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  • 1.
    Cuartero, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Chai, Lijun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    De Marco, Roland
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Fac Sci Hlth Educ & Engn, 90s Sippy Downs Dr, Sippy Downs, Qld 4556, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;Curtin Univ, Fuels & Energy Technol Inst, Perth, WA 6102, Australia..
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ferrocene self assembled monolayer as a redox mediator for triggering ion transfer across nanometer-sized membranes2019In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 315, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modulation of ion-transfer processes across nanometer-sized voltammetry membranes by ferrocene-based self-assembled monolayer on regular glassy carbon electrode is herein demonstrated. The composition of the membrane is advantageously tuned to promote either cation or anion transfer: the presence of an exchangeable cation results in cation transfer, whereas a lipophilic salt induces anion transfer through the fulfilment of the electroneutrality of the system. When an anodic scan oxidizes ferrocene moieties in the monolayer, these are stabilized by the pairing of lipophilic anions present in the membrane. As a result, either, hydrophilic cations present in the membrane are expelled into the solution or anions enter from the solution generating hence reversible and voltammetric waves for these transfers. The use of a redox active monolayer rather than a conducting polymer film or a redox active compound into the membrane overcomes a number of drawbacks previously manifested by these systems. The confinement of the redox process in a thin film at the immediate vicinity of the membrane allows to avoid the need of elevated number of redox moieties to be sued in the membrane, therefore suppressing its acute leaching and being compatible with the incorporation of both cation and anion ionophores for the first time. In this sense, assisted transfer of lithium and chloride are shown as proof-of-concept. Here, the peak potential of the associated voltammetric waves shifts according to the Nernst equation, in analogy to potentiometric sensors. Analytical detection of lithium and chloride ions in real samples is additionally presented.

  • 2.
    Cuartero, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    All-solid-state potentiometric sensors: A new wave for in situ aquatic research2018In: Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, ISSN 2451-9103, Vol. 10, p. 98-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few years, all-solid-state potentiometric ion-selective sensors have demonstrated a huge potential for environmental water analysis. Beyond the excellent analytical performances exhibited in benchtop conditions for the detection of important targets (e.g. pH, species relevant to the carbon and nitrogen cycles, trace metals), the challenge now lies in bringing those sensors to in situ format and obtaining valuable chemical information directly in the field while minimizing or avoiding the need for sampling. Technically speaking, the instrumentation for potentiometric assessment is extremely simple, low cost and requires minimal space. In addition, the all-solid-state configuration seems ideal to fabricate miniaturized sensors with sufficient analytical performance to detect certain ions in water resources. Herein, we highlight the power of all-solid-state potentiometric sensors applied to environmental water analysis providing a threefold overview: (i) the recent materials used in the fabrication of all-solid-state polymeric membrane electrodes, both the solid contact and ion-selective membrane; (ii) a collection of the main targets explored during the last 5 years; and (iii) examples of the most recent and relevant in situ applications employing submersible equipment. Throughout the review, issues such as ‘What are the real implications of all-solid-state membrane electrodes in the environmental field?’ and ‘To what extent has the effort in developing new sensors over time been well-exploited?’ are addressed. Convincingly, all-solid-state potentiometric sensors are positioning as a unique in situ interface providing real-time data that allow for an understanding of ongoing biogeochemical processes and possible anthropogenic activities implications.

  • 3.
    Cuartero, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Using Potentiometric Electrodes Based on Nonselective Polymeric Membranes as Potential Universal Detectors for Ion Chromatography: Investigating an Original Research Problem from an Inquiry-Based-Learning Perspective2018In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 2172-2181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because traditional laboratory practices in advanced chemistry education are being replaced by inquiry based approaches, we present herein a new laboratory activity based on a small research project that was designed and executed by students. The laboratory project aims at answering a well-defined research question: how far can potentiometric electrodes based on nonselective polymeric membranes be used as universal detectors in ion chromatography (IC)? Hence, the experiments were designed and conducted to explore the analytical performances of potentiometric electrodes based on different commercial membranes that are typically used in electrodialysis. The nonselective behavior shown by the electrodes permits a critical evaluation of their further implementation as a universal detector of anions in regular IC. Thus, the students were able to integrate a nonselective potentiometric sensor to analyze several anions in flow mode, mimicking the signal that is to be obtained using such electrodes as an IC detector. The proposed practice covers different pedagogical purposes: (i) to develop competence toward "thinking like a scientist" through reflective teaching; (ii) to promote argumentation skills and critical decision making; (iii) to improve students' research-planning and experimental-design skills; (iv) to refresh conceptual knowledge about analytical detectors, which typically goes unnoticed in laboratory practices; and (v) to reinforce students' knowledge about the basis of potentiometry. Furthermore, the present document may serve as an easy guide to develop other laboratory practices based on potentiometric sensors.

