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  • 1.
    Ferrario, Andrea Monforti
    et al.
    ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources (TERIN-PSU-ABI), Via Anguillarese 301, Rome, 00123, Via Anguillarese 301.
    Cigolotti, Viviana
    ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources (TERIN-PSU-ABI), Via Anguillarese 301, Rome, 00123, Via Anguillarese 301.
    Ruz, Ana Marìa
    Chilean Economic Development Agency (Corfo), Moneda 921, Región Metropolitana, Santiago, 8320250, Moneda 921, Región Metropolitana.
    Gallardo, Felipe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Monteleone, Giulia
    ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Energy Technologies and Renewable Sources (TERIN-PSU-ABI), Via Anguillarese 301, Rome, 00123, Via Anguillarese 301.
    Role of Hydrogen in Low-Carbon Energy Future2022In: Technologies for Integrated Energy Systems and Networks, Wiley , 2022, p. 71-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen as an energy vector is seen as a fundamental enabler to the energy transition toward a low-carbon energy future not only from the power perspective but also from a primary energy one. In fact, not only is it conceivable as an electricity storage method (Power-to-X-to-Power) that can contribute to the safe increase of penetration stochastic renewable electricity to the grid but it also represents a versatile cross-vector medium enabling the deep decarbonization of non-electrified hard-to-abate sectors (renewable fuels, sector integration, mobility, etc.). In this context, great political and economic interest has risen related to the deployment of hydrogen technologies in the past few years, leading most key players – both industries and institutions – to include hydrogen technologies in national industrial strategies and development programs. In this chapter – after a brief overview of the state of the art of the main hydrogen technologies (declined for each section of the value chain) – an application-driven analysis of what will be the foreseen role of hydrogen technologies in future integrated energy systems is provided, considering a wide range of applications such as energy storage, grid flexibility services, renewable feedstocks for heavy industries, and fuel cells for both stationary μ-CHP and automotive applications. Ultimately, a list of worldwide key breakthrough projects of the period 2000–2020 is provided to show the history and development of hydrogen technology toward market maturity.

  • 2.
    Gallardo, Felipe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Monforti Ferrario, Andrea
    Comodi, Gabriele
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Assessing sizing optimality of OFF-GRID AC-linked solar PV-PEM systems for hydrogen production2022In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, a novel methodology to perform optimal sizing of AC-linked solar PV-PEM systems is proposed. The novelty of this work is the proposition of the solar plant to electrolyzer capacity ratio (AC/AC ratio) as optimization variable. The impact of this AC/AC ratio on the Levelized Cost of Hydrogen (LCOH) and the deviation of the solar DC/AC ratio when optimized specifically for hydrogen production are quantified. Case studies covering a Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) range of 1400–2600 kWh/m2-year are assessed. The obtained LCOHs range between 5.9 and 11.3 USD/kgH2 depending on sizing and location. The AC/AC ratio is found to strongly affect cost, production and LCOH optimality while the optimal solar DC/AC ratio varies up to 54% when optimized to minimize the cost of hydrogen instead of the cost of energy only. Larger oversizing is required for low GHI locations; however, H2 production is more sensitive to sizing ratios for high GHI locations.

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  • 3.
    García, José
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Smet, Vincent
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Alessandro, Sorce
    Univ Genoa.
    Techno-Economic Optimization of a Combined Cycle Combined Heat and Power Plant With Integrated Heat Pump and Low-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage2020In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, September 21-25, 2020, ASME Press, 2020, Vol. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study presents a techno-economic analysis of a novel power plant layout developed to increase the dispatch flexibility of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) coupled to a District Heating Network (DHN). The layout includes the incorporation of high temperature heat pumps (HP) and thermal energy storage (TES). A model for optimizing the short-term dispatch strategy of such system has been developed to maximize its operational profit. The constraints and boundary conditions considered in the study include hourly demand and price of electricity and heat, ambient conditions and CO2 emission allowances. To assess the techno-economic benefit of the new layout, a year of operation was simulated for a power plant in Turin, Italy. Furthermore, different layout configurations and critical size-related parameters were considered. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was made to assess the performance under different market scenarios.

