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  • 1.
    Atapour, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chaudhary, Himanshu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Metal release from stainless steel 316L in whey protein - And simulated milk solutions under static and stirring conditions2019In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 101, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steel is an important transport and processing contact material for bovine milk and dairy products. Release (migration) of metals, ions, complexes or wear debris/particles, and metal-induced protein aggregation in such environments are hence important to consider both from a corrosion and food safety perspective. This study aims on investigating the release of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) from AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with whey protein solutions relevant for protein drinks, and on how the whey proteins are influenced by stirring with a magnetic stir bar and metal release. Mechanistic insight is gained by parallel investigations of metal release from two reference non-protein containing solutions, a metal-complexing (citrate-containing) simulated milk solution (SMS) and a low complexing phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). All immersion exposures were conducted at pH 6.8 for 0.5, 4, 24 and 48 hat room temperature at static and stirring conditions. All solutions and samples were investigated using different chemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical methods. Significantly higher amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni were released into the whey protein solution (80 g/L) as compared to SMS and PBS. Strong enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide and reduction of the surface oxide thickness were associated with a higher amount of Ni release in the metal-complexing solutions (SMS and whey protein) compared with PBS. Stirring conditions resulted in higher amounts of metal release, enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide, and clear signs of wear of the 316L surface in all solutions compared to static conditions. The wear mechanism in the whey protein solution was different as compared to corresponding processes in SMS and PBS, involving an etching-like process and larger-sized wear debris. Electrochemical measurements at static conditions confirmed observed differences between the solutions, with the lowest corrosion resistance observed for coupons exposed in the whey protein solution, followed by SMS and PBS. Released metals in solution from the 316L coupons in contact with the whey protein solution resulted in enhanced rates of protein aggregation and precipitation of protein aggregates from solution. Further studies should be made to investigate other relevant test conditions and assess toxicological risks.

  • 2.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Dobryden, Illia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chaudhary, Himanshu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Synergistic effects of metal-induced aggregation of human serum albumin2019In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 173, p. 751-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) occurs often via skin contact and from different dental and orthopedic implants. The metal ions bind to proteins, which may induce structural changes and aggregation, with different medical consequences. We investigated human serum albumin (HSA) aggregation in the presence of Co-II, Cr-III, and/or Ni-II ions and/or their nanoparticle precipitates by using scattering, spectroscopic, and imaging techniques, at simulated physiological conditions (phosphate buffered saline - PBS, pH 7.3) using metal salts that did not affect the pH, and at HSA:metal molar ratios of up to 1:8. Co ions formed some solid nano particles in PBS at the investigated conditions, as determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis, but the Cr-III anions and Ni-II ions remained fully soluble. It was found that all metal ions induced HSA aggregation, and this effect was significantly enhanced when a mixture of all three metal ions was present instead of any single type of ion. Thus, the metal ions induce aggregation synergistically. HSA aggregates formed linear structures on a mica surface in the presence of Cr-III ions. A clear tendency of aggregation and linearly aligned aggregates was seen in the presence of all three metal ions. Spectroscopic investigations indicated that the majority of the HSA molecules maintained their alpha helical secondary structure and conformation. This study highlights the importance of synergistic effects of metal ions and/or their precipitates on protein aggregation, which are highly relevant for implant materials and common exposures to metals.

  • 3.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chevez, Federico Moncada
    Natl Autonomous Univ Honduras, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med Sci, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.;Cent Amer Network Informat & Advice Ctr Toxicol R, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.;Ctr Res & Dev Hlth Labour & Environm CIDSTA, Tegucigalpa, Honduras..
    Chromium(III), chromium(VI) and cobalt release from leathers produced in Nicaragua2019In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leather exposure has been associated with chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) contact dermatitis. Cr(VI) in leather is now restricted to < 3 mg/kg in the EU. Cr(III) is not restricted. Objectives: To analyse 29 differently coloured Cr-tanned leather samples from two Nicaraguan tanneries, and to compare their release of Cr, Cr(VI) and Co with that of leathers produced in Europe. Methods: Cr, Cr(VI) and Co were extracted in phosphate buffer for 3 hours at 25 degrees C according to EN ISO 17075. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and spectrophotometry were used for detection of the metals in phosphate buffer. Results: There was no difference in total Cr or Cr(VI) release between European and Nicaraguan leathers. There was no association between Cr(VI) and total Cr release. Co was released primarily from leathers of one tannery. Cr(III) was released in significantly higher amounts than Cr(VI). Conclusions: Future investigations and regulations should focus on Cr(III) and Co as well as on Cr(VI).

  • 4.
    Wang, Xuying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Bioaccessibility of nickel and cobalt in powders and massive forms of stainless steel, nickel- or cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt metals in artificial sweat2019In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 106, p. 15-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel (Ni)and cobalt (Co)are the most common metal allergens upon skin contact at occupational settings and during consumer handling of metals and alloys. A standardized test (EN, 1811)exists to assess Ni release from articles of metals and alloys in massive forms intended for direct and prolonged skin contact, but no corresponding test exists for other materials such as powders or massive forms of alloys placed on the market or to determine the release of Co, for which only limited data is available. Differences in Ni and Co release from massive forms of a range of common stainless steels and some high-alloyed grades compared to Ni and Co metals were therefore assessed in artificial sweat for 1 week at 30 °C according to EN 1811. A comparable modified test procedure was elaborated and used for powders and some selected massive alloys. All alloys investigated released significantly less amount of Ni (100–5000-fold)and Co (200–400,000-fold)compared with Ni and Co metal, respectively. Almost all alloys showed a lower bioaccessible concentration (0.007–6.8 wt% Ni and 0.00003–0.6 wt% Co)when compared to corresponding bulk alloy contents (0.1–53 wt% Ni, 0.02–65 wt% Co). Observed differences are, among other factors, related to differences in bulk composition and to surface oxide characteristics. For the powders, less Ni and Co were released per surface area, but more per mass, compared to the corresponding massive forms. © 2019 The Authors

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