  • 4.
    Cuartero, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Crespo, Gaston
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Teknikringen 30, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cherubini, Thomas
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Pankratova, Nadezda
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Confalonieri, Fabio
    Idronaut, Via Monte Amiata 10, I-20047 Milan, Italy..
    Massa, Francesco
    Univ Genoa, Dept Earth Environm & Life Sci, Cso Europa 26, I-16132 Genoa, Italy..
    Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Abdou, Melina
    Univ Bordeaux, UMR CNRS EPOC 5805, Bat 18,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Schafer, Jorg
    Univ Bordeaux, UMR CNRS EPOC 5805, Bat 18,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bakker, Eric
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    In Situ Detection of Macronutrients and Chloride in Seawater by Submersible Electrochemical Sensors2018In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 4702-4710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite, and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit, and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time (t(95) < 12 s), excellent stability (long-term drifts of <0.5 mV h(-1)), good reproducibility (calibration parameter deviation of <3%), and satisfactory accuracy (uncertainties <8%Diff compared to reference technique). The desalination cell, which can be repetitively used for about 30 times, may additionally be used as an exhaustive, and therefore calibration-free, electrochemical sensor for chloride and indirect salinity detection. The detection of these two parameters together with nitrate and nitrite may be useful for the correlation of relative changes in macronutrient levels with salinity cycles, which is of special interest in recessed coastal water bodies. The system is capable of autonomous operation during deployment, with routines for repetitive measurements (every 2 h), data storage and management, and computer visualization of the data in real time. In situ temporal profiles observed in the Arcachon Bay (France) showed valuable environmental information concerning tide-dependent cycles of nitrate and chloride levels in the lagoon, which are here observed for the first time using direct in situ measurements. The submersible probe based on membrane electrodes presented herein may facilitate the study of biogeochemical processes occurring in marine ecosystems by the direct monitoring of nitrate and nitrite levels, which are key chemical targets in coastal waters.

  • 5.
    Cánovas, Rocío
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Modern creatinine (Bio)sensing: Challenges of point-of-care platforms2019In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 130, p. 110-124Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of knowing creatinine levels in the human body is related to the possible association with renal, muscular and thyroid dysfunction. Thus, the accurate detection of creatinine may indirectly provide information surrounding those functional processes, therefore contributing to the management of the health status of the individual and early diagnosis of acute diseases. The questions at this point are: to what extent is creatinine information clinically relevant?; and do modern creatinine (bio)sensing strategies fulfil the real needs of healthcare applications? The present review addresses these questions by means of a deep analysis of the creatinine sensors reported in the literature over the last five years. There is a wide range of techniques for detecting creatinine, most of them based on optical readouts (20 of the 33 papers collected in this review). However, the use of electrochemical techniques (13 of the 33 papers) is recently emerging in alignment with the search for a definitive and trustworthy creatinine detection at the point-of-care level. In this sense, biosensors (7 of the 33 papers) are being established as the most promising alternative over the years. While creatinine levels in the blood seem to provide better information about patient status, none of the reported sensors display adequate selectivity in such a complex matrix. In contrast, the analysis of other types of biological samples (e.g., saliva and urine) seems to be more viable in terms of simplicity, cross-selectivity and (bio)fouling, besides the fact that its extraction does not disturb individual's well-being. Consequently, simple tests may likely be used for the initial check of the individual in routine analysis, and then, more accurate blood detection of creatinine could be necessary to provide a more genuine diagnosis and/or support the corresponding decision-making by the physician. Herein, we provide a critical discussion of the advantages of current methods of (bio)sensing of creatinine, as well as an overview of the drawbacks that impede their definitive point-of-care establishment.

  • 6.
    Endrodi, Balazs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. Sch Engn Sci Chem Univ Szeged, Dept Phys Chem & Mat Sci, Rerrich Bela Sq 1, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary..
    Stojanovic, Aleksandra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Simic, Nina
    Nouryon Pulp & Performance Chem AB, Farjevagen 1, SE-44580 Bohus, Sweden..
    Wildlock, Mats
    Nouryon Pulp & Performance Chem AB, Farjevagen 1, SE-44580 Bohus, Sweden..
    de Marco, Roland
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Fac Sci Hlth Educ & Engn, Sippy Downs Dr 90, Sippy Downs, Qld 4556, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Sch Chem & Mol Biosci, Cooper Rd 68, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cornell, Ann M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Selective Hydrogen Evolution on Manganese Oxide Coated Electrodes: New Cathodes for Sodium Chlorate Production2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 12170-12178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The safety and feasibility of industrial electrochemical production of sodium chlorate, an important chemical in the pulp and paper industry, depend on the selectivity of the electrode processes. The cathodic reduction of anodic products is sufficiently suppressed in the current technology by the addition of chromium(VI) to the electrolyte, but due to the high toxicity of these compounds, alternative pathways are required to maintain high process efficiency. In this paper, we evaluate the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction kinetics and selectivity on thermally formed manganese oxide-coated titanium electrodes in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions. The morphology and phase composition of manganese oxide layers were varied via alteration of the annealing temperature during synthesis, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. As shown in mass spectroscopy coupled electrochemical measurements, the hydrogen evolution selectivity in hypochlorite and chlorate solutions is dictated by the phase composition of the coating. Importantly, a hydrogen evolution efficiency of above 95% was achieved with electrodes of optimized composition (annealing temperature, thickness) in hypochlorite solutions. Further, these electrode coatings are nontoxic and Earth-abundant, offering the possibility of a more sustainable chlorate production.