    The results show that it is indeed beneficial, under the assumed market conditions, to integrate a HP in a CCGT plant coupled to a DHN, and that it remains profitable to do so under a variety of market scenarios. The best results for the assumed market conditions were found when integrating a 15 MWth capacity HP in the 400 MWel CCGT-CHP. For this case study, the investment in the HP would yield a net present value (NPV) of 1.22 M€ and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 3.04% for a lifetime of 20 years. An increase was shown also in operational flexibility with 0.14% of the electricity production shifted while meeting the same heating demand. Additionally, it was found that the TES makes the system even more flexible, but does not make up for the extra investment.

  • 4.
    Guedez, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Nuutinen, Antti
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Graziano, Giovanni
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Sorce, Alessandro
    Univ Genoa, Mech Engn, I-16145 Genoa, Italy..
    Piantelli, Luca
    IREN SpA, Innovat Dept, I-10143 Turin, Italy..
    Traverso, Alberto
    Univ Genoa, Mech Engn, I-16145 Genoa, Italy..
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Techno-economic comparative analysis of innovative combined cycle power plant layouts integrated with heat pumps and thermal energy storage2019In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, 2019, Vol 3, ASME Press, 2019, Vol. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pursuit of increasing their profitability, the design and operation of combined cycle power plants needs to be optimized for new liberalized markets with large penetration of renewables. A clear consequence of such renewable integration is the need for these plants for being more flexible in terms of ramping-up periods and higher part-load efficiencies. Flexibility becomes an even clearer need for combined heat and power plants to be more competitive, particularly when simultaneously following the market hourly price dynamics and varying demands for both the heat and the electricity markets. In this paper, three new plant layouts have been investigated by integrating different storage concepts and heat-pump units in key sections of a traditional plant layout. The study analyses the influence that market has on determining the optimum layouts for maximizing profits in energy-only markets (in terms of plant configuration, sizing and operation strategies). The study is performed for a given location nearby Turin, Italy, for which hourly electricity and heat prices, as well as meteorological data, have been gathered. A multi parameter modeling approach was followed using KTH's in house teclmo-economic modeling tool, which uses time dependent market data, e.g. price and weather, to determine the trade-off curves between minimizing investment and maximizing profits when varying critical size-related power plant parameters e.g. installed power capacities and storage size, for pre-defined layouts and operating strategies. A comparative analysis between the best configurations found for each of the proposed layouts and the reference plant is presented in the discussion section of the results. For the specific case study set in northern Italy, it is shown that the integration of a pre-cooling loop into baseload-like power-oriented combined cycle plants is not justified, calling for investigating new markets and different operating strategies. Only the integration of a heat pump alone was shown to improve the profitability, but within the margin of error of the study. Alternatively, a layout where district heating supply water is preheated with a combination of a heat pump with hot thermal tank was able to increase the internal rate of return of the plant by up to 0.5%, absolute, yet within the error margin and thus not justifying the added complexity in operation and in investment costs. All in all, the analysis shows that even when considering energy-only market revenue streams (i.e. heat and electricity sells) the integration of heat pump and storage units could increase the profitability of plants by making them more flexible in terms of power output levels and load variations. The latter is shown true even when excluding other flexibilityrelated revenue streams. It is therefore conclusively suggested to further investigate the proposed layouts in markets with larger heat and power price variations, as well as to investigate the impact of additional control logics and dispatch strategies.

