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  • 1.
    Gauffin, Alicia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad materialfysik.
    Tilliander, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    KTH Steel Scrap Model: Iron and Steel Flow in the Swedish Society 1889–20102013Ingår i: Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, ISSN 2191-0375, Vol. 13, nr 1/2, s. 47-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Steel Scrap Model calculates material flows of iron and steel in the Swedish society based on statistics, mass balance and mass flow analysis and industry knowledge. The material flows of iron and steel were calculated for external scrap consumption, internal scrap, domestic steel scrap arising and net flow of iron and steel into the Swedish society. Model output on external steel scrap consumption and domestic steel scrap arising was compared to an earlier analysis done by Jernkontoret for the timeline 1980–2009. The results show that mass balance calculations are area wise corresponding to consumption figures based on trade statistics. In addition the difference in trend is assumed to be mainly due to stocking effect. Furthermore it is shown that mass balance and mass flow models could be used as a tool to calculate apparent scrap consumption based on crude steel production figures by process type.

  • 2.
    Gyllenram, Rutger
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Lubricating the recycling machine2012Ingår i: Revue de métallurgie (Imprimé), ISSN 0035-1563, E-ISSN 1156-3141, Vol. 109, nr 5, s. 349-358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When introducing a new control paradigm in industry or society one has to accept that it is an evolutionary process where people, methods and processes must develop simultaneously, and this takes time. The recycling of material has been studied intensely for the last ten years using different approaches to material flow analyses, MFAs. They have given a good view of the magnitude of material flows but their use has been limited by lack of relevant data. In the case of recycling, data must be acquired from the practitioners of the trade and in order to get it, the value of the output for them and for society must be proved and visualized. This paper is based on a MFA model developed at KTH for steel flows in Sweden (part of the Swedish environmental research program, the "Steel-Eco-Cycle"). The aim of the work reported on here was to initiate the process of motivating better sampling of data in industry and society for performing MFAs. The KTH model is based on a product-to-product approach for steel, describing the recycling machine. Data is presented in a simplified model for Sweden with total figures and figures per capita. Areas where improvements can be made are identified and ways to "lubricate" the recycling machine are discussed. The main idea is to provide a way of describing flows that can be of use to recyclers and steel producers and form a basis for discussions on improvements. Finally, the underlying model is briefly described and the uncertainties of data are discussed.

  • 3.
    Kojola, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Andersson, Margareta
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Pilot plant study of nozzle clogging mechanisms during casting of REM treated stainless steels2011Ingår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale bottom teemed high frequency furnace with a nominal capacity of 600 kg and an adjustable nozzle temperature was used to study clogging of rare earth metal (REM) treated stainless steels. The influence of the following variables on the clogging was studied: amount of REM, fraction of oxide clusters, total oxygen content in the steel, reoxidation, aluminium additions before REM additions and silicon additions during casting. Overall, the results show that, during the present experimental conditions, mainly two typical clogging rates could be identified, fast and slow clogging. Two main differences could be detected between the fast and slow clogging rates. Steel containing mainly small single inclusions clogged faster than steel containing mainly large inclusion clusters. The reason was believed to be that the small inclusions could stick to the nozzle wall at narrow passages where the steel flow velocity was high while the larger ones could not. The source of the small inclusions was believed to be reoxidation. It was also found that the main part of the nozzle accretion was caused by agglomeration of inclusions and inclusion clusters, while only a thin oxide film along the nozzle wall was caused by oxide precipitation at the nozzle wall.

  • 4.
    Svensson, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta SE-774 22, Sweden.
    Memarpour, Arashk
    Höganäs AB, Global Process Development, Höganäs SE-263 83, Sweden.
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Brabie, Voicu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi. Högskolan Dalarna .
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Implementation of an YSZ coating material to prevent clogging of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting of Ce-treated steels2018Ingår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 105-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to reduce clogging in the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting of Ce alloyed stainless steels has been studied. This was done by implementing a new plasma coating material, consisting of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The coating was first tested in pilot-plant trials; where the amount of steel teemed through the plasma coated nozzles was monitored. Thereafter, samples of the coatings from the nozzles were studied using a FEG-SEM equipped with EDS. In addition, the coating material was tested in industrial trials where the performance was judged with respect to the clogging tendency detected as the movement of the stopper rod. The results from both the pilot-plant trials and industrial trials showed that the use of an YSZ coating led to a decreased clogging tendency during the casting in comparison to when using an uncoated SEN. Specifically, the pilot-plant trials showed that the clogging factor was lowered when implementing the YSZ coatings. Furthermore, the industrial trials showed that the clogging tendency, measured by the stopper rod movements, were lower when implementing the YSZ coating.

  • 5.
    Svensson, Jennie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Memarpour, Arashk
    Ekerot, Sven
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Brabie, Voicu
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad materialfysik. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Tillämpad processmetallurgi.
    Studies of new coating materials to prevent clogging of the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting of Al-killed low carbon steels2016Ingår i: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to reduce clogging in the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) when casting Alkilledlow carbon steel has been evaluated. The coating materials have been tested inlaboratory trials and pilot plant trials. Totally, 2 mixes of the coating material has been tested;containing 4.8 and 9.1 % CaTiO3 mixed with yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) powder. Thechemical composition was analysed by using an FEG-SEM equipped with EDS.The major result showed that alumina reacted with CaTiO3 in the temperature interval from1550-1600°C. In addition, the clogging ratio showed a decreased clogging tendency forcoated nozzles compared to standard nozzles. Also, the results showed that an approximatelythree times higher steel mass could be teemed through the coated nozzles before cloggingoccurred compared to trials with uncoated standard nozzles. Overall, it is concluded thatplasma sprayed CaTiO3 coatings can reduce the clogging tendency during the continuouscasting process.

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