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  • 1. Allen, J.
    et al.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Madantpour, A.
    Introduction2012In: Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences and Responses, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2012, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bradley, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hult, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    From Eco-Modernizing to Political Ecologizing: Future Challenges for the Green Capital2013In: Sustainable Stockholm : Exploring Urban Sustainability in Europe's Greenest City / [ed] Metzger, J. & Rader Olsson, A., New York: Routledge, 2013, p. 168-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Vad är hållbarhet?2011In: Urbaniserad värld: Nya steg mot hållbarhet, Stockholm: Global Utmaning , 2011, p. 12-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Edgren-Schori, M.
    Social integration and exclusion the response of Swedish Society2012In: Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences and Responses, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2012, p. 253-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Healey, P.
    United Kingdom.
    Madanipour, A.
    United Kingdom.
    De Maghãlhaes, C.
    United Kingdom.
    Preface2017In: Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity and Social Milieux, Taylor & Francis, 2017, p. xi-xivChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Healey, P.
    United Kingdom.
    Madanipour, A.
    United Kingdom.
    De Maghãlhaes, C.
    United Kingdom.
    Urban governance, institutional capacity and social milieux2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This title was first published in 2002: Urban governance has faced numerous challenges as city governments, their partners and their critics struggle to transform themselves in the context of post-industrial economies and societies. This context has generated new relations of economic life and social activity to be accommodated in cities, and has also changed expectations of the roles, relationships and modes of governance. New conceptual tools to analyze these experiences are becoming available, linked to a broad "institutionalist" wave of ideas sweeping right across the social sciences. This text responds to the challenges faced by urban governance and explores a range of efforts to build new institutional capacities. An international team of social scientists and practitioners critically analyzes conceptual challenges, policy developments and practical experiences.

  • 7.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Madanipour, A.
    Allen, J.
    Social exclusion in European Cities2012In: Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences and Responses, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2012, p. 279-288Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Cars, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Witzell, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Malmsten, Bo
    Infrastruktur med finansiering2011Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Dymén, Christian
    et al.
    Nordic Centre for Spatial Development, Nordregio, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Langlais, Richard
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Engendering Climate Change: The Swedish Experience of a Global Citizens Consultation2014In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender dimensions of climate change response is needed if we are to succeed in providing decision-makers with a relevant scientific basis for climate change policy. Although action at the municipal level has become a high priority for Swedish climate change response, knowledge of how gender perspectives affect that response is scarce. This paper contributes knowledge of how to integrate a gender perspective in planning for climate change response, through the modification and application of a system of gender categorization that was originally developed for evaluating the World Bank's performance of environmental impact assessments. That system is used, in this paper, to analyse the Swedish component of a global citizen consultation, World Wide Views on Global Warming. The research is based on analysis of our participation in the World Wide Views as well as interviews and documentation. A conclusion from our analysis is that the Swedish part of the citizen consultation was driven by an approach that, according to the system of gender categorization, strongly demonstrated both feminine and masculine attributes. The results show that an approach that incorporates not only masculine attributes, but also feminine ones, is likely to generate a more robust and concrete climate change response.