  • 5.
    Guédez, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Garcia, Jose Angel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Martin, Fernando
    AF Aries Energia, Paseo Castellana 130,3th Floor, Madrid 28046, Spain..
    Wiesenberg, Ralf
    AF Aries Energia, Paseo Castellana 130,3th Floor, Madrid 28046, Spain..
    Laumert, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Integrated Solar Combined Cycles vs Combined Gas Turbine to Bottoming Molten Salt Tower Plants - A Techno-economic Analysis2018In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER AND CHEMICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS (SOLARPACES 2017) / [ed] Mancilla, R Richter, C, AMER INST PHYSICS , 2018, article id 180006-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work deals with the techno-economic analysis of a novel combined power cycle consisting of a molten-salt solar tower power plant with storage supported by additional heat provided from the exhaust of a topping gas-turbine unit. A detailed model has been elaborated using in house simulation tools that simultaneously encompass meteorological, demand and required dispatch data. A range of possible designs are evaluated for a suitable location with both good solar resource and vast natural gas resources in order to show the trade-offs between the objectives of achieving low carbon-intensive and economically competitive designs. These were compared against more conventional integrated solar combined cycles of equivalent capacity factors. It is shown that the novel concept is worth further investigating as it is able to outperform the more conventional cycle while simultaneously offering additional flexibility to grid-operators.

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  • 6.
    Mantilla, Weimar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    García Frediani, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Sorce, Alessandro
    University of Genoa.
    Short-Term Optimization of a Combined Cycle Power Plant Integrated With an Inlet Conditioning Unit2021In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 143, no 9, article id 091013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under new scenarios with high shares of renewable electricity, combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) are required to improve their flexibility to help balance the power system. Simultaneously, liberalization of electricity markets and the complexity of its hourly price dynamics are affecting the CCGT profitability, leading the need for optimizing its operation. An inlet conditioning unit (ICU) offers the benefit of power augmentation and “minimum environmental load” (MEL) reduction by controlling the gas turbine (GT) inlet temperature using cold thermal energy storage (TES) and a heat pump (HP). Consequently, an evaluation of a CCGT integrated with this unit including a day-ahead optimized operation strategy was developed in this study. To establish the hourly dispatch of the power plant and the operation mode of the ICU, a mixed-integer linear programing (MILP) optimization was formulated, aiming to maximize the operational profit of the plant within a 24 h horizon. To assess the impact of the unit operating under this dispatch strategy, historical data have been used to perform annual simulations of a reference power plant located in Turin, Italy. Results indicate that the power plant's operational profit increases by achieving a wider operational range during peak and off-peak periods. For the specific case study, it is estimated that the net present value (NPV) of the CCGT integrated with the ICU is 0.5% higher than the CCGT without it. Results also show that the unit reduces the MEL by approximately 1.34% and can increase the net power output by 0.17% annually.

  • 7.
    Mantilla, Weimar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Sorce, A.
    Short-term optimization of a combined cycle power plant integrated with an inlet air conditioning unit2020In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under new scenarios with high shares of variable renewable electricity, combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) are required to improve their flexibility, in terms of ramping capabilities and part-load efficiency, to help balance the power system. Simultaneously, liberalization of electricity markets and the complexity of its hourly price dynamics are affecting the CCGT profitability, leading the need for optimizing its operation. Among the different possibilities to enhance the power plant performance, an inlet air conditioning unit (ICU) offers the benefit of power augmentation and “minimum environmental load” (MEL) reduction by controlling the gas turbine inlet temperature using cold thermal energy storage and a heat pump. Consequently, an evaluation of a CCGT integrated with this inlet conditioning unit including a day-ahead optimized operation strategy was developed in this study. 

  • 8. Reboli, T.
    et al.
    Ferrando, M.
    Mantelli, L.
    Gini, L.
    Sorce, A.
    Garcia, Jose
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Range Enhancer - Part 1: Cyber-Physical Setup2022In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, ASME International , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural gas turbine combined cycles (GTCCs) are playing a fundamental role in the current energy transition phase towards sustainable power generation. The competitiveness of a GTCC in future electrical networks will thus be firmly related to its capability of successfully compensating the discontinuous power demands. This can be made possible by enhancing power generation flexibility and extending the operative range of the plant. To achieve this goal, a test rig to investigate gas turbine inlet conditioning techniques was developed at the TPG laboratory of the University of Genoa, Italy. The plant is composed of three key hardware components: a micro gas turbine, a butane-based heat pump, and a phase-change material cold thermal energy storage system. The physical test-rig is virtually scaled up through a cyber-physical approach, to emulate a full scale integrated system. The day-ahead schedule of the plant is determined by a high-level controller referring to the Italian energy market, considering fluctuations in power demands. By using HP and TES, it is possible to control the mGT inlet air temperature and thus enhance the operational range of the plant optimizing the management of energy flows. This article (Part 1) introduces the new experimental facility, the real-time bottoming cycle dynamic model, and the four-level control system that regulates the operation of the whole cyber-physical plant. The experimental campaign and the analysis of the system performance are presented in the Part 2. 

