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  • 1. Eneberg, Magnus
    Beyond the Product: Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. An enabling design service has the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn enable the customer organization to become more innovative and able to deal with an ambiguous environment. The first part of the research consisted of interviews and workshops with the major industrial design consultancies in Sweden and Finland and some smaller American consultancies. A conceptual business model canvas based on service dominant logic is presented in the thesis to increase our understanding of the business of the industrial design consultancy. During the study, we observed several changes in the organization of the industrial design consultancy. We also noticed self-confidence among the industrial design consultancies in respect to their skills in methods to orchestrate collaboration and contribute to strategic development in customer organizations. An analysis of the initial interviews and workshops together with a literature study helped me to summarize the characteristics of the methods and processes designers are educated in as being integrative, collaborative and explorative. They are integrative in that they incorporate hands with thought, and theory with practice. They are collaborative in that interaction between individuals is a necessity to solve the wicked, ambiguous and open-ended problems the designer usually faces. This has resulted in designers being educated in methods involving a broad range of stakeholders such as users in development processes. Finally, the methods and processes are explorative in that they aim at ingenuity and focus on how things ought to be rather than on the present state. The second part of the research consisted of interviews and observations and had a focus on shared activities between design students and participants from small and medium sized companies. Design methods and processes were put into the context of organizational learning and change theories that centered on knowing as embodied and encultured. An activity theoretical model was applied to enrich the analysis of the diversity of perspectives that may lead to conflicting interpretation and negotiation in shared activities. The concepts of place and space were used to highlight the dynamics between how structures and human desires and needs motivated participants in the shared activities. Place is characterized by stability and is the strategy of the prevailing and often connected to identity. Space is practiced place and connected to change and human agency. The thesis presents how design services enabled individuals and organizations to be introduced to and to strengthen a given place, such as a discipline or organization. It also provides examples of the opposite, with individuals distancing themselves from a place, such as a discipline. Mediating artifacts and the integration of doing and reflection created experiences that evoked emotional involvement and enactment among the participants. Most activities resulted in creating space for change and learning and the outcome can be characterized as business and organiza­tional development.

  • 2. Eneberg, Magnus
    Design och innovation i småföretag2006In: Design som uvecklingskraft II / [ed] Ulla Johansson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2006, p. 149-169Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    Lunds Universitet.
    Design Thinking and Organizational Development: Twin concepts enabling a reintroduction of democratic values in organizational change2013In: Crafting the Future, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Thinking is a rather new concept for increasing innovation capabilities in organizations. Organizational Development is a concept from the 1950s aiming at modernizing organizations through participatory methods. As organizations struggle with constant change and to become more innovative we will compare and discuss design thinking and organizational development and explore what we can learn from these concepts that have many similar aspects. Design is argued to be moving into new territories, changing its focus towards the ideas that organizes a system or environment (Buchanan, 2001). At the same time there are clear resemblances to new organizational development not the least regarding participatory methods (Eneberg, 2012). In this paper we describe the ontological and epistemological development of organizational theory, change, and development with the aim to discuss the role of design thinking as an enabling concept in the revitalization of organizational development that includes a reintroduction of democratic values in organizational change.

  • 4.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    Lunds Universitet.
    Enabling design service facilitating inter- and intra-organizational sensemaking2012In: Uncertainty, Contradiction and Value., Bangkok, Thailand, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of design is often regarded as providing a relieving service that delivers aesthetic competence at the end of a product development process. Previous studies have shown that industrial design consultancies aspire to be a strategic resource in their client firms, and that the focus of design is becoming increasingly intangible. The claim is that the competencies of the designer can be used to enhance innovation and the strategic process in client firms. At the same time, studies indicate that industrial design consultancies have a problem getting commissioned and paid for the intangible parts of their service. This indicates a problem in communicating the contribution of enabling design services to client firms. A literature study was conducted regarding the characteristics of design (thinking), its methods and processes. The purpose was to put these characteristics into the context of symbolic-interpretive influenced organizational development by comparing them with the properties that is argued to form the basis for sensemaking theory as described by Weick in 1995. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of enabling design service.