  • 7.
    Jansod, Sutida
    et al.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cherubini, Thomas
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Bakker, Eric
    Univ Geneva, Dept Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Colorimetric Readout for Potentiometric Sensors with Closed Bipolar Electrodes2018In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 11, p. 6376-6379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present here a general strategy to translate potential change at a potentiometric probe into a tunable color readout. It is achieved with a closed bipolar electrode where the ion-selective component is confined to one end of the electrode while color is generated at the opposite pole, allowing one to physically separate the detection compartment from the sample. An electrical potential is imposed across the bipolar electrode by solution contact such that the potentiometric signal change at the sample side modulates the potential at the detection side. This triggers the turnover of a redox indicator in the thin detection layer until a new equilibrium state is established. The approach is demonstrated in separate experiments with a chloride responsive Ag/AgCl element and a liquid membrane based calcium-selective membrane electrode, using the redox indicator ferroin in the detection compartment. The principle can be readily extended to other ion detection materials and optical readout principles.

  • 8.
    Parrilla, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Wearable potentiometric ion sensors2019In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 110, p. 303-320Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable potentiometric ion sensors (WPISs) have become an exciting analytical platform that combines chemical, material and electronic efforts to supply physiological information during certain human activities. The real possibility of wearing an analytical device with diverse configurations-sweatband, patches, garments-without disturbing the welfare of the carrier has enabled potentiometric ion sensors both as health quality and sport performance controllers. Recent studies show a large involvement of WPISs in the following of critical biomarkers (timely or continuously), such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium and chloride, which are present at relatively high concentrations in sweat (similar to mM levels). Certainly, the non-invasive nature of WPISs and other significant features, e.g., simplicity and cost-effectiveness, have broadened new horizons in relation to applied analytical chemistry. This has been pointed out in the literature over the last decade with the predominance of two analytical outcomes: (i) the improvement of sport performance as a result of continuous detection of ions in sweat (health status of the individual) while decreasing physiological complications (injuries, muscle cramps, fatigue and dehydration) during practice; and (ii) advancements in clinical diagnostics and preventive medicine as a consequence of the monitoring of the health status of patients suffering from any kind of disorder. Beyond the undeniable importance of the integration of WPISs to satisfy current societal needs, the following crucial questions about misleading and missing analytical features need to be answered: To what extent is WPIS technology a reliable analytical tool for the quantification of ions? Is cross-validation the current bottleneck toward further progress? Which are the fundamental steps involving the ion-selective electrode side that would benefit WPIS outcomes? Why is sweat the main (and almost the only) biological fluid to be monitored by WPISs? What is the best sampling strategy to be incorporated into WPIS devices for on-body monitoring of sweat? Which precision limits should be considered to assure a reliable decision-making process? Accordingly, this review focuses on the progression of WPISs from an analytical perspective-merely our vision of the field-within the period between 2010 and 2018. An updated search using specific keywords (wearable, ion, potentiometry, sensor) provided 43 contributions, which are herein highlighted, with a sustainable acceleration over the last three years. Thus, this review describes the current state of WPIS technology, the construction of wearable all-solid-state potentiometric sensors, critical requirements of potentiometric sensors to be fulfilled in a wearable configuration and key features regarding the ideal implementation of WPISs as reliable messengers of physiological information in real scenarios.

