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  • 1.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Stockholm, 118 86, Sweden.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Comparative life-cycle assessment for renovation methods of waste water sewerage systems for apartment buildings2018In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 19, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative life-cycle assessment highlights three main alternatives for renovation of waste water sewerage: pipe replacement, cured- in- place pipe (CIPP) lining (also called sliplining) and renovation by coatings. The functional unit of this study is a six-story block house that was built in 1960 and has 29 apartments. The characterized results of environmental impacts display an advantage for CIPP-lining over pipe replacement in 14 of the 18 studied impact categories. Regarding those categories in which impacts were comparatively large, when looking at the average impact from a European citizen according to the ReCiPe methodology for life cycle inventory list, pipe replacement has greater impacts than CIPP-lining. In general, the impacts of pipe replacement are related to new tiles, expanded polyester cement, the screed, and the material for waterproofing, as well as the electricity needed for drying the structure. The CIPP-lining method displays higher impacts than pipe replacement in just four categories. These impacts are, to a large extent, caused by the use of consumables such as gloves and cotton cloths. From an LCA-perspective, the study shows that the CIPP and coatings relining methods have advantages over pipe replacement under the condition that the technical lifetime is the same for these methods. Still, the uncertainty of service life, as well as Bisphenol A (BPA) emissions, remain as issues of concern for further study. There are also other differences among the alternatives that ultimately influence a property owner's choice of method, such as costs, inconvenience for the residents, renewal of bathroom interiors, and the way in which the property owner values the alternative technologies.

  • 2. Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Relining eller rörbyte - en jämförelse med LCA2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna jämförande livscykelbedömning belyser tre huvudalternativ för renovering av avloppsrör; rörbyte, relining med rörfoder (strumpmetoden, CIPP-lining) som även kallas sliplining och renovering icke-bärande plastbeläggningar. Den funktionella enheten i denna studie är ett sex våningar högt punkthus som byggdes 1960 och som har 29 lägenheter. De redovisade resultaten av miljöpåverkan visar att strumpmetoden har fördelar framför rörbyte i 14 av de 18 undersökta kategorierna. När det gäller de kategorier där påverkningarna var förhållandevis stora, jämfört med en genomsnittliga europeisk medborgares årliga miljöbelastning, enligt ReCiPe-metoden, så har renoveringmetoden rörbyte större påverkan än strumpmetoden. Påverkningarna av rörbyte är främst relaterade till nya klinkerplattor, EPS-cement, avjämningsmassor och materialet för tätskikt, och även den el som behövs för att torka byggnaden. Strumpmetoden visar högre påverkan än rörbyte i fyra kategorier. Dessa påverkningar orsakas till stor del av användningen av förbrukningsmaterial som handskar och bomullstrasor. Ur ett LCA-perspektiv visar studien att strumpmetoden och icke-bärande beläggningsreningsmetoder har fördelar framför rörbyte under förutsättning att den tekniska livslängden är densamma. Osäkerheten om livslängden och även frågan om utsläpp av Bisphenol A (BPA) är aspekter som behöver fortsatta studier. Det finns också andra faktorer som till sist påverkar vilken metod för stamrenovering som en fastighetsägare väljer; kostnader, besvär för de boende, behov av renovering av badrum till sist hur fastighetsägaren själv värderar de olika alternativen.

  • 3.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Advances in pipeline rehabilitation techniques using polymer composites2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    An environmental method for renovation of sewer systems in building structures2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during the renovation or replacement, disturbance for people living in the buildings, is time-consuming and last but not least is very costly. Rehabilitation by composite materials is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in residential buildings and any other structures which is less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment. This study provides a brief state of the technology, methods, and materials which are being used in Nordic and some other European countries and an investigation on the performance of the relined pipes after they have been in working condition. The investigation was carried by different analyses in laboratory as well as numerous field inspections.

  • 5.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH.
    Application of polymer composites modified with fillers and reinforcements in rehabilitation of pipeline systems2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Construction and characterization of biopolymer composites and organic/inorganic hybrids obtained by reconstituting cellulose in novel liquid systems2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended studies in nanostructured materials, surface chemistry, biopolymer composites, ionic liquids and organic/inorganic hybrids. The investigation involved research on dissolving cellulose in a variety of liquid systems, including novel solvents like ionic liquids and reconstituting these in various solid forms. Furthermore, synthesizing and characterizing a variety of constructed biopolymers including ultralight weight cellulose aerogel and foams and other composites suitable for various applications. The experiments were followed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy. Main achievement during this study was constructing a wholly novel biopolymer nanocomposite with multiple potential industrial applications.