  • 10.
    Ekenberg, Love
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Danielson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    de Betou, Lars In
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Buurman, Joost
    Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Ernst, Manilla
    Centre for the Studies of Children's Culture, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fasth, Tobias
    Tobias Fasth is a researcher at the Department of Computer and Systems Sciences at Stockholm University..
    Forsberg, Rebecca
    RATS Theatre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fürst, Johanna Gustafsson
    University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Karin E.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Karlström, Petter
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kivunike, Florence N.
    Department of Information Technology, School of Computing and Information Technology, College of Computing and Information Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Liljenberg, Thomas
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liljenström, Hans
    Division of Biometry and Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden.
    Marincea, Adina
    Median Research Centre (MRC), Bucharest, Romania.
    Mihai, Adriana
    Center of Excellence for the Study of Cultural Identity (CESIC), University of Bucharest, Romania.
    Riabacke, Mona
    Riabacke and Co, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sauter, Willmar
    Riabacke and Co, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Thompson, Michael
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Tusubira, F. F.
    Knowledge Consulting Ltd, Kampala, Uganda.
    Verhagen, Harko
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wrange, Måns
    Royal Institute of Art, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deliberation, representation, equity: research approaches, tools and algorithms for participatory processes2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What can we learn about the development of public interaction in e-democracy from a drama delivered by mobile headphones to an audience standing around a shopping center in a Stockholm suburb? In democratic societies there is widespread acknowledgment of the need to incorporate citizens' input in decision-making processes in more or less structured ways. But participatory decision making is balancing on the borders of inclusion, structure, precision and accuracy. To simply enable more participation will not yield enhanced democracy, and there is a clear need for more elaborated elicitation and decision analytical tools. This rigorous and thought-provoking volume draws on a stimulating variety of international case studies, from flood risk management in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, to the consideration of alternatives to gold mining in Ro?ia Montana in Transylvania, to the application of multi-criteria decision analysis in evaluating the impact of e-learning opportunities at Uganda's Makerere University. Editors Love Ekenberg (senior research scholar, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA], Laxenburg, professor of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University), Karin Hansson (artist and research fellow, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University), Mats Danielson (vice president and professor of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, affiliate researcher, IIASA) and Göran Cars (professor of Societal Planning and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm) draw innovative collaborations between mathematics, social science, and the arts. They develop new problem formulations and solutions, with the aim of carrying decisions from agenda setting and problem awareness through to feasible courses of action by setting objectives, alternative generation, consequence assessments, and trade-off clarifications. As a result, this book is important new reading for decision makers in government, public administration and urban planning, as well as students and researchers in the fields of participatory democracy, urban planning, social policy, communication design, participatory art, decision theory, risk analysis and computer and systems sciences.

  • 11.
    Hansen, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Helhetsperspektiv i sikte. Att synliggöra förutsättningar för en samordnadplanering: - Slutrapport från utvärderingen av projektet Den Goda Staden.2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket och Boverket har under åren 2005-2010 arbetat tillsammans med kommunerna  Jönköping, Norrköping och Uppsala samt Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting med "Den Goda Staden - ett stadsutvecklingsprojekt”.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att gemensamt utveckla kunskap om integrerad planering av bebyggelse och transportsystem samt att utveckla processer och lösningar där olika intressen, krav och behov hanteras samordnat för att åstadkomma en långsiktigt hållbar utveckling.

    Projektet har kontinuerligt utvärderats av Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Denna rapport är slutrapporten från utvärderingen av projektet Den Goda Staden.

  • 12. Hansson, K.
    et al.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Ekenberg, L.
    Danielson, M.
    The importance of recognition for equal representation in participatory processes: Lessons from Husby2013In: Footprint, ISSN 1875-1504, E-ISSN 1875-1490, no 13, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the ambition to involve people on more equal terms, participation often still means that the audience is involved in clearly demarcated parts of the process and attempts to develop more deliberative democratic processes in urban planning often fail due to unequal representation in the participatory process. While sharing the general idea of the value of participatory processes, we will investigate some problematic features involved and suggest how some of these can be remedied. We employ the concept of recognition to analyse the conditions for public participation in a recent case of urban planning in the Stockholm suburb of Husby. This case is particularly interesting as it clearly demonstrates the impact of globalisation on local participatory processes. The results show the importance of broad recognition for equal representation in participatory processes, and the need for a plurality of public spheres to support long-term participation in the development of the common urban space.

  • 13.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hansen, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rostvik, Maia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Vision and Reality in the Öresund Collaboration: Research report on collaboration and potential för development in the Öresund region2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report looks at some of the progress made in the Öresund collaboration since the building of the Öresund Bridge. The extent of exchange and collaboration in the Öresund region has increased drastically. The long-distance, primarily passing traffic has been redirected along a new path and has grown. The Öresund Bridge is a successful project in itself, both technically and financially, with a stable economic situation which in the long term will also generate a financial surplus. The Öresund collaboration thus shows positive signs in all material respects.

    At the same time, there is a common view in the Öresund region that the collaboration should have progressed further. We perceive this as widespread frustration over the situation and in the development of the collaboration in the Öresund region. There is a question of whether something has been done wrong, if it’s possible to think and act differently, and how to proceed in the future. This is the focus of the analysis of the Öresund collaboration carried out by the KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in this project for Region Skåne.