  • 9.
    Vannoni, Alberto
    et al.
    Thermochemical Power Group, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genova 16145, Italy, Via Montallegro 1.
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Sorce, Alessandro
    Thermochemical Power Group, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genova 16145, Italy, Via Montallegro 1.
    Massardo, Aristide Fausto
    Thermochemical Power Group, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genova 16145, Italy, Via Montallegro 1.
    Combined Cycle, Heat Pump, and Thermal Storage Integration: Techno-Economic Sensitivity to Market and Climatic Conditions Based on a European and United States Assessment2023In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 145, no 2, article id 021007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of a heat pump (HP) with a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) to control the inlet air temperature is a promising technology to meet the requirements imposed by the current electricity systems in terms of efficiency and flexibility. If the HP is coupled with a thermal energy storage (TES) in an inlet conditioning unit (ICU), it can be exploited in different modes to enhance the off-design CCGT's efficiency or to boost the power output at full load. Furthermore, fuel-saving would be reflected in avoided emissions. The optimal sizing of the ICU, as well as an accurate estimation of the benefits, is a complex problem influenced by several factors such as the local climate and electricity market prices. This paper aims to systematically investigate, utilizing a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for optimal dispatch, the feasibility of an ICU integration in different scenarios (EU and US). Different electricity markets have been analyzed and classified according to the parameters describing the average and variability of prices, the interdependency with the gas market, the ambient temperature, or the local carbon pricing policy. The most favorable conditions are identified and the dependency of the optimal ICU sizing on the climate and the electricity market is highlighted. This paper provides information for a first viability assessment: the concept appears to be highly profitable in hot regions with high price variability. Additionally, even in less profitable conditions (i.e., stable low prices in a cold climate), the system increases operating hours and reduces economic losses.

  • 10.
    Vannoni, Alberto
    et al.
    Univ Genoa, Mech Engn, I-16145 Genoa, Italy..
    García, José
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mantilla, Weimar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Guédez, Rafael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Sorce, Alessandro
    Univ Genoa, Mech Engn, I-16145 Genoa, Italy..
    Ancillary Services Potential For Flexible Combined Cycles2021In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2021, USA, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined Cycle Gas Turbines, CCGTs, are oftenconsidered as the bridging technology to a decarbonized energysystem thanks to their high exploitation rate of the fuel energeticpotential. At present time in most European countries, however,revenues from the electricity market on their own are insufficientto operate existing CCGTs profitably, also discouraging newinvestments and compromising the future of the technology. Inaddition to their high efficiency, CCGTs offer ancillary servicesin support of the operation of the grid such as spinning reserveand frequency control, thus any potential risk of plantdecommissioning or reduced investments could translate into arisk for the well-functioning of the network. To ensure thereliability of the electricity system in a transition towards ahigher share of renewables, the economic sustainability ofCCGTs must be preserved, for which it becomes relevant tomonetize properly the ancillary services provided. In this paper,an accurate statistical analysis was performed on the day-ahead,intra-day, ancillary service, and balancing markets for the wholeItalian power-oriented CCGT fleet. The profitability of 45 realproduction units, spread among 6 market zones, was assessed onan hourly basis considering local temperature, specific plantlayouts, and off-design performance. The assessment revealedthat net income from the ancillary service market doubled, onaverage, the one from the day-ahead energy market. It wasobserved that to be competitive in the ancillary services marketCCGTs are required to be more flexible in terms of ramp rates,minimum environmental loads, and partial load efficiencies.This paper explores how integrating a Heat Pump and a ThermalEnergy Storage within a CCGT could allow improving itscompetitiveness in the ancillary services market, and thus itsprofitability, by means of implementing a model of optimaldispatch operating on the ancillary services market

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