  • 7.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Durability Evaluation of Reinforced Glass-Flake Polyester Material Used in Rehabilitation of Sewer Lines in Buildings-Dataset2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset includes original data to support parts of research findings stated in the article: ”Durability evaluation of reinforced glass-flake polyester material used in rehabilitation of sewer lines in buildings”. Currently, different materials and methods are in use in alternative rehabilitations technologies for sewer renewal. This work was conducted to study one of these materials, which is a glass -flake reinforced polyester polymeric system, during artificial aging to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions when it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as high temperature and water. Changes in the material during aging were monitored by conducting different tests, including thermal and mechanical analysis, water absorption and microscopy.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 13:09
    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 12:53
  • 8.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Durability study of reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining under artificial aging conditionsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging of sewer infrastructure is an ongoing problem. As a result, different materials and methods are being used in alternative sewer rehabilitation approaches. This work was conducted to study one pipe lining, namely the reinforced polyester composite, under artificial aging; this was done to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions, where it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as heat and water. Aging of the material was monitored by means of several tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption and microscopy. The results showed that the combination of aging in water and at high temperatures resulted in greater effects on the material compared to aging at high temperatures in dry conditions. Although the measured properties were affected significantly when immersed in water at high temperatures, the material showed acceptable properties at lower exposure temperatures close to the expected temperature inside sewer systems.

  • 9.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Effect of heat and water aging on the durability of rubber-epoxy lining used for rehabilitation of sewer infrastructureIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One rehabilitation method used mainly for wastewater sewers in residential buildings involves applying a rubber-epoxy composite to the inner surface of the deteriorated line. In order to understand the material’s performance and stability in operation, during which it is constantly exposed to deteriorative factors, the properties of the material were studied in the laboratory under artificial water and air aging conditions. Changes in the material were monitored by means of tests such as thermal analyses, mechanical testing and water absorption assessment. Results from different tests showed that the material is more sensitive when high temperature is combined with water exposure; therefore, the performance of this liner material is expected to be better in places where constant exposure to water is not required.

  • 10.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Emerging Pipe-Lining Technologies in Sweden: Environmental and Quality Aspects2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the immense need for repair created by aging and deteriorating sewer infrastructures, a range of innovative rehabilitation technologies have been emerging in this field, both within Sweden and worldwide. However, although these technologies may fulfil their intended purpose in terms of prolonging the service life of the pipelines, the fact that a number of associated questions remain unanswered is hindering further progress in the field. This paper includes partial results of a study, dedicated to evaluation and assessment of the rehabilitation technologies and materials which are commonly used for renewal of sewer systems in Sweden. The approaches examined include cured-in-place pipe and internal coating lining based on epoxy and polyester resins. The results of environmental assessment and quality evaluation reveal that pipe linings can have a significantly lower environmental effect if they are: 1) chosen based on extended knowledge of different renovation technologies and the condition of the line to be repaired, and 2) installed via a rigorous process in which a high level of monitoring quality is adhered to in each step of the rehabilitation work. Accordingly, a series of recommendations are provided for consideration in the context of decision-making processes regarding renovation techniques and when preparing detailed quality control procedures. 

  • 11.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies Utilising Polymer Composites for Aging Sewer Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water and wastewater sewer system maintenance is among the costliest aspects of infrastructure investment. The replacement of deteriorated lines is a difficult and expensive process that causes community disturbance and is generally not conducted fast enough to meet demand. To keep up with the rate of deterioration, the use of alternative rehabilitation technologies using polymer linings has increased significantly in recent years, both within Sweden and worldwide. Compared to the traditional pipe replacement method, these technologies are cost-effective, create less community disturbance, and offer a quick return to the service for the line. The main function of polymeric lining is to stabilise the condition of the pipeline, eliminate deterioration, and thereby extend the pipeline’s service life. Although rehabilitation technologies employing polymeric systems have been in use for over 30 years, there have been few technical assessments of either these technologies or the materials involved. Data gathered through the evaluation of these innovative technologies can make their benefits and limitations more widely understood, and can also be used to increase the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process in future.

