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  • 1.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Blogg, S. L.
    SLB Consulting, Newbiggin On Lune, Cumbria, England..
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Dept Automat Biocybernet & Robot, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Biomed Physiol & Kinesiol, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Indices of Increased Decompression Stress Following Long-Term Bed Rest2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human extravehicular activity (EVA) is essential to space exploration and involves risk of decompression sickness (DCS). On Earth, the effect of microgravity on physiological systems is simulated in an experimental model where subjects are confined to a 6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR). This model was used to investigate various resting and exercise regimen on the formation of venous gas emboli (VGE), an indicator of decompression stress, post-hyperbaric exposure. Eight healthy male subjects participating in a bed rest regimen also took part in this study, which incorporated five different hyperbaric exposure (HE) interventions made before, during and after the HDBR. Interventions i-iv were all made with the subjects lying in 6 degrees HD position. They included (C1) resting control, (C2) knee-bend exercise immediately prior to HE, (T1) HE during the fifth week of the 35-day HDBR period, (C3) supine cycling exercise during the HE. In intervention (C4), subjects remained upright and ambulatory. The HE protocol followed the Royal Navy Table 11 with 100 min spent at 18 m (280 kPa), with decompression stops at 6 m for 5 min, and at 3 m for 15 min. Post-HE, regular precordial Doppler audio measurements were made to evaluate any VGE produced post-dive. VGE were graded according to the Kisman Masurel scale. The number of bubbles produced was low in comparison to previous studies using this profile [Kisman integrated severity score (KISS) ranging from 0-1], and may be because subjects were young, and lay supine during both the HE and the 2 h measurement period post-HE for interventions i-iv. However, the HE during the end of HDBR produced significantly higher maximum bubble grades and KISS score than the supine control conditions (p < 0.01). In contrast to the protective effect of pre-dive exercise on bubble production, a prolonged period of bed rest prior to a HE appears to promote the formation of post-decompression VGE. This is in contrast to the absence of DCS observed during EVA. Whether this is due to a difference between hypo- and hyperbaric decompression stress, or that the HDBR model is a not a good model for decompression sensitivity during microgravity conditions will have to be elucidated in future studies.

  • 2.
    Grönkvist, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    LaPelusa, M.
    Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, Edinburg, TX USA..
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Royal Inst Technol, Environm Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Postural and Daily Variations in the Single-Breath Diffusion Capacity of the Lungs for Carbon Monoxide2018In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 197Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Silvanius, Marten
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces, Diving & Naval Med Ctr, Karlskrona, Sweden.;Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Mitchell, Simon J.
    Univ Auckland, Dept Anaesthesiol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Pollock, Neal W.
    Univ Laval Quebec, Dept Kinesiol, Quebec City, PQ, Canada..
    Franberg, Oskar
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Gennser, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
    Linden, Jerry
    Swedish Armed Forces, Diving & Naval Med Ctr, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Mesley, Peter
    Lust Rust Diving Expedit, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Gant, Nicholas
    Univ Auckland, Dept Exercise Sci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    The performance of 'temperature stick' carbon dioxide absorbent monitors in diving rebreathers2019In: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1833-3516, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 48-56, article id PMID 30856667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Diving rebreathers use canisters containing soda lime to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from expired gas. Soda lime has a finite ability to absorb CO2. Temperature sticks monitor the exothermic reaction between CO2 and soda lime to predict remaining absorptive capacity. The accuracy of these predictions was investigated in two rebreathers that utilise temperature sticks. Methods: Inspiration and rEvo rebreathers filled with new soda lime were immersed in water at 19 degrees C and operated on mechanical circuits whose ventilation and CO2-addition parameters simulated dives involving either moderate exercise (6 MET) throughout (mod-ex), or 90 minutes of 6 MET exercise followed by 2 MET exercise (low-ex) until breakthrough (inspired PCO2 [PiCO2] = 1 kPa). Simulated dives were conducted at surface pressure (sea-level) (low-ex: Inspiration, n = 5; rEvo, n = 5; mod-ex: Inspiration, n = 7, rEvo, n = 5) and at 3-6 metres' sea water (msw) depth (mod-ex protocol only: Inspiration, n = 8; rEvo, n = 5). Results: Operated at surface pressure, both rebreathers warned appropriately in four o five low-ex tests but failed to do so in the 12 mod-ex tests. At 3-6 msw depth, warnings preceded breakthrough in 11 of 13 mod-ex tests. The rEvo warned conservatively in all five tests (approximately 60 minutes prior). Inspiration warnings immediately preceded breakthrough in six of eight tests, but were marginally late in one test and 13 minutes late in another. Conclusion: When operated at even shallow depth, temperature sticks provided timely warning of significant CO2 breakthrough in the scenarios examined. They are much less accurate during simulated exercise at surface pressure.

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