    We believe the frustration and impatience of many actors in the Öresund region is a result of the sometimes very high expectations, as well as the potential for further collaboration that can be seen but not realised. The Öresund Regional Development Strategy (ÖRUS), an initiative of the Öresund Committee and in many ways relevant also for Region Skåne, is promising in many ways. However, we feel that it also risks adding to the frustration by being ambitious whilst having a relatively constrained time schedule.  

    One of the more significant lessons learned from the project is that the future development should be based on and surrounded by visions which are clearly formed from prevailing institutional conditions (practices, culture, laws and rules, organisational forms) and should be weighed up in terms of which forms of collaboration are appropriate and realistic in different situations. Case-specific collaboration is the way forward which we propose. 

    It is generally counterproductive to place excessively high requirements and expectations on collaborations in which there is no realistic basis for collaboration among the concerned actors due to a lack of commitment and ownership on their part. It is also important to remember that cooperation and collaboration (or in the most developed situations, even integration) can come in different forms; from a relatively loose coexistence to situations in which differences are evened out or of such an insignificant scope that they in no way inhibit collaboration.

    Here, it is important to remember that competition is one of the more developed forms of collaboration; perhaps even the ultimate sign that integration has come into being. Division of labour and specialisation are important elements of a region such as Öresund and perhaps primarily comes about in a truly competitive market model. 

    Here, the matter of differences being a better catalyst for integration and collaboration than similarities is an interesting part of understanding the dynamic process that is the Öresund collaboration. In situations whereby exchange rates, taxes, etc., deviate between Sweden and Denmark, the collaboration and exchange across Öresund increases, only to subside when the differences decrease.

    The three different areas of collaboration that KTH has studied in more detail (education and research, industry collaboration and culture) demonstrate collaboration primarily in the form of loose structures. There are relatively few examples of integration in advanced stages; something which can change via a more concrete collaboration strategy, but which may also indicate that informal collaboration is a good model which partners often prefer. 

    We recommend a number of concrete measures that Region Skåne should be able to implement together with other actors in the Öresund region in order to develop the collaboration.  

    • Short term – efficiency here and now

    In this timescale, efforts are primarily concentrated within the scope of the current conditions in terms of language, culture, legislation, etc. The main focus in this timescale should be the optimal use of existing resources. A great many collaborations can be considered based on these starting points, in both the public and private sectors, in order to take advantage of thus far unutilised opportunities for collaboration. This can be a matter of better planning and the utilisation of health and medical care, cultural institutions, education systems, research environments and transport infrastructure, but it may also be about improving the information provided to actors in the industry about opportunities for collaboration in the near future by e.g., helping to create social forums and networks. 

    We recommend as a further measure, as highlighted above, a survey of potential areas of collaboration within the areas that can be influenced in the short term. Put together a project group tasked with drawing up concrete proposals for collaboration between e.g., Copenhagen Municipality and Malmö City/Region Skåne. Collaboration in company form has proven to work in different contexts and may be worth testing in other areas. 

    • Medium term – creating good conditions

    This level is about influencing both the formal structures in terms of legislation and formal regulations for tax, social insurance, pensions, etc. These areas have been studied in-depth by the partners of the Öresund collaboration and a number of reports have been compiled. Naturally, further investment in this area is required in order to attempt to bring about measures which facilitate collaboration and exchange across Öresund. 

    There is potential for this is connection with the upcoming election in Sweden, where Region Skåne should endeavour to make this a prioritised measure for improving both the growth potential and labour market conditions in the Öresund region. 

    Another measure would be to recommend that Sweden elect a state representative tasked with working specifically with these matters. The Swedish State should perhaps have a representation office in Malmö tasked with working towards a clear reduction of the institutional border obstacles. 

    A more radical measure would be for Region Skåne to issue a guarantee or “collaboration guarantee” which involves the region bearing the additional costs or covering any lost benefits in terms of the social security systems and taxes that citizens of Region Skåne can receive as a result of their choice to work in Denmark. The scope and legality of the recommendation must of course be carefully examined, as well as various aspects of legal security.

    In the areas controlled by regional and local actors, the areas of education,research and transport infrastructure stand out as the most important in this timescale as well. The project “The Scandinavian 8 Million City”, which is currently underway and which is an endeavour to bring about a rail link between Oslo and Copenhagen and further connections in both directions, is a good example of this. The potential extension of the metro between Malmö and Copenhagen is another. One project that should be more clearly arranged in the regional strategy is the HH Tunnel (the plan for connecting Helsingborg and Elsinore/Helsingör with a fixed transport infrastructure link).

