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  • 1.
    Björk, Folke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Sederholm, Bror
    Trägårdh, Jan
    RISE Cement- och betonginstitutet.
    Dränering av fukt i betong genom elektrokemisk metodik (elektroosmos) 2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att studera funktionen av elektroosmos som åtgärd mot fukt-problem i byggnader i Sverige samt att utifrån detta ge rekommendationer kring om och i så fall när det är lämpligt/olämpligt att använda metodiken under de varierande fuktighets-förhållanden som vanligtvis råder i Sverige.

    I projektet har vi gjort en litteraturstudie, en modellering av fysikaliska processer, studie-besök i byggnader med installationer för elektroosmos och mätningar av fukt i en källarvägg där en installation för elektroosmos blivit gjord.

    Vi ser metoden elektroosmos som en möjlighet för att hantera fuktproblem i grunder. Det behövs dock en del av utveckling både kring tekniken för metoden och kring vad som ska kunna förväntas av den.

    Det behövs bättre möjligheter att kunna förutsäga att metoden kommer att fungera i ett visst fall. Att inte kunna förutsäga detta bör vara ett bekymmer för dem som marknadsför metoden.

    Elektroosmos kräver höga fuktnivåer för att fungera. Torkning ned till under kritiska fuktnivåer kräver komplettering med andra torkmetoder. Det krävs en tydlighet kring hur detta ska lösas.

    Det behövs en bättre förståelse kring hur elektroderna ska placeras för bästa funktion.

    Fuktvandring i jorden kan ha stor betydelse för processen i praktiken. Det är idé att undersöka om detta kan användas för att utveckla metoden.

    Det behövs klara regler kring hur elinstallationen ska utformas på ett säkert sätt.

    Eftersom jontransporten i betongen är av ganska liten omfattning så tror vi inte att elektroosmos kommer att påverka, eller skada, betongens egenskaper på lång sikt.

  • 2.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Integrating storage and spatial variability into regional groundwater balances: Moving towards water security in hard rock coastal areasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In terrains with limited soil cover and groundwater storage, groundwater resource management is governed by the spatial nature of storage, recharge and extraction. Local soils may act as important groundwater reservoirs for residents which have no other feasible water supply. A novel groundwater balance methodology is presented which accounts for the spatial distribution of storage and extraction. Existing topographical and geological databases as well as well data were used to construct a conceptual model of the groundwater system, assuming stratigraphy based on typical geology. The method is implemented in a geographic information systems environment and allows for variable climate and land use scenarios.

    Several scenarios were examined with this method, demonstrating that on a regional scale average reservoir volumes meet demand but at the local levels depletion of reservoirs may be experienced. Groundwater level drawdown in excess of 50% of the projected reservoir storage were seen, particularly near the coast. Soil-filled valleys may act as local hydraulic barriers, preventing contamination from saline water provided no direct hydraulic connection is present. The method demonstrates the importance of a spatial approach in managing groundwater resources, and shows promise as a tool for planners in increasing water security.

  • 3.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    The importance of a spatial approach to water resources management in heterogeneous regionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited groundwater storage in recently glaciated terrains with frequent hard, crystalline bedrock outcrops poses challenges for groundwater resources management. Due to often-limited economic resources allocated to groundwater investigations in areas where drinking water is primarily supplied by private wells, heuristic solutions such as groundwater balances with built-in limitations of storage may serve a vital role in improving water security. This study investigates the use of a conceptual groundwater balance model and the use of a conceptual-statistical reservoir vulnerability model with this aim. A limited storage, GIS-based groundwater balance model using existing databases was applied to an area outside of Stockholm, Sweden with existing groundwater level measurement data. The spatial model showed improved performance over existing S-Hype model estimates of groundwater levels currently used in groundwater resources management by the Geological Survey of Sweden, even without local calibration. Differences between two wells with time series data showed evidence of strong influence due to in-situ geological conditions. Groundwater vulnerability estimates correlated significantly with chloride measurements from an existing chemistry database. The performance of the conceptually-based spatial groundwater balance supports the use of the approach as an aid for municipal planners and decision-makers in moving towards sustainable groundwater resources planning and improving water security in areas with limited storage and a large number of dispersed, private wells.

  • 4.
    Rasul, Hedi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Koya Univ, Dept Civil Engn, Fac Engn, KOY45, Koya, Kurdistan Regio, Iraq..
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Land & Water Resources Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Detecting Seasonal Flow Pathways in Road Structures Using Tracer Tests and ERT2018In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 229, no 11, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roads and traffic can be a source of water-bound pollutants, which can percolate through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. Deicing salt is widely used on roads in northern Europe during winter and is usually applied at a time when the temperature is below zero and the soil is partly frozen. Understanding the mechanism by which water-bound pollutants such as deicing salt are transferred from roads to groundwater is highly important for groundwater protection, environmental sustainability and road maintenance. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used for tracing the infiltration of deicing salt in different seasons, including the frozen period, as a step towards identifying pollutant infiltration pathways. In this study, a tracer-ERT monitoring method and analytical process was developed and evaluated for use in investigating and demonstrating deicing salt infiltration pathways in road structures in different seasons and weather conditions. The method involves using dissolved sodium chloride as a tracer and monitoring its infiltration using a multi-electrode array system. The tracer tests were performed at the same location in different seasons over a 1-year period. The results indicated high seasonal variation in percolation pattern and flow velocity, with large decreases in December (winter), most likely due to preferential flow paths within the road shoulder. These findings can be applied to other water-soluble pollutants that move from the road surface to groundwater.

  • 5.
    Suleiman, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Saurí, D.
    Palau-Rof, L.
    García Soler, N.
    Papasozomenou, O.
    Moss, T.
    Diverse pathways—common phenomena: comparing transitions of urban rainwater harvesting systems in Stockholm, Berlin and Barcelona2020In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 369-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban rainwater management is the terrain of varied initiatives that challenge existing drainage systems. The initiatives that this article refers to as Urban Rainwater Harvesting (URH), promise a more sustainable urban water approach; however, they remain isolated “niche” projects. The article aims to investigate challenges and opportunities for mainstreaming alternative URHs as sociotechnical systems (STS). It identifies six analytical categories: context, actors, instruments, processes/dynamics, outputs and impacts as a framework for the analyses of URH projects in Stockholm, Berlin and Barcelona. Despite the diversity of socio-spatial contexts, driving forces, purposes, instruments used, technical designs and scale of URH projects, relevant factors for a breakthrough of these systems are discussed. Even though URHs have not yet become a common component of rainwater management in any of the cities, context-specific combinations of these factors are found to be essential if these systems are to become complementary options for the sustainable management of rainwater in cities.

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