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  • 1.
    Dibaji, S. M.
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Pirani, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Annaswamy, A. M.
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Chakrabortty, A.
    North Carolina State Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Raleigh, NC USA..
    Secure Control of Wide-Area Power Systems: Confidentiality and Integrity Threats2018In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 7269-7274, article id 8618862Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cyber-physical model for wide-area control of power systems is considered, where the state variables of each generator are measured and sent to the cyber-network and the corresponding control inputs are computed distributively. The secure control of such wide-area power systems is considered in the presence of cyber attacks that introduce threats that compromise their integrity and confidentiality. Detection, prevention, and resilience for these attacks and algorithms for accomplishing these goals are proposed. In particular, an algorithm to overcome confidentiality attacks of the underlying control gains is presented. Also proposed is an algorithm for defense against integrity attacks that might take place on the cyber-network. For this purpose, a resilient information retrieval approach is leveraged which recovers the true state variables despite the malicious attacks on both virtual machines and communication links. The retrieved states are then used to detect possible attacks on phasor measurement units (PMU) in the next time-step. Simulation studies are included to validate our proposed approaches.

  • 2.
    Dibaji, Seyed Mehran
    et al.
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Pirani, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Flamholz, David Bezalel
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Annaswamy, Anuradha M.
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Chakrabortty, Aranya
    North Carolina State Univ, Dept Elect Engn, Raleigh, NC USA..
    A systems and control perspective of CPS security2019In: Annual Reviews in Control, ISSN 1367-5788, E-ISSN 1872-9088, Vol. 47, p. 394-411Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The comprehensive integration of instrumentation, communication, and control into physical systems has led to the study of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), a field that has recently garnered increased attention. A key concern that is ubiquitous in CPS is a need to ensure security in the face of cyber attacks. In this paper, we carry out a survey of systems and control methods that have been proposed for the security of CPS. We classify these methods into three categories based on the type of defense proposed against the cyberattacks: prevention, resilience, and detection & isolation. A unified threat assessment metric is proposed in order to evaluate how CPS security is achieved in each of these three cases. Also surveyed are the risk assessment tools and the effect of network topology on CPS security. Furthermore, an emphasis has been placed on power and transportation applications in the overall survey.

  • 3.
    Hashemi, Ehsan
    et al.
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Pirani, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Khajepour, Amir
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Fidan, Baris
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Mech & Mechatron Engn, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Chen, Shih-Ken
    Gen Motors Co, Warren, MI 48090 USA..
    Litkouhi, Bakhtiar
    Gen Motors Co, Warren, MI 48090 USA..
    Fault Tolerant Consensus for Vehicle State Estimation: A Cyber-Physical Approach2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 5129-5138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel cyber physical method is proposed and experimentally verified for reliable distributed estimation of vehicle longitudinal velocity, robustly to road friction condition variations. In this method, the vehicle speed estimated at each of the four corners of the vehicle, using a linear parameter-varying observer in the physical layer, and speed data measured by a conventional low-cost GPS are incorporated in a distributed structure (in the cyber layer) to enhance the reliability of the estimate. The method minimizes a cost function quantizing the effect of disturbances on each corner's estimation and adversaries due to occasional GPS signal drops. A fault-tolerant estimation policy is integrated to deal with large deviations in corner estimations, which have unexpectedly high levels of confidence. The main advantages of the proposed method are increased reliability on various road surface conditions and robustness to faults, as confirmed by road tests. Several experimental tests, including lane change and low-excitation maneuvers, with various powertrain configurations on dry and slippery roads demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  • 4.
    Jafarian, Matin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Yi, Xinlei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Pirani, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Synchronization of Kuramoto oscillators in a bidirectional frequency-dependent tree network2018In: 2018 IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2018, p. 4505-4510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the synchronization of a finite number of Kuramoto oscillators in a frequency-dependent bidirectional tree network. We assume that the coupling strength of each link in each direction is equal to the product of a common coefficient and the exogenous frequency of its corresponding source oscillator. We derive a sufficient condition for the common coupling strength in order to guarantee frequency synchronization in tree networks. Moreover, we discuss the dependency of the obtained bound on both the graph structure and the way that exogenous frequencies are distributed. Further, we present an application of the obtained result by means of an event-triggered algorithm for achieving frequency synchronization in a star network assuming that the common coupling coefficient is given.

  • 5.
    Pirani, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Hashemi, E.
    Fidan, B.
    Simpson-Porco, J. W.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Resilient Estimation and Control on k-Nearest Neighbor Platoons: A Network-Theoretic Approach2018In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 51, no 23, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the network-theoretic properties of so-called k-nearest neighbor intelligent vehicular platoons, where each vehicle communicates with k vehicles, both in front and behind. The network-theoretic properties analyzed in this paper play major roles in quantifying the resilience and robustness of three generic distributed estimation and control algorithms against communication failures and disturbances, namely resilient distributed estimation, resilient distributed consensus, and robust network formation. Based on the results for the connectivity measures of the k-nearest neighbor platoon, we show that extending the traditional platooning topologies (which were only based on interacting with nearest neighbors) to k-nearest neighbor platoons increases the resilience of distributed estimation and control algorithms to both communication failures and disturbances. 

  • 6.
    Pirani, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Nekouei, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Dibaji, Seyed Mehran
    MIT, Dept Mech Engn, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Design of Attack-Resilient Consensus Dynamics: A Game-Theoretic Approach2019In: Proceedings 2019 18th European Control Conference (ECC), IEEE , 2019, p. 2227-2232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a game-theoretic framework for improving the resilience of multi-agent consensus dynamics in the presence of a strategic attacker. In this game, the attacker selects a set of network nodes to inject the attack signals. The attacker's objective is to minimize the required energy for steering the consensus towards its desired direction. This energy is captured by the trace of controllability Gramian of the system when the input is the attack signal. The defender improves the resilience of dynamics by adding self-feedback loops to certain nodes of the system and its objective is to maximize the trace of controllability Gramian. The Stackelberg equilibrium of the game is studied with the defender as the game leader. When the underlying network topology is a tree and the defender can select only one node, we show that the optimal strategy of the defender is determined by a specific distance-based network centrality measure, called network's f-center. In addition, we show that the degree-based centralities solutions may lead to undesirable payoffs for the defender. At the end, we discuss the case of multiple attack and defense nodes on general graphs.

  • 7.
    Pirani, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Nekouei, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    A game-theoretic framework for security-aware sensor placement problem in networked control systems2019In: Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, p. 114-119, article id 8814443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the sensor placement problem in a networked control system for improving its security against cyber-physical attacks. The problem is formulated as a zero-sum game between an attacker and a detector. The attacker's decision is to select f nodes of the network to attack whereas the detector's decision is to place f sensors to detect the presence of the attack signals. In our formulation, the attacker minimizes its visibility, defined as the system L2 gain from the attack signals to the deployed sensors' outputs, and the detector maximizes the visibility of the attack signals. The equilibrium strategy of the game determines the optimal locations of the sensors. The existence of Nash equilibrium for the attacker-detector game is studied when the underlying connectivity graph is a directed or an undirected tree. When the game does not admit a Nash equilibrium, it is shown that the Stackelberg equilibrium of the game, with the detector as the game leader, can be computed efficiently. Our results show that, under the optimal sensor placement strategy, an undirected topology provides a higher security level for a networked control system compared with its corresponding directed topology.

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