    The two projects ESS and MAX IV provide what are probably the best opportunities for a more structurally established collaboration across Öresund within some areas of research. Here, Region Skåne should concentrate efforts on supporting and promoting different forms of collaboration. With its base in research, the project provides the opportunity for a great many associated activities within the labour market, services and accommodation.

    • Long term – changing informal and cultural conditions

    This is perhaps the most paradoxical of the three levels or timescales in the collaboration. On one hand, most are aware that language, culture and habits are relatively deeply rooted in Swedish and Danish society respectively. We often come back to the differences we perceive from both sides in collaboration and competition between our countries. And in general we are clear about these being conditions that will only change in the long term. On the other hand, these conditions are often emphasised as inhibitive and limiting in the collaboration across Öresund.

    Levelling out these conditions will take time. Greater understanding of the culture that we wish to work with is however generally beneficial. Our view is that this occurs primarily via the everyday individual exchange which is based on commercial and interpersonal relationships. Measures which could be tried, however, are more active investments in linguistic comprehension between Swedish and Danish in school.

    However, we find other measures such as attempting to coordinate cultural life between Malmö and Copenhagen by means of government action somewhat dubious. It is probably a better and more accessible road to invest in collaboration in culture that is based on “simpler” cost minimisation/efficiency in the short-term perspective than to attempt to circumnavigate these issues and go directly to an integration model.

    Once again, it is likely that the hypothesis that differences spur on collaboration is a better model than attempting to organise collaboration in which there is a lack of logic for collaboration and incentive. 

    The findings of the report are based on a large number of interviews with actors in the Öresund region, as well as other material. A summary of the interviews is provided in an appendix to the report, which is available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Vision and Reality in the Öresund Collaboration
  • 14.
    Hasselgren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Hansen, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Rostvik, Maia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Vision och verklighet i Öresundssamarbetet: Forskningsrapport om samarbete och utvecklingspotentialer i Öresundsregionen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar en utvärdering av samarbetet i Öresund mellan Sverige och Danmark sedan Öresundsbron byggdes. Samarbete inom områdena Kultur och even, Näringlivssamverakn och Utbildning och forskning studeras. Analysen görs utifrån instituttionell teori och utmynnar i rekommendationer om det fortsatta samarbetet i Öresundsregionen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Healey, P.
    et al.
    United Kingdom.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Madanipour, A.
    United Kingdom.
    De Magalhães, C.
    United Kingdom.
    Transforming governance, institutionalist analysis and institutional capacity2017In: Urban Governance, Institutional Capacity and Social Milieux, Taylor & Francis, 2017, p. 6-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nya regler för ökat bostadsbyggande och bättre infrastruktur2013Book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Li, Yuheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Westlund, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Future urban-rural relationship in China: comparison in a global context2010In: China Agricultural Economic Review, ISSN 1756-137X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make a general comparison between urban-rural relationship in China and that in the developed countries, aiming to draw some experiences based on which future tendencies of urban-rural relationship in China could be predicted.

    Design/methodology/approach – The core analysis of this paper examines how the urban-rural relationship develops especially when urbanization rate reaches a very high level. Through literature review, this paper explores the evolution of urban-rural relationship in developed nations by referring to some international cities in different industrial stages. In parallel, it goes through this relationship in China from 1949 until now.

    Findings – This paper shows that future urbanization development in China will be generated largely by rural-urban migration especially the eastern-inclined migration while rural industrialization-lead urbanization would develop at the provincial level. It also points that education and training to the labor force is the crucial issue to future urbanization development in China.

    Originality/value – The obvious value of this paper is to predict, through a historical review and comparison, urban-rural relationship in China when it is approaching to high urbanization level. Literature review finds some experiences in developed countries that will somehow take place in China. It also analyzes the eastern-oriented rural-urban migration, rural industrialization and their influence on urban-rural relationship in China.

