the flow becomes more correlated in the streamwise direction.

  • 29.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Mirbod, P.
    Complex Fluids and Flows Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan b Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, US.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    The impact of porous walls on the rheology of suspensions2021In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 230, article id 116178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of isotropic porous walls on a plane Couette flow laden with spherical and rigid particles. We perform a parametric study varying the volume fraction between 0 and 30%, the porosity between 0.3 and 0.9 and the non-dimensional permeability between 0 and 7.9×10-3 We find that the porous walls induce a progressive decrease in the suspension effective viscosity as the wall permeability increases. This behavior is explained by the weakening of the wall-blocking effect and by the appearance of a slip velocity at the interface of the porous medium, which reduces the shear rate in the channel. Therefore, particle rotation and the consequent velocity fluctuations in the two phases are dampened, leading to reduced particle interactions and particle stresses. Based on our numerical evidence, we provide a closed set of equations for the suspension viscosity, which can be used to estimate the suspension rheology in the presence of porous walls.

  • 30.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The effect of elastic walls on suspension flow2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Olivieri, S.
    DICCA, University of Genova, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, 16145, Italy ; INFN, Genova Section, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genova, 16146, Italy.
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mazzino, A.
    DICCA, University of Genova, Via Montallegro 1, Genova, 16145, Italy ; INFN, Genova Section, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genova, 16146, Italy.
    Flowing fibers as a proxy of turbulence statistics2020In: Meccanica (Milano. Print), ISSN 0025-6455, E-ISSN 1572-9648, Vol. 55, p. 357-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flapping states of a flexible fiber fully coupled to a three-dimensional turbulent flow are investigated via state-of-the-art numerical methods. Two distinct flapping regimes are predicted by the phenomenological theory recently proposed by Rosti et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 121:044501, 2018) the under-damped regime, where the elasticity strongly affects the fiber dynamics, and the over-damped regime, where the elastic effects are strongly inhibited. In both cases we can identify a critical value of the bending rigidity of the fiber by a resonance condition, which further provides a distinction between different flapping behaviors, especially in the under-damped case. We validate the theory by means of direct numerical simulations and find that, both for the over-damped regime and for the under-damped one, fibers are effectively slaved to the turbulent fluctuations and can therefore be used as a proxy to measure various two-point statistics of turbulence. Finally, we show that this holds true also in the case of a passive fiber, without any feedback force on the fluid.

  • 32.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Olivieri, Stefano
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Mazzino, Andrea
    Flowing fibers as a proxy of turbulence statisticsIn: Meccanica (Milano. Print), ISSN 0025-6455, E-ISSN 1572-9648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
    City Univ London, Sch Math Comp Sci & Engn, London EC1V 0HB, England..
    Pinelli, Alfredo
    City Univ London, Sch Math Comp Sci & Engn, London EC1V 0HB, England..
    Numerical Simulation of a Passive Control of the Flow Around an Aerofoil Using a Flexible, Self Adaptive Flaplet2018In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 1111-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-activated feathers are used by almost all birds to adapt their wing characteristics to delay stall or to moderate its adverse effects (e.g., during landing or sudden increase in angle of attack due to gusts). Some of the feathers are believed to pop up as a consequence of flow separation and to interact with the flow and produce beneficial modifications of the unsteady vorticity field. The use of self adaptive flaplets in aircrafts, inspired by birds feathers, requires the understanding of the physical mechanisms leading to the mentioned aerodynamic benefits and the determination of the characteristics of optimal flaps including their size, positioning and ideal fabrication material. In this framework, this numerical study is divided in two parts. Firstly, in a simplified scenario, we determine the main characteristics that render a flap mounted on an aerofoil at high angle of attack able to deliver increased lift and improved aerodynamic efficiency, by varying its length, position and its natural frequency. Later on, a detailed direct numerical simulation analysis is used to understand the origin of the aerodynamic benefits introduced by the flaplet movement induced by the interaction with the flow field. The parametric study that has been carried out, reveals that an optimal flap can deliver a mean lift increase of about 20% on a NACA0020 aerofoil at an incidence of 20 (o) degrees. The results obtained from the direct numerical simulation of the flow field around the aerofoil equipped with the optimal flap at a chord Reynolds number of 2 x 10(4) shows that the flaplet movement is mainly induced by a cyclic passage of a large recirculation bubble on the aerofoil suction side. In turns, when the flap is pushed downward, the induced plane jet displaces the trailing edge vortices further downstream, away from the wing, moderating the downforce generated by those vortices and regularising the shedding cycle that appears to be much more organised when the optimal flaplet configuration is selected.