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to an improved understanding of the most commonly used materials and methods employed in rehabilitation of wastewater and other applicable sewer lines in residential buildings in Sweden. The primary objective was not to prove that the emerging rehabilitation technologies work, but rather to increase knowledge of their weaknesses and strengths, identify any issues, and provide a technical assessment to support realistic expectations of pipeline rehabilitation. Gathering technical information in this way will help with the planning of future investigations; moreover, collecting extensive data will help to increase the effectiveness of the renewal works, aid progress in the field, and improve predictions regarding longevity and service life.

    As pipeline rehabilitation is still considered novel, and owing to the general lack of available data on the subject, a multi-approach study was carried out: this included evaluation of the polymeric materials’ performance in the presence of deteriorative factors, assessing the in-service state of the materials and lined sewers previously installed, monitoring the level of quality control implemented during previous rehabilitation works, and evaluating the environmental impacts of using pipe-lining technologies compared to pipe replacement. The techniques discussed included rehabilitation with epoxy and polyester resin-based lining materials, applied with brush-on and spray-on techniques, and cured-in-place pipe lining (installed by sending a resin-impregnated flexible tube inside the host pipe).

    Degradation of the resin-based lining materials was investigated via artificial aging involving immersion in water at elevated temperatures. The changes in materials that occurred during accelerated laboratory aging were tracked by means of various tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption measurements and microscopy. The analysis focused on reinforced polyester-based and toughened epoxy-based lining materials in order to gain a better understanding of their performance as pipe lining. Moreover, the previously installed lined pipes and lining materials were also studied during laboratory examinations to evaluate the in-service performance of the materials and techniques under operating conditions over time, as well as to identify common defects. The state of the materials and the lined pipe were studied by means of different investigative methods, including visual inspection, microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness measurement, thermal and mechanical analyses. This PhD work also includes an investigation to determine the level of quality control carried during some previous rehabilitation works. Data on the quality evaluation of previous rehabilitation works were gathered during visits to the work sites, as well as by analysing lined pipes that had already been installed. Finally, a comparative life-cycle assessment was undertaken to compare the environmental impacts of pipe replacement with those of alternative innovative rehabilitations, such as CIPP and coatings with polyester and epoxy polymeric systems. Data obtained from an LCA tool were used to facilitate comparison from an environmental perspective.

    Results from artificial aging in the lab indicated that the properties of polymeric lining materials changed significantly when high temperatures were combined with water exposure. However, the aging testing conducted for this study also found that the materials performed relatively well at temperatures close to the average temperatures inside sewerage systems. The results revealed that the polyester-based lining material was less sensitive when compared with epoxy-based lining materials during stimulated aging. Moreover, results from the in-service field demonstration (involving examination of 12 samples with up to 10 years of service, including reinforced polyester and modified epoxy linings or cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining) showed minimal evidence that the materials underwent significant deterioration after installation; instead, a majority of the common defects were found to be related to poor-quality installation practices. Because very few field samples were available to study, conclusions regarding overall performance could not be drawn. However, there is no evidence that these materials will not perform as expected during their service life when properly installed.

    Evaluating quality control of previous rehabilitation work revealed a gap between theory and practice where the level of quality control and documentation was concerned; furthermore, it also emerged that quality control and documentation is crucial to both the prevention of common issues and the overall effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Accordingly, a series of recommendations regarding the development of comprehensive quality control and quality assurance procedures (QC/QA) are provided in this work. These recommendations highlight the aspects that are most important to consider at each of several key stages (before installation, during installation, and after rehabilitation work is completed).

    Results from comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA) showed that alternative technologies, including cured-in-place (flexible sleeve) and coating techniques, have some advantages over pipe replacement from an environmental perspective. However, the choice to use one rehabilitation technology over another is a multi-stage decision-making process that should not be based solely on a single factor.