  • 9.
    Parrilla, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Sanchez, Sara Padrell
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, K 57, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Div Obstet & Gynecol, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rajabi, Mina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Roxhed, Niclas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Niklaus, Frank
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Wearable All-Solid-State Potentiometric Microneedle Patch for Intradermal Potassium Detection2019In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 1578-1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new analytical all-solid-state platform for intradermal potentiometric detection of potassium in interstitial fluid is presented here. Solid microneedles are modified with different coatings and polymeric membranes to prepare both the potassium-selective electrode and reference electrode needed for the potentiometric readout. These microneedle-based electrodes are fixed in an epidermal patch suitable for insertion into the skin. The analytical performances observed for the potentiometric cell (Nernstian slope, limit of detection of 10(-4.9) potassium activity, linear range of 10(-4.2) to 10(-1.1), drift of 0.35 +/- 0.28 mV h(-1)), together with a fast response time, adequate selectivity, and excellent reproducibility and repeatability, are appropriate for potassium analysis in interstitial fluid within both clinical and harmful levels. The potentiometric response is maintained after several insertions into animal skin, confirming the resiliency of the microneedle-based sensor. Ex vivo tests based on the intradermal detection of potassium in chicken and porcine skin demonstrate that the microneedle patch is suitable for monitoring potassium changes inside the skin. In addition, the dimensions of the microneedles modified with the corresponding layers necessary to enhance robustness and provide sensing capabilities (1000 mu m length, 45 degrees tip angle, 15 mu m thickness in the tip, and 435 mu m in the base) agree with the required ranges for a painless insertion into the skin. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that the patch can be used for at least 24 h without any side effect for the skin cells. Overall, the developed concept constitutes important progress in the intradermal analysis of ions related to an electrolyte imbalance in humans, which is relevant for the control of certain types of diseases.

  • 10.
    Parrilla, Marc
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ortiz-Gomez, Inmaculada
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. Univ Granada, Fac Sci, Dept Analyt Chem, Campus Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Canovas, Rocio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Salinas-Castillo, Alfonso
    Univ Granada, Fac Sci, Dept Analyt Chem, Campus Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Wearable Potentiometric Ion Patch for On-Body Electrolyte Monitoring in Sweat: Toward a Validation Strategy to Ensure Physiological Relevance2019In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 13, p. 8644-8651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, the reproducibility and a double validation of on-body measurements provided by new wearable potentiometric ion sensors (WPISs) is presented. Sweat collected during sport practice was first analyzed using the developed device, the pH-meter, and ion chromatography (IC) prior to onbody measurements (off-site validation). Subsequently, the accuracy of onbody measurements accomplished by the WPISs was evaluated by comparison with pH-meter readings and IC after collecting sweat (every 10-12.5 min) during sport practice. The developed device contains sensors for pH, Cl-, K+, and Na+ that are embedded in a flexible sampling cell for sweat analysis. The electrode array was fabricated employing MWCNTs (as an ion-to-electron transducer) and stretchable materials that have been exhaustively characterized in terms of analytical performance, presenting Nernstian slopes within the expected physiological range of each ion analyte (Cl-, 10-100 mM; 10-10 mM; and Na+, 10- 100 mM and pH, 4.5-7.5), drift suitable for midterm exercise practice (0.3 +/- 0.2 mV h(-1)), fast response time, adequate selectivity for sweat measurements, and excellent reversibility. Besides that, the designed sampling cell avoids any sweat contamination and evaporation issues while supplying a passive sweat flow encompassing specifically the individual's perspiration. The interpretation of ion concentration profiles may permit the identification of personal dynamic patterns in sweat composition while practicing sport.

  • 11.
    Sandin, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hamad, Ali Abo
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    de Marco, Roland
    Crespo, Gaston A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Cornell, Ann M.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemical Engineering and Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Deactivation and selectivity for the electrochemical ozone production at Ni- and Sb- doped SnO2 / Ti electrodesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12. Sateanchok, S.
    et al.
    Pankratova, N.
    Cuartero, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Cherubini, T.
    Grudpan, K.
    Bakker, E.
    In-Line Seawater Phosphate Detection with Ion-Exchange Membrane Reagent Delivery2018In: ACS Sensors, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 2455-2462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for reliable seawater phosphate measuring tools to better assess eutrophication. Today, most accepted sensing approaches are based on the established colorimetric molybdenum blue assay. It requires one to modify the sample to strongly acidic conditions and to add various reagents, principally molybdate and reducing agent (e.g., ascorbic acid), to form a blue colored phosphate complex that is subsequently detected spectrophotometrically. The associated need for large sample and mobile phase reservoirs and mixing coils are, unfortunately, not ideally adapted for the development of operationally simple in situ sensing instruments. It is here demonstrated for the first time that the key reagents needed to achieve phosphate detection by the molybdate method may be delivered by passive counter transport across ion-exchange membranes. A cation-exchange Donnan exclusion membrane placed in contact with a sample flow (450 μm thick) is shown to provide the strongly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 1) necessary for phosphate determination. Proton transport is driven, via cation-exchange, by the high sodium content of the seawater sample. Molybdate was similarly released through an anion-exchange membrane by chloride counter transport. Consequently, an in-line flow system containing the two membrane modules in series was used for delivering both hydrogen and molybdate ions into the sample to form the desired phosphomolybdate complex for subsequent spectrophotometric detection. A linear calibration in the range of 0.1-10 μM phosphate (3-300 ppb inorganic P) was achieved, which is sufficiently attractive for environmental work. A range of seawater samples was tested and the results from this membrane delivery device showed no significant differences compared to the classical molybdate assay chosen as the reference method.

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