  • 34.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. City University London, United Kingdom.
    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad
    Pinelli, Alfredo
    Passive control of the flow around unsteady aerofoils using a self-activated deployable flap2018In: Journal of Turbulence, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 204-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-activated feathers are used by many birds to adapt their wing characteristics to the sudden change of flight incidence angle. In particular, dorsal feathers are believed to pop-up as a consequence of unsteady flow separation and to interact with the flow to palliate the sudden stall breakdown typical of dynamic stall. Inspired by the adaptive character of birds feathers, some authors have envisaged the potential benefits of using of flexible flaps mounted on aerodynamic surfaces to counteract the negative aerodynamic effects associated with dynamic stall. This contribution explores more in depth the physical mechanisms that play a role in the modification of the unsteady flow field generated by a NACA0020 aerofoil equipped with an elastically mounted flap undergoing a specific ramp-up manoeuvre. We discuss the design of flaps that limit the severity of the dynamic stall breakdown by increasing the value of the lift overshoot also smoothing its abrupt decay in time. A detailed analysis on the modification of the turbulent and unsteady vorticity field due to the flap flow interaction during the ramp-up motion is also provided to explain the more benign aerodynamic response obtained when the flap is in use.

  • 35.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Effect of elastic walls on suspension flow2019In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 4, no 6, article id 062301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study suspensions of rigid particles in a plane Couette flow with deformable elastic walls. We find that, in the limit of vanishing inertia, the elastic walls induce shear thinning of the suspension flow such that the effective viscosity decreases as the wall deformability increases. This shear-thinning behavior originates from the interactions between rigid particles, soft walls, and carrier fluids; an asymmetric wall deformation induces a net lift force acting on the particles which therefore migrate towards the bulk of the channel. Based on our observations, we provide a closure for the suspension viscosity which can be used to model the rheology of suspensions with arbitrary volume fraction in elastic channels.

  • 36.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pramanik, Satyajit
    Nordita SU.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mitra, Dhrubaditya
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The breakdown of Darcy's law in a soft porous material2020In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 939-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform direct numerical simulations of the flow through a model of deformable porous medium. Our model is a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, with defects, of soft elastic cylindrical pillars, with elastic shear modulus G, immersed in a liquid. We use a two-phase approach: the liquid phase is a viscous fluid and the solid phase is modeled as an incompressible viscoelastic material, whose complete nonlinear structural response is considered. We observe that the Darcy flux (q) is a nonlinear function - steeper than linear - of the pressure-difference (Delta P) across the medium. Furthermore, the flux is larger for a softer medium (smaller G). We construct a theory of this super-linear behavior by modelling the channels between the solid cylinders as elastic channels whose walls are made of material with a linear constitutive relation but can undergo large deformation. Our theory further predicts that the flow permeability is an universal function of Delta P/G, which is confirmed by the present simulations.

  • 37.
    Sarabian, Mohammad
    et al.
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, 251 Stocker Ctr, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Okinawa Inst Sci & Technol Grad Univ, Complex Fluids & Flows Unit, 1919-1 Tancha, Onnason, Okinawa 9040495, Japan..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, 251 Stocker Ctr, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Numerical simulations of a sphere settling in simple shear flows of yield stress fluids2020In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 896, article id A17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the sedimentation of a single sphere in the absence and presence of a simple cross-shear flow in a yield stress fluid with weak inertia. In our simulations, the settling flow is considered to be the primary flow, whereas the linear cross-shear flow is a secondary flow with amplitude 10 % of the primary flow. To study the effects of elasticity and plasticity of the carrying fluid on the sphere drag as well as the flow dynamics, the fluid is modelled using the elastoviscoplastic constitutive laws proposed by Saramito (J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., vol. 158 (1-3), 2009, pp. 154-161). The extra non-Newtonian stress tensor is fully coupled with the flow equation and the solid particle is represented by an immersed boundary method. Our results show that the fore-aft asymmetry in the velocity is less pronounced and the negative wake disappears when a linear cross-shear flow is applied. We find that the drag on a sphere settling in a sheared yield stress fluid is reduced significantly compared to an otherwise quiescent fluid. More importantly, the sphere drag in the presence of a secondary cross-shear flow cannot be derived from the pure sedimentation drag law owing to the nonlinear coupling between the simple shear flow and the uniform flow. Finally, we show that the drag on the sphere settling in a sheared yield stress fluid is reduced at higher material elasticity mainly due to the form and viscous drag reduction.

