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  • 1.
    Carlson, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Gustafson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Strangert, Eva
    Cues for Hesitation in Speech Synthesis2006In: INTERSPEECH 2006 AND 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SPOKEN LANGUAGE PROCESSING, BAIXAS: ISCA-INST SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOC , 2006, p. 1300-1303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates acoustic correlates to perceived hesitation based on previous work showing that pause duration and final lengthening both contribute to the perception of hesitation. It is the total duration increase that is the valid cue rather than the contribution by either factor. The present experiment using speech synthesis was designed to evaluate F0 slope and presence vs. absence of creaky voice before the inserted hesitation in addition to durational cues. The manipulations occurred in two syntactic positions, within a phrase and between two phrases, respectively. The results showed that in addition to durational increase, variation of both F0 slope and creaky voice had perceptual effects, although to a much lesser degree. The results have a bearing on efforts to model spontaneous speech including disfluencies, to be explored, for example, in spoken dialogue systems.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Gustafson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Strangert, Eva
    Umeå University.
    Prosodic Cues for Hesitation2006In: Working Papers 52: Proceedings from Fonetik 2006 / [ed] Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Susanne Schötz, Lund: Lund University , 2006, Vol. 52, p. 21-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our efforts to model spontaneous speech for use in, for example, spoken dialogue systems, a series of experiments have been conducted in order to investigate correlates to perceived hesitation. Previous work has shown that it is the total duration increase that is the valid cuerather than the contribution by either of the two factors pause duration and final lengthening. In the present experiment we explored the effects of F0 slope variation and the presence vs. absence of creaky voice in addition to durational cues, using synthetic stimuli. The results showed that variation of both F0 slope and creaky voice did have perceptual effects, but to amuch lesser degree than the durational increase.

  • 3.
    Carlson, Rolf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Strangert, Eva
    Umeå University.
    Modelling hesitation for synthesis of spontaneous speech2006In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2006 / [ed] R. Hoffmann, H. Mixdorff, Dresden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work deals with the modelling of one type of disfluency, hesitations. A perceptual experiment using speech synthesis was designed to evaluate two duration features found to be correlates to hesitation, pause duration and final lengthening. A variation of F0 slope before the hesitation wasalso included. The most important finding is that it is the totalduration increase that is the valid cue rather than the contribution by either factor. In addition, our findings lead us to assume an interaction with syntax. The absence of strong effects of the induced F0 variation was unexpected and we consider several possible explanations for this result.

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