  • 18. Madantpour, A.
    et al.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Allen, J.
    Social exclusion in european cities: Processes, experiences and responses2012In: Social Exclusion in European Cities: Processes, Experiences and Responses, Taylor and Francis Inc. , 2012, p. 1-301Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Across Europe concern is rising over the disintegration of social relations and the growing number of people who are being socially excluded. social Exclustoin in European Cities, the first major study of this topic, provides a definition of social exclusion and looks at both the processes which cause it and the dimensions of the problem throughout Europe. The experiences of people living in areas or neighbourhoods with low rates of social integration are considered, illuminating the human impact of exclusion where it is most visible. Finally the contributors evaluate the various policy and community initiatives which are currently confronting the problem in a wide sample of European Cities on a variety of levels, from inform individual actions to supra-national European Union policy, and suggest new ways in which social exclusion could be tackled. With most large cities experiencing some degree of social exclusion, this is an important volume for all those working in the areas of regional policy, town planning, housing management, social work, community development, sociology, political science and urban studies.

  • 19. Mantysalo, Raine
    et al.
    Saglie, Inger-Lise
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Between Input Legitimacy and Output Efficiency: Defensive Routines and Agonistic Reflectivity in Nordic Land-Use Planning2011In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 19, no 12, p. 2109-2126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes tensions generated in land-use planning practices in Norway, Finland and Sweden, due to the shift towards New Public Management in actual governance practices, while the ideals of deliberative democracy in planning discourses and legislation have been retained. These tensions are studied empirically by making comparative observations of planning systems and practices in each country. The theoretical approach is developed by combining democracy and legitimacy theories with double bind theory and organizational learning theory. Based on this theoretical work, the article offers insights for reflectivity on the tensions. The Nordic ideal of deliberative democracy, expressed in the primary aims of our planning laws, may prohibit open acknowledgement of the uneasiness which follows from the fact that liberal democratic values (rights of landownership, free enterprise, etc.) are also secured. Thereby planners act and speak in terms of mixed messages, potentially habituated into defensive routines that may prohibit metacommunication on the basic tensions. The idea of agonistic reflectivity is offered as an approach to planning, which would acknowledge the tension between input legitimacy and output efficiency as a legitimate condition in itself, requiring ongoing political debate where the tension has to be continually discussed without actually ever being resolved.

  • 20.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Polycentric spatial development: institutional challenges2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Rader Olsson, Amy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Polycentric spatial development: institutional challenges to intermunicipal cooperation2011In: Jahrbuch für Regional Wissenschaft, ISSN 0173-7600, E-ISSN 1613-9836, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 155-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies supporting a polycentric metropolitan spatial structure have been suggested as an effective way to achieve sustainable environmental, economic and social urban development. However, there are significant challenges to implementing a polycentric spatial strategy in practice. Metropolitan space is governed by many large and small municipalities and infrastructure investments are determined by local, regional and national authorities and private developers. Polycentric spatial strategies meet classic collective action problems since local costs and benefits are asymmetrical. Most metropolitan regions lack effective institutions for resolving social dilemmas and collective action challenges that could facilitate land use and transport policies supporting polycentric or other sustainable spatial strategies. This study of intermunicipal dialogue regarding the polycentric spatial strategy in the Stockholmregion suggests that cooperation for polycentric spatial development may in fact lead instead to a corridor development pattern.

  • 22.
    Suleiman, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Water supply governance in Accra: "authentic" or "symbolic"2010In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a governance theory framework to analyse the introductory process for the private sector managing and operating the public water utility Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL). The analysis was performed from three standpoints: process inputs, process conduct and process outcomes. The consultation process on involvement of the private sector was hostile and resulted in a "light" form of private sector participation in the form of a management contract that can be considered a de facto compromise, although not deliberate, by stakeholders. The challenges in improving the water sector performance and water supply services are profound. Because of continuing institutional, social, political and legal constraints, the involvement of the private sector per se is not the solution to providing long-term improvement in water services. The article concludes that it is misleading to leapfrog from government to governance, calling for the transmission of a governance "recipe", as conceptualised in the Western context, and to assume that it can work in an unaccommodating institutional context.

  • 23.
    Tunström, Moa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Dethorey, Sabina
    Mötesplatser i Stockholmsregionen2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Mötesplatser i Stockholmsregionen
  • 24.
    Yin, Ying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Håkansson, MariaKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.Cars, GöranKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Environmental governance in Swedish planning practice: Participation and Accountability2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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