  • 5.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Organizational sensemaking through enabling design services2012In: The design research journal, ISSN 2000-964X, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that the focus of design is becoming increasingly intangible. At the same time as design consultants are expanding their offerings with new services aimed at enhancing innovation and the strategic process in client firms, studies indicate that industrial design consultancies have a problem getting commissioned and paid for the intangible parts of their service. One possible explanation is that design is regarded as providing a relieving service that delivers aesthetic competence at the end of a product development process. This indicates a problem in communicating the contribution of enabling design services to client firms.

    The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of enabling design services. This is done by comparing the characteristics of design thinking, its methods and processes with sensemaking theory as described by Weick (1995).

  • 6.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    Lunds Universitet.
    The Enabling Service of the Industrial Design Consultancy: A Change of Focus from Goods- to Service Dominant Logic2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design has received increased attention not least of all in the business press and journals. The concept of design thinking – how to approach problems in a designerly way – is sometimes attributed as being the savior of business, making companies creative and innovative. This kind of exaggeration does more harm than good to industrial design consultancies (IDCs) and their client firms (CFs). And yet, the renewed interest in design that the concept of design thinking generates has shifted attention away from the artifact to the activity and with it, the competencies and knowledge of the designer. IDCs still have problems charging for intangible components in their offerings, and the value of their work is mainly restricted to those customers who have experience from working with industrial designers.

    This thesis aims to deepen our knowledge of the logics behind the business of industrial design in terms of how it is organized, the competencies of the industrial designer and the perceived role of the IDCs in client firms. The thesis is built on two research papers and a study based on interviews, workshops and a web survey. The empirical results were categorized according to the structure of a conceptual business model and analyzed vis-à-vis service dominant logic.

    There is a great interest in the IDCs in growth issues and in raising the profitability of the consultancy. There is a high awareness that this would make the company less vulnerable and provide better margins for development. Large sized IDCs are undergoing a professionalization and have made changes in how they are organized and managed. The literature study described an increased intangible focus of design and an aim to adopt a more strategic role in CFs. Still, the IDC is not giving up any of its previous roles, such as those involved in working with tangible products. The aim of IDCs to adopt a more strategic role in their CFs was confirmed in the empirical study. At the same time, most potential clients, who have little or no experience of working with design, regard the contribution of the industrial design consultancy to be tangible outcomes such as sketches, CAD drawings and prototypes that are delivered at the end of a value chain. This perspective on design is in line with a goods dominant logic and is a constraint for the growth and development of the IDCs.

    This thesis claims that the IDC offers both relieving and enabling service and hence should be viewed from the perspective of service dominant logic. The value resides not in the tangible end product but in the competencies that the IDC contributes with in a value network. Relieving means that a service provider performs a task or series of tasks for another party, which is the logic behind outsourcing. Contributing with the aesthetic competence of the designer exemplifies a relieving service. An enabling service means that the supplying organization helps the other party to do a task in a new and improved way. An enabling service is to a higher degree relationship-dependent, involving a learning situation where the IDC together with the CF cooperate to co-create new knowledge. The enabling service of the industrial design consultancy would thus create higher and longer lasting value in the CF since new knowledge is created by helping the CF enhance its internal and external processes. Service dominant logic enhances the shift from an operative role to that of the greater strategic significance that IDCs aim for. The focus changes to the activity and competence of the designer and can unlock the mental image of the IDC as a problem solver focused only on physical products.

  • 7. Eneberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Anderson, Helén
    Jönköping.
    Skapa kundnärvaro i innovationsprocessen2008In: Innovationsförmåga / [ed] Annika Olsson, Stockholm: Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp) , 2008, p. 40-59Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Holm, Lisbeth Svengren
    From Goods to Service Logic: Service Business Model Requirements in Industrial Design Firms2015In: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6965, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 9-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both academic journals and business magazines show an increased interest in the concept of

    design thinking (e.g. Boland et al, 2008; Brown, 2008; Leavy, 2010; Martin 2010). The

    design thinking concept emphasises the actual activity of solving problems with a design

    approach, associating it to the designer’s knowledge and competence instead of the intimate

    link between design and the physical objects (Eneberg, 2011). Yet design consultancies still

    have problems charging for intangible components in their offerings and for the role of

    strategic consultants. We argue that the design thinking concept is in line with a service

    dominant logic rather than a goods dominant logic, and that this approach can be the basis for

    communicating the value of design to clients. The problem faced by industrial design

    consultancies is not unique and hence the findings can contribute.