    This PhD work promotes an improved understanding of the limitations and benefits of polymeric lining through the testing performed and analyses conducted. This work highlights the need for improved quality control, and further suggests that developing a detailed and comprehensive quality control plan for each technology would provide higher and more consistent quality overall. The study also demonstrates that the long-term strength of any rehabilitation work depends on various factors, and that selecting one method over another must be a process based on extensive knowledge and understanding of each rehabilitation technology. No evidence was found to indicate that the materials could not perform well under working conditions if selected and installed appropriately. However, a larger number of field samples with longer in-service time and a more detailed technical history, along with a more extended experimental plan for laboratory investigations based on the results of this PhD work, will allow for the gathering of the data required to answer questions regarding life expectancy with a higher degree of certainty.

  • 12.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildingsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildings2019In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2214-3998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global needs associated with aging sewers in infrastructures are immense; moreover, traditional renewal by replacement is very costly and not fast enough to meet the renewal needs. To keep up with the rate of deterioration, different rehabilitation technologies, such as the use of polymeric lining, have seen increasing use worldwide. Pipe lining is a solution to stabilize the deterioration of the host pipes in order to extend the service life of the piping system. However, the properties of polymeric materials may degrade over time; therefore, the long-term performance of these lined pipes is a frequently raised concern in the field. The aim of this study was to investigate the state of sewers that had been previously renewed, in order to gather information that facilitates an understanding of the changes in properties of the lining materials after installation. Moreover, to identify the general issues related to pipeline rehabilitation with polymeric systems. The samples investigated in this work had three different types of linings, service times ranging from one week to ten years, were installed by five separate installation companies and had been removed from residential buildings located in different parts of Sweden. The state of the polymeric lining and the relined samples were studied by means of tests including microscopy and visual inspection, as well as thermal analysis such as dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical testing, such as tensile and flexural testing, and thickness measurements.

  • 14.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Experimental evaluation of a rubber-epoxy polymeric system used in the rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure- Dataset2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset includes data related to water sorption analyses to support research findings stated in the article:"Experimental evaluation of a rubber-epoxy polymeric system used in the rehabilitation of sewer infrastructure: a case study in Sweden" with the following abstract: 

    one rehabilitation method used to prolong the service life of waste-water sewer pipes in residential buildings in Sweden is to apply a coating, based on an epoxy resin system that is modified with rubber, to the inner surface of the deteriorated pipe. To understand the material’s performance and stability in operation, the properties of the material were studied in the laboratory under water and air aging conditions. Changes in the material were monitored by conducting thermal, mechanical and water absorption analyses. Results showed that the mechanical properties of the material after water aging decreased significantly compared to material that was subject to dry aging. The material absorbed water over a long period of time, and the water uptake rate was found to be highest at higher temperatures. The material can thus be said to be more sensitive when high temperature is combined with water exposure; therefore, the performance of this liner material is expected to be better in places where constant exposure to water is not required.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 09:42
  • 15.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Field investigation to assess performance of polymeric lining used in renewal of sewers in buildings - Dataset2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This dataset includes original data provided to support parts of the research findings stated in article: "Experimental assessment of the state of the lining materials used in the rehabilitation of sewers in residential buildings”.

  • 16.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Microscopy study of relined small-diameter pipes with polymeric coatings2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipe failure and leakage is a problematic issue and the traditional solution of replacing the pipes is costly and time consuming. Rehabilitation by relining materials based on polymer composites is an alternative solution towards the degradation problem of the old piping. This study provides an investigation of relined pipes which have been in the field between one to ten years to evaluate the quality and performance of the rehabilitation methods as well as typical problems which can occur. The investigated samples were sent to the laboratory for investigation and since they were not randomly taken out, the notations in this study should not be an indication of relining performance in general. However it can be said with certainty that improvement in technology is needed which is the reason of our study.Moreover this study includes some of degradation analyses on the two composite materials used for rehabilitation by polymer materials including Epoxy and Polyester composites.