  • 38.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco Edoardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A fully Eulerian hybrid immersed boundary-phase field model for contact line dynamics on complex geometries2021In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 443, p. 110468-110468, article id 110468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a fully Eulerian hybrid immersed-boundary/phase-field model to simulate wetting and contact line motion over any arbitrary geometry. The solid wall is described with a volume-penalisation ghost-cell immersed boundary whereas the interface between the two fluids by a diffuse-interface method. The contact line motion on the complex wall is prescribed via slip velocity in the momentum equation and static/dynamic contact angle condition for the order parameter of the Cahn-Hilliard model. This combination requires accurate computations of the normal and tangential gradients of the scalar order parameter and of the components of the velocity. However, the present algorithm requires the computation of averaging weights and other geometrical variables as a preprocessing step. Several validation tests are reported in the manuscript, together with 2D simulations of a droplet spreading over a sinusoidal wall with different contact angles and slip length and a spherical droplet spreading over a sphere, showing that the proposed algorithm is capable to deal with the three-phase contact line motion over any complex wall. The Eulerian feature of the algorithm facilitates the implementation and provides a straight-forward and potentially highly scalable parallelisation. The employed parallelisation of the underlying Navier-Stokes solver can be efficiently used for the multiphase part as well. The procedure proposed here can be directly employed to impose any types of boundary conditions (Neumann, Dirichlet and mixed) for any field variable evolving over a complex geometry, modelled with an immersed-boundary approach (for instance, modelling deformable biological membranes, red blood cells, solidification, evaporation and boiling, to name a few). 

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  • 39.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Zade, Sagar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Poole, Rob J.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent duct flow with polymers2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 859, p. 1057-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl's secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.

  • 40.
    Takeishi, Naoki
    et al.
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn Sci, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 5608531, Japan..
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Imai, Yohsuke
    Kobe Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Nada Ku, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, Hyogo 6578501, Japan..
    Wada, Shigeo
    Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn Sci, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 5608531, Japan..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Haemorheology in dilute, semi-dilute and dense suspensions of red blood cells2019In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 872, p. 818-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical analysis of the rheology of a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) in a wall-bounded shear flow. The flow is assumed as almost inertialess. The suspension of RBCs, modelled as biconcave capsules whose membrane follows the Skalak constitutive law, is simulated for a wide range of viscosity ratios between the cytoplasm and plasma, D 0 : 1-10, for volume fractions up to D 0 : 41 and for different capillary numbers (Ca). Our numerical results show that an RBC at low Ca tends to orient to the shear plane and exhibits so-called rolling motion, a stable mode with higher intrinsic viscosity than the so-called tumbling motion. As Ca increases, the mode shifts from the rolling to the swinging motion. Hydrodynamic interactions (higher volume fraction) also allow RBCs to exhibit tumbling or swinging motions resulting in a drop of the intrinsic viscosity for dilute and semi-dilute suspensions. Because of this mode change, conventional ways of modelling the relative viscosity as a polynomial function of cannot be simply applied in suspensions of RBCs at low volume fractions. The relative viscosity for high volume fractions, however, can be well described as a function of an effective volume fraction, defined by the volume of spheres of radius equal to the semi-middle axis of a deformed RBC. We find that the relative viscosity successfully collapses on a single nonlinear curve independently of except for the case with Ca > 0 : 4, where the fit works only in the case of low/ moderate volume fraction, and fails in the case of a fully dense suspension.

  • 41.
    Villone, Massimiliano M.
    et al.
    Univ Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento Ingn Chim Mat & Prod Ind, Ple Tecchio 80, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Numerical simulations of oscillatory shear flow of particle suspensions at finite inertia2019In: Rheologica Acta, ISSN 0035-4511, E-ISSN 1435-1528, Vol. 58, no 11-12, p. 741-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform immersed-boundary-method numerical simulations of oscillatory shear flow of suspensions of mono-disperse non-colloidal rigid spherical particles in a Newtonian liquid from the dilute to the concentrated regime. Both small and large amplitude oscillatory shear flow (SAOS and LAOS, respectively) are studied and the effects of particle concentration, fluid inertia, particle-to-fluid density ratio, and deformation amplitude on the measured apparent viscoelastic moduli of the suspensions are quantified. In the SAOS regime, a non-zero storage modulus G '-values significantly change with inertia, but depend on the volume fraction of the solid phase only for suspensions of particles denser than the fluid. On the other hand, the loss modulus G '' increases with both inertia and particle concentration. In the LAOS regime, the moduli are only weakly dependent on the deformation amplitude for a dilute suspension, whereas non-monotonic variations are observed at high concentrations.

1 - 41 of 41
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