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  • 1.
    Han, Xu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Performance of piano trills: effects of hands, fingers, notes and emotions2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, Stockholm, 2019, p. 9-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trill is a type of musical ornament. In automatic playback of piano music scores, trills are usually synthesised as a sequence of repeated notes with equal duration and dynamic level. This is not how trills are performed by pianists. In this study, trills were performed by three pianists on a Yamaha Disklavier and recorded as both audio and MIDI files. Then note duration, inter-onset interval (IOI) and key velocity for each note were extracted from MIDI files and analyzed in relation to hands, notes and emotions. Four significant effects were found; 1) hand effect: trills on right hand were in average performed with a faster rate, shorter note duration, longer off duration and faster key velocity, 2) finger effect: within the two notes forming a trill, notes with lower fingering number were performed with shorter off duration, while keeping note duration and key velocity close, 3) emotion effect: emotion mainly contributed to dynamic level, 4) crescendo effect: when crescendo happened, note duration and off duration compensated with each other and kept IOI at a almost constant value.

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