  • 17.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Monitoring quality of sewer renewal using polymeric systems in Sweden- data set2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    This data set includes data to support research findings stated in the article: 

    Monitoring quality of waste-water sewer pipe rehabilitations using polymeric systems

  • 18.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Monitoring the gelation time and curing process of a reinforced polyester lining-original data2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer linings used in sewer rehabilitation technologies are expected to cure fast in order for the renewed line to return to the service quickly and with minimum disruption.  This dataset includes the original data obtained from the thermal analyses of a reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining, including studying gelation, enthalpy and curing process for a better understanding of the material's curing behaviour after application in the field. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 12:58
  • 19.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sustainable Buildings.
    Monitoring the quality of sewer renewal using polymeric systems in Sweden2019In: Water practice and technology, E-ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 605-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water and wastewater pipes require some of the highest levels of infrastructure investment; they also deteriorate faster than they can be repaired. The use of alternative rehabilitation technologies, which are quicker and less expensive than pipe replacement, has therefore increased significantly in recent years, worldwide. Field studies on relined wastewater pipes removed from buildings in different parts of Sweden revealed the existence of a variety of common defects, most of which could have been prevented by better installation. Increased quality-focused monitoring could help to ensure that relined pipes reach their expected service life, while comprehensive documentation could assist in providing sufficient information to facilitate progress in the field. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies used in Sweden, current quality control practices, repeated observed defects related to installation, crucial steps that affect final quality, and recommendations to be considered in the contexts of detailed quality control and quality assurance procedures.

  • 20.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Novel Biopolymer Reinforced Composites2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of climate change and increasing oil prices, the demand for sustainable materials capable of replacing oil-based products has increased. At the same time, bioplastic production capacities are growing. Combining bioplastics and nanotechnology is an approach that meets the technical demands involved in replacing oil-based materials with sustainable, renewable ones. This Master Project was a part of The European SustainComp Project a collaboration between 16 European universities and research institutes aiming at introducing new families of advanced biocomposites intended for a number of commercial sectors.The aim of this study, which was conducted in INNVENTIA AB in Stockholm, Sweden and 'Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, was to develop a process to produce novel sandwich material from cellulose materials and Polylactic acid/PLA or Polypropylen/PP. With a focus on improvement of PLA composites’ properties, a PLA- based composite with cellulose has been studied in this work. For preparing the composite of PLA/Cellulose, a homogenous dispersion of PLA was mixed with the cellulose solution and then the mixture was regenerated. A variety of methods such as Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier- transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to further study the composites. To blend PLA and cellulose in a nano/micro scale, dissolution process has been used. The prepared composites have been characterized by thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) to investigate the effect of cellulose on the thermal stability of PLA and further characterizations (by FTIR and NMR) to investigate structural and chemical characterization of the composites.

  • 21.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Service life study of polymers used in renovation of heritage buildings and other structures2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of building materials particularly pipelines causes environmental damage during renovation or replacement and is a time consuming and costly process. Rehabilitation by polymer composites is a solution for renovation of degraded pipeline in heritage buildings and other structures which are less costly, faster and causes less damage to the environment; however, it is still not clear for how long these materials can perform as expected in the field and working condition. To study their service life, two types of composites based on Epoxy and Polyester resins have been evaluated by accelerated exposure and field exposure. The primary degradation agent used in accelerated exposure has been cycling temperature with half of the tests performed in presence of water. Thin films of materials used in accelerated testing were prepared in laboratory by using the same amount of material as well as technique of multi-layers application used in majority ofthe field installations. Extreme intensity levels of degradation agents have been used only to evaluate materials properties and as also mentioned in ISO 15686, are not directly correlated with degradation mechanisms that would be experienced in service. In the field exposure study, the focus has been to identify possible failure modes, causes, and effects. In field exposure, it has been observed that there are other degradation agents present which can be investigated further such as presence of contaminants and rust before application which prevents formation of a uniform layer of polymer or incompatibility between dissimilar materials. This part of the study also highlighted the importance of application’s quality of the materials in the field for providing the expected performance and service life. Results from extended accelerated exposure and field exposure can help in choosing inspection techniques, establishing the primary degradation agents and can be used for ageing exposure programs with clarifying relationship between different exposure periods and sites.