  • 9.
    Eneberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Svengren Holm, Lisbeth
    Strategic growth of industrial design consultancy: A study of changes in ID consultancy in a post-industrial society2009In: Design Connexity, Aberdeen, Scotland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of Swedish and Finnish industrial design consultancies (IDCs) we discuss how changes in industry have affected id-consultancies cope with growth, organizational and management issues. The traditional industrial designer worked in a small consultancy mainly with clients focusing on mass-produced products. The clients were basically domestic even if they operated worldwide. Investment in technology, for instance CAD and rapid prototyping, required larger investments and many id-consultancies saw a need to expand in order to afford these investments. The growth trend will probably continue, with further demands on management skills and this will also, most likely, affect also the small design firms. The design maturity of the client firms is increasing which will put a higher demand on the professionalization of the design firms. Although design has received more attention and is recognized as a valuable tool for competitiveness, the knowledge about what IDCs do and the value of their work is still mainly restricted to those who have experience working with designers. Many designers still argue that their clients do not see how design and strategies are interconnected. The question is whether the IDCs know how to communicate their competence and contribution to business development and strategy creation. The strategic role of design is not always clear to the client firm, but the question is also if the IDCs are clear about what strategy means in a corporate perspective.

  • 10. Eneberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Wängelin, Eva
    The transformation from impression to expression: A model for visualising different viewpoints and goals in craft, art, design and company work.2006In: Connecting / [ed] University of Art and Design Helsinki and Estonian Academy of Arts, Helsinki, Finland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is often described as a profession where the result of the work is future

    oriented. Herbert Simon defined it as work that aims at “changing existing

    situations into preferred ones” . This may refer to a design process where the result

    can be very unpredictable even if the goal is thoroughly outlined. David Pye has

    portrayed this performance as “workmanship of risk” which differs from

    “workmanship of certainty” which is production performed by industry. There is

    limited knowledge regarding the design profession in manufacturing companies.

    Descriptions of why and for what industry shall use designers cover a broad

    spectrum of design competence, from an omnipotent saviour at the centre of

    strategic product planning to someone who applies nice colours to objects at the

    end of a production process.

    Artists were the first group with specific creative competence that were employed

    by industries to work with product design. For artists in industry, the social aspects

    of their work — related to democracy, social equality and cultural education — were

    important. Working in manufacturing industry gave them both economic security

    and an arena in which to achieve idealistic objectives.

    The shift to a professionalisation of design meant that the purpose of the work

    changed. It also meant a shift in both the influences used to perform work and the

    expressions illustrating the result. To understand the transference from an

    impression to a visual component in a product, a time aspect can be added. In this

    way it is possible to illustrate the variations as an effect of different working

    processes, but above all as a result based on different aims. In this paper a model

    is presented. Four professions — and four aspects of their working processes — are

    compared: artisans, artists in industry, marketers and designers. In reality, the

    professions consist of heterogeneous groups that themselves have disparate

    strategies, goals and ways of working, but by simplifying and focusing the attention

    on differences, it is possible to understand the respective outcomes of the working

    processes. The aspects compared are: impression ¬— influences and the effects

    due to references outside the individual; mark — external memory: common values

    and interpretations from the surrounding culture; imprint — internal memory: the

    effect of impression revised by the individual; expression — the way in which an

    individual manifests his or her interpretation or point of view.

    Is it the way we posit ourselves on a timescale in reference to input and goal that

    causes variations in the design result? The model illustrates significant differences

    between the professions, from the craftsman, who attends to traditions and the

    surrounding culture, and aims at a contemporary product, to the designers’ way of

    using both impressions from history, contemporary influences and internal

    memories (bricolage), and aims at products for future use.

    85

    The model also illustrates the discrepancies between working processes in

    marketing and design. Today many companies acknowledge the need to invest in

    design proficiency, and accept a design process with a goal that is less

    predetermined, even though profound knowledge of the possibilities and limitations

    of the design profession is scarce. An increased comprehension of different work

    processes and viewpoints can contribute to better understanding and a more fruitful

    collaboration between stakeholders in the design process.

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