  • 22.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Berglund, Daniel
    KTH.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment for Renovation Methods of Waste-Water Sewerage Systems in Apartment Buildings – Comprehensive Data used in SimaPro for Model and Analyse LCA2018Data set
  • 23.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Bergsjo, Peter
    Romhild, Stefanie
    Statusbedömning av relinade eller infodrade avloppsstammar i flerbostadshus2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste tio till 20 åren har så kallad infodring eller relining av avloppsledningar i bostadshus erbjudits som alternativ till ett traditionellt stambyte. I jämförelse med stambyte är relining betydligt billigare, snabbare och innebär mindre ingrepp i tätskikt och liknande. Det finns dock många ifrågasättanden vad gäller hållbarhet och därmed de långsiktiga ekonomiska vinsterna i förhållande till stambyte samt även miljöaspekter. Detta projekt avser att genom statusbedömning av rör tagna ur drift skapa underlag för bättre allmänna råd och rekommendationer för relining som alternativ till traditionellt stambyte. Studien utfördes både på rör som tagits ur drift efter exponering i fält, samt på material som exponerats under kontrollerade förhållanden i lab. Exponeringarna visar att de testade materialen bibehåller sina mekaniska egenskaper, dock sker en nedbrytning vid vattenexponering i 80 °C.Det är viktigt att utveckla metoderna för applicering och kontroll för att undvika områden med allt för tunna materialskikt. Att säkerställa att materialen är härdade är också en viktig del i en kvalitetskontroll. Sammanfattningsvis så ser vi relining som ett seriöst alternativ för ett löpande fastighetsunderhåll, med avseende på de mekaniska egenskaperna.

  • 24.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Durability study of reinforced polyester composite used as pipe lining under artificial aging conditionsIn: Cogent Engineering, E-ISSN 2331-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aging of sewer infrastructure is an ongoing problem. As a result, different materials and methods are being used in alternative sewer rehabilitation approaches. This work was conducted to study one pipe lining, namely the reinforced polyester composite, under artificial aging; this was done to provide a better understanding of the material’s performance under operating conditions, where it is regularly exposed to degrading factors such as heat and water. Aging of the material was monitored by means of several tests, including thermal and mechanical analyses, water absorption and microscopy. The results showed that the combination of aging in water and at high temperatures resulted in greater effects on the material compared to aging at high temperatures in dry conditions. Although the measured properties were affected significantly when immersed in water at high temperatures, the material showed acceptable properties at lower exposure temperatures close to the expected temperature inside sewer systems.

  • 25.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Björk, Folke
    Influence of high temperature and humidity on polymer composites used in relining of sewerage2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewerage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

  • 26.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Investigation of relined rehabilitated piping in residential buildings2016In: Proceedings of the CIB World Building Congress 2016, 2016, Vol. 5, p. 284-291Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, rehabilitation methods for piping systems by relining in Sweden are reviewed. The paper also includes analyzing relined pipes which have been in the field between one to ten years to evaluate the quality and performance of the relining as well as typical problems which can occur. The investigated samples were sent to the laboratory for investigation and since they were not randomly taken out, the notations in this study should not be an indication of relining performance in general. However it can be said with certainty that improvement in technology is needed which is the reason of the study.

  • 27.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Björk, FolkeKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.Tord, af KlintbergKTH.
    Relining in domestic wastewater pipeline in Sweden2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipeline rehabilitation by relining materials and techniques is a solution towards degradation problem of the old pipeline instead of complete replacement. The prepared poster and paper provide a summary of the advances in technology, methods and materials of relining techniques and the important considerations such as cleaning, inspection and working environment in Sweden which is similar to the methods and considerations in other Nordic countries. This paper also includes result from a survey conducted by KTH Royal Institute of Technology regarding client’s point of view from 15000 apartments with relined pipe. The main conclusion of the interview survey was that relining has worked satisfactory in most of the cases and majority of the clients in the study have been satisfied and are willing to use relining again.

  • 28.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Folke, Björk
    Relining of domestic piping system with rubber filled epoxy and reinforced polyester composites2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipe failure and leakage is a problematic issue and the traditional solution of replacing the pipes is costly and time consuming. Rehabilitation by relining materials based on polymer composites is an alternative solution towards the degradation problem of the old piping. First, this paper provides a brief state of the art of advances in technology, methods and materials for relining. Second part of the paper is a summary of the degradation analyses of the two main composite materials used for relining, rubber filled epoxy and reinforced polyester baltoflake when they are exposed in deionized water and elevated temperature up to 80°C for a duration of 2-14 months in the laboratory. The study was conducted using thermo analytical techniques such as Dynamic mechanical analyses and Differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical testing such as three point bending and Tensile testing, water absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

1 - 28 of 28
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